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  1. 1 Part Five. Human Society
    1. 1.1 Division I. Social Groups: Peoples and Cultures
      1. 1.1.1 Section 511.         Peoples and Cultures of the World
        1. A. In the Arctic
        2. B. In North America
        3. C. In Middle America
        4. D. In South America
        5. E. In Europe
        6. F. In the Middle East and North Africa
        7. G. In Asia
        8. H. In sub-Saharan Africa
        9. I. In Oceania
      2. 1.1.2 Section 512. The Development of Human Culture
        1. A. Diverse theories of culture: conceptions involved in the analysis of culture
        2. B. Types of cultures
        3. C. Processes of cultural change
      3. 1.1.3 Section 513.         Major Cultural Components and Institutions of Human Societies
        1. A. Systems of relationship based upon marriage and descent: kinship
        2. B. Other social structures
        3. C. Types of economic systems
        4. D. Other elements common to all cultures but differing in expression or practice between cultures
      4. 1.1.4 Section 514.         Language and Communication
        1. A. Communication as a foundation of human culture and as the essential element in social and cultural interaction, the role of communication in the modification of human behaviour
        2. B. Nonverbal communication
        3. C. The nature of language
        4. D. The structure of speech and language
        5. E. Written language: systems of notation
        6. F. Linguistics: the scientific study of language and language development
        7. G. Language and society
        8. H. Languages of the world
    2. 1.2 Division II.          Social Organization and Social Change
      1. 1.2.1 Section 521.         Social Structure and Change
        1. A. The structure of society: diverse theories of social structure and organization, various types of social structure
        2. B. The social effects of bureaucratic and industrial specialization
        3. C. Social control
        4. D. Factors operative in social change
        5. E. Social movements and social change
      2. 1.2.2 Section 522.         The Group Structure of Society
        1. A. The various types of groups: patterns of group relations
        2. B. The social effects of racial and ethnic prejudice
        3. C. Special social concerns
        4. D. Social service: organized public and private activities to alleviate human wants and needs
      3. 1.2.3 Section 523.         Social Status
        1. A. Social differentiation and stratification
        2. B. Varieties of social stratification and social mobility
      4. 1.2.4 Section 524.         Human Populations: Urban and Rural Communities
        1. A. The composition and change of human populations
        2. B. Development of modern cities
        3. C. Development of modern rural societies
    3. 1.3 Division III.         The Production, Distribution, and Utilization of Wealth
      1. 1.3.1 Section 531.         Economic Concepts, Issues, and Systems
        1. A. Some basic concepts of economics
        2. B. Levels of economic analysis
        3. C. The comparison of different economic systems
      2. 1.3.2 Section 532.         The Consumer and the Market: Pricing and the Mechanisms for Distributing Goods
        1. A. Scarcity, utility, and value: their roles in pricing, their relationship to the consumer
        2. B. The satisfaction of material wants: the behaviour of consumers
        3. C. Markets as an economic institution in a mixed economy
        4. D. The price system in capitalist economies
      3. 1.3.3 Section 533.         The Organization of Production and Distribution
        1. A. The organization of the production of goods
        2. B. The organization of the distribution of goods
        3. C. The inputs of the productive process
        4. D. Institutional arrangements that facilitate production and output
        5. E. Agricultural economics
        6. F. The geographical distribution of resources and markets: international trade
        7. G. The role of government in production and distribution
        8. H. Methods of business organization
        9. I. Advertising
        10. J. The distribution of risk
        11. K. Consumer credit
      4. 1.3.4 Section 534.         The Distribution of Income and Wealth
        1. A. The distribution of wealth and income by categories of the population
        2. B. The routes by which government affects the distribution of wealth and income
      5. 1.3.5 Section 535.         Macroeconomics
        1. A. National income and employment theory
        2. B. International economic and financial equilibrium and disequilibrium
        3. C. Business cycles
        4. D. Inflation and deflation
      6. 1.3.6 Section 536.         Economic Growth and Planning
        1. A. The nature and causes of economic growth
        2. B. Planning for economic growth and stability
    4. 1.4 Division IV.        Politics and Government
      1. 1.4.1 Section 541.         Political Theory
        1. A. The national state as viewed in political theory
        2. B. Patterns of political action as viewed in political theory
        3. C. Political concepts, ideologies, and problems
      2. 1.4.2 Section 542.         Political Institutions: the Structure, Branches, and Offices of Government
        1. A. Political systems
        2. B. The branches of government
        3. C. Public administration: the planning, organization, and coordination of governmental bureaucratic operations; civil service
      3. 1.4.3 Section 543.         The Functioning of Government: the Dynamics of the Political Process
        1. A. The ways in which political power is exercised
        2. B. Government's role in production and consumption
        3. C. Methods of changing the form of government
      4. 1.4.4 Section 544.         International Relations: Peace and War
        1. A. The politics of international relations
        2. B. International treaties and agreements
        3. C. Foreign policy and diplomacy
        4. D. The use of intelligence and counterintelligence activities in the preservation of national security and the conduct of international affairs
        5. E. War among states
    5. 1.5 Division V.         Law
      1. 1.5.1 Section 551.         Philosophies and Systems of Law; the Practice of Law
        1. A. Western and non-Western philosophies of law
        2. B. Ancient and modern legal systems
        3. C. The study of the distinctions and parallels among diverse legal systems
        4. D. The profession and practice of law
      2. 1.5.2 Section 552.         Branches of Public Law, Substantive and Procedural
        1. A. Laws defining and implementing the authority and power of the state
        2. B. Laws governing relations among sovereign states
        3. C. Laws governing acts viewed as crimes
        4. D. Laws promoting the public welfare
        5. E. Laws governing taxation
        6. F. Laws of judicial procedure
      3. 1.5.3 Section 553.         Branches of Private Law, Substantive and Procedural
        1. A. Law of property
        2. B. Family law
        3. C. Law of torts
        4. D. Laws governing economic transactions
        5. E. Civil procedural law
    6. 1.6 Division VI.        Education
      1. 1.6.1 Section 561.         The Aims and Organization of Education
        1. A. Philosophies of education
        2. B. The learning process and the teaching art
        3. C. The organization of education
      2. 1.6.2 Section 562.         Education Around the World
        1. A. Systems of education
        2. B. History of education: philosophies, practices, and institutions

Introduction to Part Five:


Man the Social Animal

by Harold D. Lasswell


We are part of society when we share in comprehensive arrangements for living with one another and for managing the environment. The simplest societies are the primitive bands who to this day live in jungles and deserts, and on isolated mountains and beaches around the globe. The most complex technological societies bind the world's cities together as part of an evolution that, barring catastrophe, is forming a planetary society of mankind.

Whether primitive or civilized, all societies must cope with the parallel problems that are generated by the urgencies of human nature and the necessities of a common life. Arrangements are made for kinship and procreation; for safety, health, and comfort; for producing and consuming commodities and services. Arrangements also develop latent talent into skills of communication, body movement, and environmental management. Institutions specialize in the gathering and dissemination of news and images of the natural and social environment. Some institutions give respect or disrespect to individuals and groups on a temporary or permanent basis, and distinguish between what is considered to be responsible or irresponsible conduct. Government, law, and politics seek to resolve the conflicting demands that arise within or among communities.

At first glance we are less likely to be impressed by the parallels than by the differences among societies. The differences are conspicuous, if we consider, say, a horde of big-city commuters as compared with a band of technologically handicapped people who are continually in search of the next meal. An anthropologist who lived with such a band a few years ago in the rain forests of eastern Bolivia reported that apart from the hammocks they slept in, three-foot digging sticks, and cumbersome long bows and arrows, these naked seminomads carried no material objects with them. Modern urban dwellers usually feel some contempt for these bearers of an Old Stone Age culture and speculate on a possible weakness of the brain to account for their lack of technological progress. Such speculations are dismissed by modern anthropologists as without foundation. As we get acquainted with primitive societies it dawns upon us that they have met some of the same problems that we have by adopting solutions whose ingenuity equals or even excels our own. This may apply, for instance, to arrangements for transmitting political authority from one generation to the next, or for preventing violently aggressive behaviour.

Societies do indeed differ from one another in the degree that they encourage specialization. In the simplest societies everybody does everything, with exceptions that are closely linked to differences of sex and age. On the other hand, many tribes use professional specialists, such as warriors, medicine men, blacksmiths, potters, weavers, musicians, and carvers. The world that we call civilized appeared with the invention of writing. Literacy provides a means of storing and retrieving information without relying exclusively on the memory of the old. Records and education multiply the number of learned professions. Urban civilization marks the emergence of such institutions as the territorial state, formal legislative codes of law, regular taxes, bureaucratized civil and military services, monumental public works, complex systems of taxation, and official records.

One way to bring out the degrees of likeness and difference among societies, whether primitive or civilized, is to compare the priorities that are given to institutions of the same kind. No one doubts that every society must concern itself to some extent with food. It is only in bands of the kind mentioned above that near-total preoccupation with hunger deemphasizes, although without abolishing, all other interests. Where existence is less hard the accumulation of wealth may become the principal value sought, as among some merchant cities and trading tribes. War and preparation for war may take top priority as it did for millennia among the shepherds of Inner Asia and the river-valley agriculturalists who were conquered by herdsmen-warriors. Some agricultural societies emphasize worship and encourage forms of knowledge, like astronomy, that enhance religion. In some societies, notably in East India, the accent is on ritual purity or impurity, and every kin group is assigned a position in the respect system of caste and class.

While priorities may remain stable for generations in a given society, this is not necessarily the case. At one time the peoples of Scandinavia were warriors and brigands. Today we perceive them as among those who are most involved with the values of civil society. In the United States, the early colonizers of New England were heavily oriented toward religion, morality, and political freedom. More recently, the most general trend has been toward secular activities, especially those connected with wealth. Throughout the contemporary world, "development" often carries the connotations of economic modernization, political independence, scientific education and research, personal freedom, and social justice.

Besides allocating priorities, every society strikes a temporary or durable balance between the accumulation and the immediate enjoyment of every value. The modes of accumulation depend on the value in question. Investment in wealth production, for instance, may involve adding fertilizers to the soil, or building an infrastructure of roads and bridges, or inculcating the values of saving and investment. Expanded educational opportunity implies that more per capita hours of teaching and learning, and more physical equipment, are made available, and that the importance of education is successfully communicated. If health opportunities are to be multiplied, it is necessary to add facilities and to spread the practice of personal hygiene. A society cultivates public enlightenment with installations for scientific and scholarly purposes, and for mass communication. Human relations improve as the roles of love, friendship, and loyalty expand in "an era of good feeling," and as social discrimination wanes. Levels of responsible conduct typically rise as opportunities become more available for worship and more people join in formulating and applying moral standards. During a given period the institutions of government, law, and politics sometimes accumulate more support.

The examples mentioned above refer to the "positive" accumulation of a valued outcome. Accumulations may be "negative," as when disasters destroy property, spread epidemics, or interfere with education.

All societies necessarily make arrangements for the sharing of wealth, power, and other values. Among individuals and groups these arrangements exhibit all degrees of equality and inequality. Wealth and income are sometimes widely distributed. By contrast, they may be monopolized in the hands of a few. Political participation may be dispersed or concentrated. Opportunities may be equalized or monopolized for health, education, and information; or for respect, affection, and responsible conduct.

Characteristic of every society is the attempt to maintain itself by controlling the minds of young and old. People not only hunt or plow, trade or fight. They are also likely to believe in what they do and how they do it. It is not necessarily true that in a system of inequality those who occupy any particular station, however exalted or lowly, entertain any doubts about the justification of the system. A stable society carries on within the framework of a common map of perception, belief, and identity. In such a setting the individual learns from earliest infancy to think, feel, and act in ways that bring positive rather than negative consequences from the social and natural environment. Socialization is the process by which private motivations are channeled into acceptable public acts.

In civilized societies reliance on the results of early education is heavily supplemented by government, law, and politics. The legal system is made up of several sets of authoritative and controlling prescriptions. One set is constitutive. It prescribes "who decides what and how." It centralizes or decentralizes formal and effective power, and it separates power among agencies and groups. Structures may be differentiated to plan, to promote, to legislate, to execute, or to review and appraise. Regulation defines the degree of protection given to the fundamental institutions of every sector of society. Tradition alleges that a legal order is blind to values and practices that lie outside the established beliefs, faiths, and loyalties ("ideologies") of the society with which it is involved. In consequence, legal systems may defend widely different balances between value accumulation and enjoyment, and sharply contrasting patterns of equality and inequality in the sharing of political power, wealth, respect, or any other value. The legal order may protect economic systems whose structures are capitalistic, socialistic, or cooperative; family systems that permit one or more members of the sexes to marry and raise children; religious faiths that exalt monotheism and polytheism; and so on through the infinite variety of human practices.

One set of prescriptive norms is supervisory. Individuals and groups may be given wide latitude to make privatecontractual agreements or to seek redress of private wrongs. Nonetheless, the decision makers of the community are prepared to play a supervisory role by enforcing common norms if an unsettled private controversy is brought to their notice by the parties. Prescriptions also lay down the principles and procedures to be followed if the body politic organizes and administers a continuing enterprise, of which services of transportation, communication, banking, insurance, and housing are examples. A legal system includes correctional or sanctioning measures to obtain compliance with prescribed norms. Value deprivations are imposed on those who have failed or are expected to fail to comply. Deprivations range in severity from capital punishment, confiscation of property, or life imprisonment, to a light fine or reprimand.

A legal system is stabilized when the effective elements in society perceive themselves as relatively better off by continuing the system than by adopting alternative arrangements. To some extent a legal order may exhibit cyclical fluctuations, as when deviations are tolerated within limits which, if exceeded, generate reform activities that restore the former situation with little change. In a capitalist economy "creeping monopoly" may invade trade unions, employers' associations, or natural resource and industrial enterprises. In a socialist economy "black markets" may introduce "creeping competition." In either case, cyclical movements may restore the original relationship before they have quietly stabilized a structural innovation, or prepared the way for violent revolutionary change.

If the view is correct that worldwide interdependence is increasing, the traditional blindfold of legal systems must be put aside long enough to give explicit consideration to competing value goals and practices around the globe. Interdependence implies that whether they like it or not, the members of an emerging planetary society must take one another into account. Being taken into account implies that beliefs, faiths, and loyalties, as well as overt behaviours, are examined by public and private decision makers. The demand to be better informed about the social environment creates an enormous opportunity and responsibility for those who study society.

We expect anthropologists to provide us with knowledge of primitive societies and other specialists to focus on the processes and institutions of civilized society. Political scientists and legal scholars concentrate on government, law, and politics. Economists specialize in the production and distribution of wealth. The role of educators is relatively clear. So, too, is the role of sociologists who concern themselves with a sector of society, such as the family, social class and caste, professions and occupations, communication, public health, or comparative morals and religion.

Social scientists are continually under pressure to provide a map of the past and probable future impact of the forces that shape society. They are asked, for instance, to explain the causes of war and other forms of violence, and to suggest strategies that lead to "victory" in a specific conflict or to show how war itself may be eliminated as an instrument of public policy. Social scientists are asked for explanations of why an economy experiences inflation, or how it generates changing levels of employment and unemployment. Specialists are expected to discover the sources of alienation that separate young and old or threaten the unity of a family, a school, a church, a political party, or a national state. These examples suggest the wide-ranging demands that confirm the importance of adding to our knowledge of society.

We recognize the existence of a problem when we perceive that our goals are inconsistent with one another or when there are discrepancies between what we want and what we have or expect. In public policymaking, the first step is to answer the question, "Whose values are to be realized?" The social scientist who participates in tackling or solving a policy problem has an option: he may adopt the criteria of a "client" or he may rely on his own values.

The study of social institutions is sometimes affected by diverging norms of professional responsibility. No conflict need arise if a social scientist is personally committed to a line of research that happens to be popular with influential members of the body politic. No anxiety or guilt is felt if the findings are applied by current decision makers. A frequent example is the study of administrative agencies according to their "dollar efficiency" or according to the accuracy and speed of communication between central offices and field stations.

In contrast to this harmonious relationship is the inner and perhaps visible turmoil of social scientists whose research interests are unacceptable to many members of the current establishment. The researchers may want to study the effect of military expenditures on society. The problem may be to find how a given level of military outlay modifies the structure of the civilian economy and influences both the production and delivery of services specialized for health, education, public information, family welfare, and other social outcomes. If the information gathered in the course of a given project is classified as secret, no scientist can lawfully report his findings. Perhaps the investigator will violate the letter of the law in the hope of mobilizing an effective demand for change. But it may be that such a strategy will backfire. Instead of arousing community protest against authority, the revelations may result in established leaders successfully taking advantage of an alleged "breach of security" to suppress inquiry and discussion.

Another complication affecting the social investigator is the degree of genuine consent that he must obtain from those whom he proposes to study. Physicians, surgeons, and biologists confront similar questions when they plan to give a test, run an experiment, administer a drug, or perform an operation. Is it always necessary to explain to a prospective subject the risks he will run? Is the investigator professionally or legally bound to make sure that the language of explanation can be understood by the individual concerned? If a social scientist plans to study the facts of life in a prison or a mental hospital, should he reveal his purpose, even when it would be easier to gain confidence by posing as a fellow prisoner or a fellow patient? Similar issues rise in connection with field studies of primitive tribes, of peasant communities, of foreign societies, and of many other social settings.

In recent times, professional opinion has emphasized the importance of obtaining "shared participation" in the pursuit of knowledge. Many investigators willingly accept the challenge of cultivating group demand for a project and for a hand in data gathering and analysis. At every stage, arrangements are made for laymen to work side byside with professional sociologists, social psychologists, political scientists, and other investigators. As a result, some communities have learned to study themselves, assessing the degree to which they are involved in ethnic and other forms of discrimination. Unusual groups have joined in self-study. For instance, murderers and persons who have survived as targets of murderous assault have cooperated in scientific research on the causes and consequences of murder, and on possible strategies of prevention. Instead of resenting the role of "guinea pig" in science, it is typical for those who choose to participate in programs of self-observation to improve their individual insight while contributing to the enhancement of society's stock of knowledge.

Whether the client or the investigator is the source of the value criteria adopted for a policy problem, questions of value priority are bound to arise. The relative importance of political, economic, and other aims cannot be satisfactorily settled in programs of national or regional development unless the full range of possible goals is considered. It is essential to take timing into account. When a new nation-state first secedes from an empire, political power has top priority. The "ex-colony" tries to ensure its independence of external control, to obtain support from outside powers, and to unify its people. Economic development occupies a high priority position. Other targets, such as health, education, the expressive arts, and environmental protection, seem to be less urgent. The allocation of manpower and facilities to various institutions depends on the priority of the specific outcomes in which these institutions specialize.

Social scientists have an indirect influence on priorities by asking questions about them, and also by presenting a factual map of past trends, causes, and future contingencies. Scientists often devise small-scale pretests in order to try out solutions that may eventually be applied on a larger scale.

In adapting to the needs of this interdependent world, the scientists of society require of themselves that they measure the direction and intensity of the value demands of political, economic, ethnic, and all other identifiable groups anywhere on the globe. Acknowledging the perils of a divided and militant world, the most compelling task is to discern and make public the conditions under which a world public order of government and law could become a more perfect instrument of human dignity, security, and welfare. Many small-scale programs show how to reduce the human cost of transforming today's inadequate institutions into more effective systems of communication and organization.

For the first time in history it can be truly asserted that the scientists of society have been provided with technological instruments of sufficient sophistication to assist in meeting the demands that are made upon them. Retrieval and dissemination make it possible to map past, present, and future events. Social analysts know that the key question for the future is to resolve whether or not the spectacularly changing technology of knowledge, and especially knowledge of society, will be in the hands of a limited class or caste that seeks to serve its own advantage. The alternative is to share the control of information widely among all territorial and pluralistic groups. Unless individuals and groups are able to obtain access to comprehensive stocks of information, they will be blind judges of public policy. Without adequate access, their criticism will be dismissed as exercises in ignorance and bias. Critics will be in no position to develop realistic alternatives to the plans of governmental or private monopolists of knowledge. "Knowledge is power"; if there is to be self-control, there must be prompt and total access to information.

The chief novelty about the computer and other technically advanced means of processing and transmitting information is that, in principle, everyone can be given prompt access to a selective "map of the whole." An image of the total deployment of man in space or of the total activitiesof a corporate enterprise can be made available to everyone from the highest official to the humblest worker. The salient facts can be made vivid, concise, and substantially accurate in images that may be supplemented in whatever detail is desired. The range of possible expenditures for any political, economic, or social program can be summarized and related to its potential impact on society.

Human society has attained an unparalleled height of danger and opportunity. The study of society shares in both. The unprecedented accumulation of knowledge enables us to recognize that the scale of our problems is also without precedent.

Part Five. Human Society


All studies of mankind take account of the effect of the social nature of humans. This is true of the treatment in Part Four of human evolution, health, and general nature and behaviour. It is also true of the treatments, in subsequent parts, of art, technology, religion, history, and the sciences and philosophy.

A special set of interrelated sciences, however, takes society and social behaviour as its direct subject of inquiry. The outlines in the six divisions and the twenty-five sections of Part Five are concerned with the complementary work of these social sciences.

The social sciences have themselves been the object of historical and analytical study. These studies are presented in the articles referred to in Section 10/36 of Part Ten. The outline in that section covers the history of the social sciences generally, and the nature, scope, methods, and interrelations of anthropology, sociology, economics, and political science.

The social sciences have become increasingly interdependent and interpenetrating, and no regulative agreement exists about how their distinction should be understood. Nevertheless, the diverse domains are, in practice, distinguishable. The breakdown of Part Five into six divisions reflects the currently operative distinction between cultural and social anthropology, the several branches of sociology, economics, political science, jurisprudence and law, and educational philosophy and science.


Division I. Social Groups: Peoples and Cultures

Division II. Social Organization and Social Change

Division III. The Production, Distribution, and Utilization of Wealth

Division IV. Politics and Government

Division V. Law

Division VI. Education


Division I. Social Groups: Peoples and Cultures


The outlines in the four sections of Division I set forth anthropological accounts of the development and the variety of sociocultural forms.


Section 511. Peoples and Cultures of the World

Section 512. The Development of Human Culture

Section 513. Major Cultural Components and Institutions of Human Societies

Section 514. Language and Communication


Section 511.         Peoples and Cultures of the World


A. In the Arctic

     1. In the eastern Arctic

     2. In the western Arctic


B. In North America

     1. In the sub-Arctic

     2. On the Northwest Coast

     3. In California

     4. On the Plateau

     5. In the Great Basin

     6. In the Southwest

     7. On the Plains

     8. In the eastern woodlands

     9. In the Southeast


C. In Middle America

     1. In northern Mexico

     2. In Mesoamerica

     3. In Central America and the northern Andes

     4. In the Caribbean


D. In South America

     1. In the central and southern Andes

     2. In the tropical forest

     3. Among the South American nomads


E. In Europe

     1. On the Atlantic fringe

     2. On the plain

     3. Along the Mediterranean

     4. On the Alpine climax


F. In the Middle East and North Africa

     1. In the Maghrib: northwestern Africa

     2. In the Mashriq: northeastern Africa and southwest Asia

     3. In Iran

     4. In Turkey


G. In Asia

     1. In Siberia

     2. In Central Asia

     3. In East Asia

     4. In South Asia

     5. In Southeast Asia


H. In sub-Saharan Africa

     1. In the western Sudan

     2. In the eastern Sudan

     3. On the Guinea coast

     4. In the Congo

     5. In central and lower East Africa

     6. In the East African Horn

     7. In southern Africa


I. In Oceania

     1. In Australia

     2. In Melanesia

     3. In Polynesia

     4. In Micronesia


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the peoples and cultures of the world

Africa  Eastern Africa

American Peoples, Native       Europe

Arctic, The      North Africa

Asia     Pacific Islands

Asian Peoples and Cultures    Transcaucasia

Australia          West Indies

Central Africa Western Africa Central Asia

Culture, The Concept and Components of


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Africa—Congo:          Baule   Baster  Tembu

Ambo  Dan     Bergdama        Tonga

Azande            Edo     Chaga  Toro

Bemba Efik     Chewa Tsonga

Bulu    Ekoi     Ganda Tswana

Chokwe           Ewe     Gush    Turkana

Duala   Fanti    Ha       Tutsi

Fang    Fon      Haya    Venda

Ila        Ga       Hehe    Xhosa

Kaonde           Guro    Herero Zaramo

Kongo Ibibio   Hutu    Zulu

Kuba   Idoma  Kamba Africa—Sudan:

Lozi     Igbira   Karamojong    Baga

Luba    Igbo     Khoikhoin       Bagirmi

Lunda  Ijo        Kikuyu            Bambara

Mangbetu        Isoko   Kipsikis           Bamileke

Maravi Itsekiri Lango  Barnum

Mbundu          Kissi    Lovedu            Banda

Mbuti  Kpelle  Luguru            Baqqdrah

Mongo Kru      Luhya  Bari

Ovimbundu     Lamba Luo      Baya

Tabwa Mamprusi        Luvale Bobo

Yaka    Mbembe          Makonde         Bongo

Yao     Mende Manyika          Dagomba

Yaunde           Nupe   Masai   Dinka

Africa—Ethiopian      Temne Mfengu           Dogon

and Somalian: Tiv       Mpondo          Fali

Afar     Urhobo            Nandi  Fulani

Amhara           Yako   Ndebele           Fur

Gurage            Yoruba            Ngoni  Grusi

Konso  Africa—Malagasy:      Nguni  Guang

Oromo Antaimoro       Nkole  Gurma

Saho    Antandroy       Nsenga            Hausa

Sidamo            Bara     Nyakyusa        Igala

Somali Betsileo           Nyamwezi       Kababish

Tigray  Merina Nyika  Kanuri

Tigre    Sakalava          Nyoro  Lala

Africa—Guinea          Tanala  Pedi     Lotuko

Coast:  Tsimihety        San      Lugbara

Adangme        Africa—southern and Sandawe         Madi

Akan   lower eastern:  Shona  Malinke

Anyi    Acholi Soga    Mande

Ashanti            Anuak Sotho   Mossi

Baga    Bantu peoples Swazi  Ngbandi





Senufo Serer

Songhai Tuareg Tukulor Wolof Zerma



Chukchi Dolgan Eskimo Even


Itelmen Ket

Khanty and Mansi Komi

Koryak Nenets Nivkh



Yukaghir Asia—Central and East:



Buryat Chahar Chuang Daghur Hani


Kalmyk Kazak Khalkha Kyrgyz Oyrat






Tibetan T'u-chia Tung

Turkic peoples Turkmen Tuvan

Uighur Uzbek Yao



Afridi Andamanese Badaga

Balochi Bhil

Bhutia Brahui Chakma Chenchu Chin


Durräni Ghilzay Gond Gurung Jlazdra Ho

Indus civilization Jät

Kadar Khasi Khond Koch


Korku Kota


Lepch5. Limbu Magar Marma Mina Mishmi Mizo

Munda Naga

Newar Nuristani

Pandri Pashtun Rai


Santhal Savara Sinhalese Tamang Tamil Tharu Toda Vedda

Asia—South Siberian: Buryat Khakass

Khanty and Mansi Nenets

Oyrat Tofalar Tuvan Uighur Yakut

Asia—Southeast: Achinese Arakanese

AtoniBalinese Batak Bisaya Buginese


Cham Dayak Dusun Ifugao Igorot Ilocano Jakun Javanese

Kachin Karen Kayan Kenyah Khmer Kubu Lampong Madurese Magindanao Malay Manggarai Maranao

Miao (Hmong) Minahasan Minangkabau Mon

Montagnard Moro

Muong Murut Ngada Palaung Pangasinan Rejang Samal Sasak Semang

Senoi Shan

Sikanese Sundanese Tagalog


Tasaday Tau Sug Tenggerese Toradja


Europe: Abkhaz Balt

Bashkir Basque Bulgar

Caucasian peoples Celt

Chuvash Circassian

Finnic peoples

Fleming and Walloon Germanic peoples Gypsy

Hungarian Mari

Mordvin Sami



Szekler Tatar



See also Section 514

Middle America and northern Andes: Achagua Amuzgo Arawak Cakchiquel Caquetio Cayapa Cenil

Chatino Chinantec Chocho Choc() Chol

Chontal Chorti Ciboney Colorado Cuicatec Cumanagoto Cuna

Goajiro Guaymi Huastec

Huichol and Cora Ixcatec

Jicaque Kekchi LacandOn




Mazatec Mesoamerican civilization Miskito Mixe-Zoquean Mixtec Nahua

Otomi Pdez

Palenque Patangoro


Popoloca Punth5.

Quiche Illinois Atsina  Beaver

Sumo   Kickapoo         Blackfoot        Beothuk

Taino   Mahican          Cheyenne        Carrier

Tairona            Malecite          Comanche       Chipewyan

Tarasco            Massachuset    Crow   Cree

Tepehuan         Menominee     Hidatsa            Dogrib

Tojolabal         Miami  Kansa  Ingalik

Totonac           Mohawk          Kiowa Kutchin

Tzeltal Mohegan         Mandan           Micmac

Tzotzil Montauk          Omaha Montagnais and

Tzutujil            Nanticoke        Osage  Naskapi

Yaqui  Narraganset     Oto      Sekani

Yucatec Maya Nauset Ponca  Slave

Zapotec           Neutral            Sarcee  Tahltan

Middle East and         Nipmuc           Sioux   Tanaina

North Africa:  Ojibwa            Tonkawa         Tanana

Arab    Oneida            Wichita            Oceania:

Armenian        Ottawa            North America—        Aranda

Bakhtyari        Pamlico           Plateau:           Australian

Balochi            Passamaquoddy          Flathead          Aborigine

Baqqarah         Pennacook       Kutenai           Chamorro

Bedouin          Penobscot        Modoc and      Hawaiian

Beja     Pequot Klamath          Kariera

Berber Potawatomi     Nez Perce        Maori

Cuman Powhatan        Sahaptin          Trobriander

Druze  Sauk    Salish   South America-

klarätin            Seneca Yakima            central and southern

Kababish         Shawnee          North America—        Andean:

Kabyle Susquehanna   Southeast:       Andean

Kurd    Tionontati        Apalachee       civilization

Lur      Tuscarora         Caddo Araucanian

Rif       Wampanoag    Calusa Atacama

Shawia            Wappinger       Catawba          Aymara

Teda    Wendat           Cherokee         Chavin

Tuareg Wenrohronon  Chickasaw       Chimti

Turkmen          Winnebago      Chitimacha      Diaguita

North America—        North America—        Choctaw          Inca

Californian:     Great Basin:    Creek   Mapuche

Cahuilla           Bannock          Natchez           Quechua

Chumash         Mono   Seminole         South America-

Dieguerio        Paiute  North America—        nomadic:

Juanerio           Shoshoni         Southwest:      AbipOn

Luisa-to           Ute      Apache            Chono

Maidu  Washo Chiricahua       GuatO

Mission Indians           North America—        Hopi    Makti

Miwok Northwest       Jicarilla Apache           Mataco

Porno   Coast:  Karankawa      Mbaya

Serrano            Bella Coola     Mescalero        Ona

Shastan            Chinook          Mimbres          Puelche

Wintun            Coast Salish    Mojave            Puri and

Yana    Haida  Navajo Coroado

Yokuts            Hupa   Papago            Querandi

Yuki    Kwakiutl         Pima    SirionO

North America—        Nootka            Pueblo Indians            Tehuelche

Eastern Woodland:     Tlingit  Shoshoni         Warrau

.Abnaki           Tsimshian        Southwest       Yamana

Cayuga            Wiyot  Indian  Yaruro

Conoy Yurok  Yuman            South America

Delaware         North America—        Zuni     tropical forest:

Erie      Plains:  North America—        Apapocuva

Fox      Arapaho          Sub-Arctic:      Bororo

Huron  Ankara            Algonquin       Botocudo


Canelo             Maxakali         Shipibo            Witoto

Caraja  Mura    Tucuna            Yanomami

Ge       Shavante         Tupian            

Guarani           Sherente          Tupinambd     




See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEx: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 512. The Development of Human Culture


A. Diverse theories of culture: conceptions involved in the analysis of culture

     1. Definitions of culture

     2. Culture and personality

     3. Cultural comparisons: ethnocentrism, cultural relativism

     4. Cultural adaptation and change

     5. Cultural patterns

     6. Cultural institutions

[see 513]


B. Types of cultures

     1. Cultures of primitive and nonurban societies

          a. Cultures of nomadic and settled hunters and gatherers

          b. Horticultural societies: societies in which primitive agriculture is supplemental to hunting and gathering

          c. Cultures of pastoralists and herdsmen: distribution and characteristics

          d. Cultures of peasants and settled agriculturists

     2. Cultures of civilized societies: theories of their origin and evolution

     3. The development of modern industrial civilization: mass society


C. Processes of cultural change

[see Division II, below]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the development of human culture

Culture, The Concept and Components of


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEx: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 513.         Major Cultural Components and Institutions of Human Societies


A. Systems of relationship based upon marriage and descent: kinship

     1. General aspects of kinship

     2. Laws and customs regarding mate selection, sexual behaviour, marriage and divorce, legitimacy

[see also 553.B.]

     3. Rules of residence; e.g., virilocal, uxorilocal, neolocal

     4. Descent systems: unilineal, cognatic, and variant forms

     5. Control of resources, inheritance, and succession: the family as a centre for transmission of economic, religious, political, and other powers and goods

     6. Kinship and social change: kinship as an evolving social institution


B. Other social structures

     1. The varieties of groups and other associations within societies

     2. Organization by status: class systems, caste systems, systems characterized by slavery or serfdom


C. Types of economic systems

     1. The economic systems of primitive or nonurban peoples

          a. Production, division of labour, role differentiation

          b. Exchange of goods, distribution of wealth

          c. Property and property rights

     2. The economic systems of developed nations

[see Division III below]


D. Other elements common to all cultures but differing in expression or practice between cultures

     1. Education and socialization: formal and informal enculturation

     2. Religious belief, folklore

[for religious belief, see 811]

     3. Legal systems

[see 55I.B.]

     4. Artistic expression: literature, visual arts, performing arts; crafts

[see 611. 612. and 613]

     5. Linguistic systems

[sec 514]

     6. Recreation, sports and games

     7. Passage and purification rites: birth, puberty, marriage, death


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with major cultural components and institutions of human societies

Culture, The Concept and Components of

Family and Kinship Inheritance and Succession

Social Sciences, The

Sports, Major Team and Individual


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          clan      joint family      nuclear family


avoidance        cross-cousin     kin       patriarchy

relationship      descent            kinship phratry

avunculate       extended family          kinship terminology    tribe

band    family  lineage

blood brotherhood      gens     matriarchy      

marital and sexual       exchange marriage

relationships:   exogamy and

betrothal          endogamy

bridewealth     group marriage

circumcision    henogamy

clitoridectomy incest

concubinage    levirate

couvade           residence

divorce            seigneur, droit du

dowry  sororate

dual organization        tree marriage



See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

primitive economic systems:


gift exchange kula


silent trade other:

card game caste

children's game

number game serfdom


social class

social group social status Sporting Record sports and games See also Sections 522 and 523

Section 514.         Language and Communication


A. Communication as a foundation of human culture and as the essential element in social and cultural interaction, the role of communication in the modification of human behaviour


B. Nonverbal communication

     1. Communication by means of bodily gestures and posture, by facial expression

     2. Laughter and nonword sounds as communication

     3. The use of signals, signs, symbols, icons, and cultural artifacts

     4. Cybernetic communication: computer languages, human language-computer interfaces, and artificial intelligence and expert systems

     5. Parapsychological forms of communication: telepathy

[see 432.H.1


C. The nature of language

     1. Definitions of language

     2. Ways of studying language: phonetics, grammar, semantics

     3. Language variants: dialects, slang, and specialized variants (e.g., jargon, pidgins, creoles)

     4. Speech: the psychological and physiological bases

     5. Meaning and style in language: structural and lexical meanings; semantic flexibility; language and conceptualization; style

     6. Language and culture: transmission of language; language and social differentiation; control of language for cultural ends; language learning and literacy; written language and spoken language

     7. Linguistic change and language typology

     8. Cryptology: codes, ciphers, and other means of encrypting language


D. The structure of speech and language

     1. The phonetics of speech (articulatory, acoustic, linguistic); phonetic transcription; experimental phonetics

     2. The physiology of speech: regulators (respiratory and brain functions); the larynx; voice production (including synthetic voice production)

     3. Speech disorders


E. Written language: systems of notation

     1. The nature, origin, and evolution of writing: from pictures to the alphabet

     2. Types of writing systems: logographic, syllabic, consonantal, alphabetic, featural

     3. Systems of writing: hieroglyphic, cuneiform, alphabetic, ideographic

     4. Adjuncts to writing: punctuation, shorthand

     5. Calligraphy and the art of handwriting: early Semitic, Arabic, Greek, Latin, Indic, East Asian


F. Linguistics: the scientific study of language and language development

[see also 10/36 H.]

     1. The development of linguistic theory

     2. Synchronic linguistics: structural, transformational-generative grammar, tagmemics, stratificational grammar, the Prague school

     3. Diachronic linguistics: linguistic change, comparative method, language classification

     4. Dialectology and the study of linguistic geography

     5. Semantics: the study of language and meaning

     6. The study of writing

     7. The classification of language


G. Language and society

     1. Attitudes toward language: taboos in language use, myths about the origin of language, the relation of language and thought

     2. The connection of language with history, the role of language in the transmission of culture

     3. The role of language in cross-cultural relations

     4. The use of language as a political instrument

     5. The role of language in unifying social and occupational groups


H. Languages of the world

     1. Indo-European languages

          a. Anatolian

          b. Indo-Iranian

          c. Greek

          d. Italic

          e. Romance

          f. Germanic

          g. Armenian

          h. Tocharian

          i. Celtic

          j. Baltic

          k. Slavic

          1. Albanian

     2. Uralic languages

          a. Finno-Ugric

          b. Samoyedic

     3. Altaic languages

          a. Turkic

          b. Mongolian

          c. Manchu-Tungus

     4. Dravidian languages

          a. South Dravidian

          b. Central Dravidian

          c. North Dravidian

     5. Austroasiatic languages

          a. Mon-Khmer

          b. Munda

     6. Sino-Tibetan languages

          a. Chinese

          b. Tibetic

          c. Burmic

          d. Baric

          e. Karenic

     7. Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) language

     8. Tai languages

          a. Southwestern Tai

          b. Central Tai

          c. Northern Tai

     9. Paleo-Siberian languages

          a. Nivkh

          b. Yukaghir

          c. Chukchi

          d. Koryak

          e. Itelmen

          f. Ket

     10. Caucasian languages

          a. South Caucasian

          b. North Caucasian

     11. Afro-Asiatic languages

          a. Semitic

          b. Egyptian

          c. Berber

          d. Cushitic

          e. Chadic

     12. Korean language

     13. Japanese language

     14. Austronesian languages

          a. Formosan

          b. Western Malayo-Polynesian

          c. Central Malayo-Polynesian

          d. South Halmahera-West New Guinea

          e. Oceanic

     15. Papuan languages

     16. Australian Aboriginal languages

     17. African languages

          a. Niger-Congo

          b. Chart-Nile and Nilo-Saharan

          c. Khoisan

     18. Indian languages of North America

          a. Eskimo-Aleut

          b. Na-Dene

          c. Macro-Algonquian

          d. Macro-Siouan

          e. Hokan

          f. Penutian

          g. Aztec-Tanoan

     19. Indian languages of Meso-America

          a. Uto-Aztecan

          b. Tequistlatec

          c. Tlapanec

          d. Oto-Pamean

          e. Popolocan

          f. Mixtecan

          g. Zapotecan

          h. Chinantecan

          i. Mixe-Zoque

          j. Totonacan

          k. Mayan

          1. Misumalpan

     20. Indian languages of South America and the Caribbean

          a. Arawakan

          b. Cariban

          c. Macro-Chibchan

          d. Macro-Ge

          e. Macro-Pano-Tacanan

          f. Quechumaran

          g. Tucanoan

          h. Tupian

     21. Language isolates

          a. Sumerian

          b. Etruscan

          c. Basque

     22. Pidgins and creoles

     23. Constructed languages

          a. Special international or universal languages, including Esperanto and Interlingua; Basic English

          b. Machine languages: e.g., Fortran, Algol

[see 735.D.3.]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with language and communication

Communication           Linguistics

Cryptology      Names

Humour and Wit         Speech

Language        Writing Languages of the World


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

alphabets and other     pictography     languages-       Cebuano

writing systems:          Pitman shorthand        Afro-A siatic   Fijian language

alphabet           Rosetta Stone  (Hamito-Semitic):       Formosan

Arabic alphabet           runic alphabet  Afro-Asiatic    languages

Aramaic alphabet        Sarada script   languages        Javanese language

Armenian alphabet      shorthand        Akkadian language     Malagasy

Brahmi            Sinaitic            Amharic language       languages

Braille  inscriptions      Arabic language          Malay language

Canaanite        South Semitic  Aramaic language       Melanesian

inscriptions      alphabet           Berber languages         languages

Chinese writing           Speedwriting   Chadic languages        Micronesian

system stenotypy        Coptic language          languages

cuneiform writing       syllabary          Cushitic languages      Oceanic languages

Cypriot syllabary         Syriac alphabet            Eblaite language          Philippine

Cyrillic alphabet          Ugaritic alphabet         Egyptian language      languages

demotic script writing Ge`ez language           Polynesian

Devanagari      grammar, syntax,         Hausa language           languages

Eggjum Stone and vocabulary:           Hebrew language        Tagalog language

Ethiopic alphabet        abbreviation    Phoenician language   languages—.

Etruscan alphabet        agglutination   Semitic languages       Caucasian:

Glagolitic alphabet      auxiliary          South Arabic   Avar-Andi-Dido

Gothic alphabet           gender language          languages

Grantha alphabet         grammar          Syriac language           Caucasian

Greek alphabet            honorific          languages—Altaic:      languages

Gregg shorthand         mood   Altaic languages          Georgian language

Gupta script    morpheme       Chuvash language       Kartvelian

Gurmukhi        name    Evenk language           languages

alphabet           patronymic      Kazak language           Laz language

Hangul            punctuation     Kyrgyz language         Mingrelian

Hebrew alphabet         slang    Manchu language        language

hieroglyph       speculative      Manchu-Tungus          Nakh languages

Hittite hieroglyphic     grammar          languages        languages

writing surname           Mongol language        Dravidian:

Iguvine Tables syntax  Mongolian       Dravidian

Indic writing   tense    languages        languages

systems            voice    Tatar language Kannada language

kana     languages        Turkic languages         Malayalam

Kensington Stone       African:           Turkish language         language

Kharosti          African languages       Turkmen language       Tamil language

Kok Turki        Bantu languages          Uighur language          Telugu language

alphabet           Central Sudanic          Ural-Altaic      languages—Indo-

Latin alphabet languages        languages        European (Baltic):

Linear A          Eastern Sudanic          Uzbek language          Baltic languages

and Linear B   languages        languages-       Latvian language

Mayan Khoikhoin       Austroasiatic:  Lithuanian

hieroglyphic    languages        Austroasiatic   language

writing Khoisan languages      languages        Old Prussian

Myazedi          Kwa languages            Khmer language          language

inscription       Meroitic language       Mon-Khmer    languages

Nabataean       Niger-Congo   languages        Indo-European

alphabet           languages        Munda languages        (Celtic):

North Semitic  Nilotic languages        Nicobarese      Breton language

alphabet           Nubian languages        languages        Brythonic

ogham writing San languages Vietnamese     languages

Pahlavi alphabet          Swahili language         language          Celtic languages

Palmyrenian    West Atlantic  languages        Cornish language

alphabet           languages        Austronesian:  Goidelic languages

Phoenician       Xhosa language           Austronesian   Irish language

alphabet           Zulu language languages        Pictish language

Scottish Gaelic language Welsh language

languages—Indo-European (Germanic): Afrikaans language Danish language English language Faroese language Frisian language German language Germanic languages Gothic language Icelandic language Luxemburgian

language Middle English language Netherlandic language Norwegian language Old English language Old Norse language Old Saxon language Scandinavian languages Scots language Swedish language Swiss German language Yiddish language

languages—Indo-European (Greek):

Demotic Greek language Greek language Katharevusa Greek language Koine

languages—Indo-European (Indo-Iranian):

Apabhramga language Assamese language Avestan language Balochi language Bengali language Bihari languages Burushaski language Dardic languages Dari language Gujarati

languageHindi language Hindustani language

Indian languages Indo-Aryan languages Indo-Iranian languages

Iranian languages Kashmiri language Maratha language Oriya language Ossetic language Pahari languages Pahlavi language Pali language Parthian language Pashto language Persian language Prakrit languages Punjabi language Romany language Sanskrit language Sindhi language Sinhalese language Urdu language

languages—Indo-European (Romance and Italic):

Catalan language Franco-Provencal dialect

French language Italian language Italic languages Ladino language Latin language Mozarabic


Occitan language Oscan language Osco-Umbrian languages Portuguese


Rhaetian dialects Romance

languages Romanian


Sabellic dialects Sardinian language Spanish language Umbrian language Vulgar Latin

languages—Indo-European (Slavic):


languageBulgarian language Czech language Lekhitic languages Macedonian language Old Church Slavonic language Polish language Russian language Serbo-Croatian language Slavic languages Slovak language Slovene language Sorbian languages Ukrainian language

languages—Indo-European (other):

Albanian language Anatolian languages Armenian language Hittite language Indo-European languages Indo-Hittite languages Luwian language Lydian language Raetian language Tocharian languages

languages—international and artificial:

Basic English Esperanto Ido

Interlingua Novial

Volapilk languagesMeso-American Indian:

American Indian languages Cakchiquel language Maya languages Mixe-Zoque languages Nahua language Oto-Manguean languages Quiche language Uto-Aztecan languages Yucatec language

languages—North American Indian: Algonquian languages American Indian languages Cherokee language Eskimo-Aleut languages Hokan languages Hopi language Macro-Algonquian languages Macro-Siouan languages Na-Dene languages Navajo language Penutian languages Siouan languages

languages—pidgin and auxiliary: Chinese Pidgin English



Haitian Creole lingua franca Melanesian Pidgin Papiamento pidgin


languages—Sino-Tibetan: Burmese language Cantonese


Chinese languages Kan-Hakka languages Karen languages Mandarin language Miao-Yao (Hmong-Mien) languages Min languages Pinyin

romanization Sino-Tibetan languages Tibetan language Wade-Giles romanization

Wu language

languages—South American Indian: American Indian languages Arawakan languages

Quechuan languages   languages—Uralic:      glossematics    consonant

Tupi-Guarani   Estonian language       glottochronology         inflection

languages        Finnish language         Grimm's law    International

languages—Tai:          Finno-Ugric     historical          Phonetic

Shan language languages        linguistics        Alphabet

Tai languages  Hungarian       immediate       intonation

Thai language  language          constituent      nasal

languages        Karelian language       analysis            palatalization

unaffiliated     Mari language koine   phoneme

(extinct):          Mordvin language       linguistics        phonetics

Elamite language         Permic languages        morphology     phonology

Etruscan language       Sami languages           Neogrammarian           rounding

Hattie language           Ural-Altaic      neurolinguistics           stop

Hurrian language         languages        Prague school  suprasegmental

Sumerian language      Uralic languages          psycholinguistics         tone

languages        linguistics:       semantics         velarization

unaffiliated (living):    anthropological           semiotics         voice

Andamanese   linguistics        sociolinguistics            vowel

language          comparative     structuralism    other:

Australian        linguistics        stylistics          communication

Aboriginal       computational synchronic       cryptology

languages        linguistics        linguistics        humour

Basque language         dialect transformational          name

Japanese language       dialectology    grammar          semaphore

Ket language   diglossia          Verner's law    sign language

Korean language         ethnolinguistics           phonetics:        speech

Maori language           etymology       accent  symbol

Paleo-Siberian general semantics        allophone        

languages        generative        articulation     

Papuan languages        grammar          click    


Apollonius       Grimm, Jacob  Levita, Elijah   Sibawayh

Dyscolus         Ludwig Carl and         Pike, Kenneth L.         Trubetskoy,

Bloomfield,     Wilhelm Carl   Priscian            Nikolay

Leonard           Halliday, M.A.K.        Rask, Rasmus  Sergeyevich

Chomsky, Noam         Harris, Zellig S.           Sapir, Edward Ulfilas

Cyril and         Humboldt,       Saussure,         Vaugelas, Claude

Methodius,      Alexander von            Ferdinand de   Favre, seigneur de

Saints  Jakobson, Roman        Scaliger, Joseph           Whorf,

Donatus, Aelius          Jespersen, Otto            Justus  Benjamin Lee

Firth, John R.  Kimhi, David  Schleicher, August     

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division II.          Social Organization and Social Change


[For Part Five headnote see page 173.]

The outlines in the four sections of Division II present general sociological theories of social order and social change, and sociological studies of basic social institutions, social processes, and social problems.


Section 521. Social Structure and Change

Section 522. The Group Structure of Society

Section 523. Social Status

Section 524. Human Populations: Urban and Rural Communities


Section 521.         Social Structure and Change


A. The structure of society: diverse theories of social structure and organization, various types of social structure


B. The social effects of bureaucratic and industrial specialization

     1. The social effects of industrialization and modernization

     2. The social effects of organizational specialization: bureaucracy

     3. The social effects of industrial specialization and automation

[see also 712.C.]


C. Social control

     1. The process of socialization: the transmission of patterns of normative behaviour by family, peer groups, and education

     2. Theories of alienation: definitions, causes, manifestations, and proposed solutions

     3. The regulation of behaviour that departs from social norms

          a. By punishment, rehabilitation, and reform of criminals

          b. By psychological therapy

          c. By persuasion


D. Factors operative in social change

     1. The role of ideology in social change

     2. Contact with other cultures as a factor in social change

     3. The influence of environment as a factor in social change

     4. The role of demographic factors in social change

     5. The role of art in social change: art as an ideological instrument

     6. Religion as a factor for and against social change

     7. The role of intellectual factors in social change

     8. The relationship of economic factors to social stability

     9. Technological factors in social change

10. The role of collective behaviour in social change

11. The role of public opinion in social behaviour


E. Social movements and social change

     1. Characteristics of social movements

     2. Selected types of social movements

          a. Movements centred on religious concepts or personalities

          b. Humanitarian and reform movements

          c. Interest group movements

          d. Revolutionary movements

          e. Nationalist movements

[see also 541.C.3.b.vii.]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with social structure and change

Collective Behaviour

Crime and Punishment

Modernization and Industrialization Propaganda


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

            punishment and           Auburn system

            rehabilitation:  Baumes Laws

amnesty           Borstal system

Public Opinion

Social Sciences, The

Social Structure and Change Work and Employment

commutation   exile and

deportation      banishment Elmira system

indeterminate  punishment      social change   collective

sentence          recidivism        social Darwinism         behaviour

mark system    reformatory     social movement         folkway

ostracism         torture temperance      norm

parole  workhouse       movement       public opinion

penal colony    social change:  social norms    role

Pennsylvania   civil disobedience       and associated social structure

system sanction           phenomena:    

prison  satyagraha       assimilation    

probation         sit-in               



See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 522.         The Group Structure of Society


A. The various types of groups: patterns of group relations

     1. Classifications of groups

     2. The modern family: its organization and functions

     3. Special-interest groups

[see also 541.B.31

     4. Minorities and ethnic groups


B. The social effects of racial and ethnic prejudice


C. Special social concerns

     1. Adolescence

     2. Old age

     3. Women's social and legal status

     4. Cultural minorities

[see A.4., above]

     5. Poverty

     6. Criminality and delinquency

     7. Sexual orientation

     8. Prostitution

     9. Drug and alcohol abuse

     10. Suicide


D. Social service: organized public and private activities to alleviate human wants and needs

     1. The background of social and welfare services: modern and historical influences

     2. Fields of service

          a. Family welfare

          b. Child welfare

          c. Youth welfare

          d. Group welfare

          e. Disaster relief

          f. Community development

          g. Medical and psychiatric social services

          h. School social services

[see also 561.C.4.]

          i. Correctional services: probation, parole, and delinquency control


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the group structure of society

Alcohol and Drug Consumption         Social Sciences, The

Crime and Punishment            Social Welfare

Family and Kinship    

Sex and Sexuality      


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information           

General subjects          polyandry        social legislation and   crime

family and marriage:                          

adoption          polygamy        social services: delinquency

betrothal          surrogate         affirmative action        drug abuse

bridewealth     motherhood     almoner           habitual offender

divorce            interest groups and      almshouse        old age

dowry  social movements:       child welfare   organized crime

exchange marriage      black nationalism        philanthropic   poverty

exogamy and   Civil Rights     foundation      prostitution

endogamy       Movement       prohibition       racial segregation

family  ethnic group    service club     racism

group marriage            interest group  social service   suicide

henogamy        lobbying          social settlement          white-collar crime

joint family      minority           social welfare  other:

levirate            temperance      program           assimilation

marriage          movement       woman suffrage          charisma

nuclear family women's liberation      social problems:           Gemeinschaft and

parent  movement       alcoholism       Gesellschaft

                        child abuse     


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 523.         Social Status


A. Social differentiation and stratification

     1. The concepts of differentiation and stratification: distinctions and interrelationships

     2. Factors producing social, economic, and cultural differences: sex differentiation, age differentiation, racial differentiation, intellectual differentiation, social and cultural factors

[see 521.D.]

     3. The process of stratification: its relationship to differentiation

          a. Economic differentiation: the basis of stratification

          b. Class, status, and power as forms of stratification

          c. The relation of the individual to society: the effects of differentiation and stratification


B. Varieties of social stratification and social mobility

     1. The relation of social class to caste, status, elites, and other concepts

     2. Theories of social class: divergent conceptions of the importance of classes in social structures and of the nature of class relationships

     3. Types and characteristics of and comparisons among modern social classes: upper class, working class, and middle class; the special case of the peasant class

     4. Social mobility

     5. The idea of a classless society: approximations to an equality of conditions

     6. Social immobility: slavery, serfdom, and forced labour


Suggested reading in the Encyclopeedia Britannica: MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with social status


Social Sciences, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                      caste    racial segregation

labour and servitude: serfdom           clan      social class

abolitionism     slavery ethnic group    social mobility

contract labour            statute labour  family social status

forced labour   social differentiation, ghetto

freedman         stratification, and        kinship            

labour, division of       segregation:     minority          

migrant labour             age set                        

peonage           apartheid                    


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 524.         Human Populations: Urban and Rural Communities


A. The composition and change of human populations

     1. Determinants of population

          a. Human fertility and its control

          b. Mortality: death rates and longevity

          c. Migration and refugee movements

     2. Historical changes in population

     3. Theories of population

          a. Premodern beliefs: pronatalism versus birth control

          b. Mercantilist theory

          c. Laissez-faire theory

          d. Malthusian theory

          e. Marxist theory

          f. Modern theories of population; e.g., optimum population size, optimum rate of population growth, relationship between population and demographic movements

          g. Ecological theories concerning the relationship between human population growth and the conservation of natural resources

     4. Governmental policies influencing population growth and composition

     5. The future of the world's population: population projections and problems of the population explosion


B. Development of modern cities

     1. Characteristics of urbanization

     2. History of urbanization

     3. Patterns of urban planning

          a. Methods and materials of urban planning and redevelopment

          b. Social aspects of urban planning and redevelopment

     4. Trends in urbanization

          a. Megalopolis: the coalescence of several metropolitan areas into a contiguous agglomeration of people and activity

          b. Suburbanization: the growth of politically separate but economically dependent residential communities surrounding large cities

          c. Regional integration: economic and cultural interaction between the city and its hinterland

          d. The role of technology in extending the dominance and influence of urban concentrations

          e. Problems of urban growth and population control

          f. Problems of environmental change: pollution, climatic change


C. Development of modern rural societies


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with human populations: urban and rural communities

Birth Control   Modernization and Industrialization

Cities   Population

Climate and Weather  Social Sciences, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          human migration         pollution          urban renewal

age distribution                                  

birth control    metropolitan area        population       urbanization

census  mortality          refugee            vital rates

city      new town        rural society     zoning

contraception  planned           urban climate  

demography    parenthood      urban planning           



See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division III.         The Production, Distribution, and Utilization of Wealth

[For Part Five headnote see page 173.]


The outlines in the seven sections of Division III deal with the economic order in human society.


Section 531. Economic Concepts, Issues, and Systems

Section 532. The Consumer and the Market: Pricing and the Mechanisms for Distributing Goods

Section 533. The Organization of Production and Distribution

Section 534. The Distribution of Income and Wealth

Section 535. Macroeconomics

Section 536. Economic Growth and Planning


Section 531.         Economic Concepts, Issues, and Systems


A. Some basic concepts of economics

     1. The concept of economic activity as a process of choosing among scarce resources

     2. The concept of division of labour

     3. The concepts of diminishing returns and optimization

     4. The concept of marginality

     5. The concept of capital

     6. The concept of competition

     7. The concept of comparative advantage

     8. The concepts of growth and development


B. Levels of economic analysis

     1. Microeconomics: the economic decisions of individuals, households, and firms

     2. Sectoral economics: the economic arrangements of industries, groups, and regions

     3. Macroeconomics: the economy as a whole


C. The comparison of different economic systems

     1. Archetypal economic systems

          a. The pure private enterprise economy: a theoretical model

          b. The centrally planned economy: the pure socialist model

          c. The mixed economy with various degrees of economic planning

     2. Western-type market economies

     3. Soviet- and socialist-type economic systems

     4. Mixed economies in developing countries

     5. Other economic systems

          a. Primitive economic systems

          b. Feudal economic systems


Suggested reading in the Encyclopivdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with economic concepts, issues, and systems

Economic Systems      Government Finance  

Economic Theory        International Trade    


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 532.         The Consumer and the Market: Pricing and the Mechanisms for Distributing Goods


A. Scarcity, utility, and value: their roles in pricing, their relationship to the consumer


B. The satisfaction of material wants: the behaviour of consumers

     1. National consumption levels in the private sector: trends in expenditures for goods and services

     2. Factors influencing consumers' tastes and spending

     3. The protection of consumer interests


C. Markets as an economic institution in a mixed economy

     1. Markets classified by reference to competition and monopoly

          a. Purely competitive markets as distinguished from markets of imperfect competition: monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition

          b. Influences affecting the behaviour of sellers under various competitive conditions

          c. The concept of workable competition

          d. Government regulation of monopolistic practices

     2. Major types of markets

          a. Markets for primary commodities

          b. Markets for manufactured goods

          c. Markets for money and capital: the market for short-term loans, the securities market

          d. The market for labour and services

[see 533.C.1.]

     3. The counterpart of the market under full-scale economic planning: markets under socialism

     4. The historical development of markets: the market in economic theory, the relationship of the market to social welfare and politics

     5. Markets in international trade

[see 533.F.]

     6. The function of the market in the establishment of equilibrium between supply and effective demand


D. The price system in capitalist economies

     1. The price system as a means of organizing economic activity: the determination of what is to be produced, how goods are to be produced, and who gets the product

     2. Limitations on and failures of the price system: areas in which the price system does not function

          a. Control of prices by business: price-fixing

[see C.1.a., above]

          b. Government-established price controls and subsidies: regulations concerning public utilities and bank interest rates

[see 534.B.4.b., and 534.B.6.b.]

          c. Economic relationships not susceptible to control by prices: "externalities," such as air pollution and highway congestion

[see also 737.C.1.]

          d. Imperfect knowledge on the part of buyers as to alternative uses of their buying power

[see B.2., above]

     3. The role of the public sector in the distribution of goods and services: government budgets

[see 534.B.1.]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the consumer and the market: pricing and the mechanisms for distributing goods

Economic Theory


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 533.         The Organization of Production and Distribution


A. The organization of the production of goods

     1. Analysis of costs and output in the short run: the production function, substitution, the relationship of marginal cost to market price, marginal product

     2. Analysis of costs and output in the long run for profit maximization and cost minimization


B. The organization of the distribution of goods

     1. The relation between the productive process and the incomes derived from it

[see also 534.A.2. and A.3.b.]

     2. The earnings of land, labour, and capital employed in the productive process


C. The inputs of the productive process

     1. Labour as an input in the productive process

          a. The labour force: size, quality, and deployment of work force

          b. Methods of fixing rates of pay

          c. The structure of pay: differences in the earnings of various occupations

          d. Changes in the general level of pay

          e. Employment and unemployment

          f. The economic and social status of temporary, seasonal migrant labourers

          g. The organization of unions

          h. The influence of the union on the supply of labour, wages, and output

          i. Capital elements in labour: education and training

          j. The economic role of managers and entrepreneurs

     2. Land and raw materials as inputs

     3. Energy as an input

     4. Capital as an input in the productive process


D. Institutional arrangements that facilitate production and output

     1. The nature and characteristics of money

          a. The basic functions of money

          b. The various forms of money

          c. The quantity theory of money: views of classical and neoclassical monetary theorists, views of Keynesian income theorists

     2. The monetary functions of commercial banks and central banks

          a. Historical development of banking systems

          b. The structure of modern national banking systems

          c. Principles and functions of commercial banking systems

          d. Principles and functions of central banking systems

          e. The money market: various national and international markets for short-term funds

          f. International monetary institutions: proposals for future monetary cooperation and an international currency unit

[see also 535.B.2.]

          g. The market for long-term funds: savings institutions, the stock and bond markets, credit unions, mortgage institutions, farm cooperative banks, insurance institutions, mutual funds, pension funds

          h. The nature and functions of government credit agencies

     3. The use of economic statistics in the determination of production and output

          a. National income statistics

          b. Price statistics: the use and construction of indexes of retail and wholesale prices

          c. Economic forecasting

     4. The business corporation


E. Agricultural economics

     1. The relationship between agricultural and economic development

     2. Efforts to control prices and production in agriculture: government price supports, subsidies, and acreage limitations

     3. The behaviour of farm prices and the consequences for the incomes of farmers

     4. The effect of technology on world agriculture: the increase in acreage and in crop yields

     5. The organization of farming: types of farms


F. The geographical distribution of resources and markets: international trade

     1. Classical and contemporary theories of international and interregional trade

     2. National and regional factors influencing trade

          a. Tariffs, embargoes, and quotas imposed to obtain revenue, protect domestic industry, and secure a favourable balance of payments

          b. Changes in the conditions of production: costs, labour, and technology

          c. Price movements

          d. National domestic taxes and subsidies

[see also 534.B.4.]

     3. International trade arrangements


G. The role of government in production and distribution

     1. The theory of public expenditures: the role of taxation in the budgetary process and problems of effective tax administration

     2. The justification of the government's claim to share in resource use: problems of balancing resource consumption between the public and private sectors

     3. The growth in government spending in the 19th and 20th centuries: the rise in military and social welfare expenditures

     4. Government operation of basic industries


H. Methods of business organization

     1. The keeping of accounts

          a. Accounting as an information system

          b. Various types of company financial statements; e.g., the balance sheet, the income statement

          c. Principles of accounting measurement: asset and cost measurement

          d. Cost accounting: formulation of budgetary plans, performance reports, profit analyses

     2. The management of business funds

          a. Short-term and intermediate-term financial operations: planning and control, the cash budget, accounts receivable, inventories

          b. Long-term financial operations: the design of capital structure and the issuance of securities

          c. Consolidations and mergers

     3. The management of human resources: personnel administration

          a. Personnel departments: their functions and services

          b. Manpower planning, recruitment, and placement

          c. Employee training and development

          d. Methods of maintaining employee incentive and commitment

     4. The administration and control of production

          a. The flow channels of information and materials

          b. The control function: maintaining conformity between operations and the plan

          c. Production scheduling

          d. Inventory adjustment

     5. The distribution of goods

          a. The functions of a marketing department in a large firm

          b. Retailing

          c. Wholesaling

          d. Marketing goods to industry, marketing farm products

          e. The application of market research techniques to merchandising


I. Advertising


J. The distribution of risk

     1. The nature of insurance

     2. Fire and marine insurance

     3. Casualty and surety insurance: liability insurance, theft insurance, aviation insurance, workmen's compensation or industrial injury insurance, credit insurance, title insurance, suretyship

     4. Private life and health insurance

     5. Government-sponsored and/or government-administered health insurance

[see 534.13.4.c.]

     6. Underwriting of risks: rate making

     7. Legal aspects of insurance


K. Consumer credit

     1. Types of consumer credit: installment loans and noninstallment, or single-payment, loans

     2. Historical development of consumer credit in industrialized countries

          a. Lending institutions and the question of interest rates

          b. Costs and hazards of consumer credit

     3. Efforts to protect the consumer: the dimensions of consumer credit


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the organization of production and distribution

Accounting     Coins and Coinage      Insurance         Social Sciences, The

Banks and       Economic Growth       International Trade     Work and

Banking           and Planning   Marketing and Employment

Business          Economic Theory        Merchandising           

Organization   Government    Markets          

            Finance            Money


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          bank    development bank       investment trust


economics:      bond    discount rate   liquidity preference

agricultural      business finance          dividend          marginal efficiency

economics       capital  exchange, bill of          of investment

extensive         central bank     Federal Deposit           money market

agriculture       commercial bank         Insurance         money order

intensive          consumer credit           Corporation     mutual fund

agriculture       credit   Federal Reserve          national bank

kolkhoz           credit, letter of            System            over-the-counter

tenant farming credit card       finance company         market

banking and    credit union     installment credit        promissory note

financing:        deposit,           interest            revolving credit

acceptance       certificate of    investment       risk

arbitrage                      investment bank          saving

savings and loan          economic         vending machine         price

association       forecasting      wholesaling     discrimination

savings bank    economic indicator      money:            price maintenance

security            income and      bimetallism      production

sinking fund    employment    bullionism        function

stock    theory  check   production

stock exchange            input–output   coin     management

stock option    analysis            currency          rent

ticker   Keynesian       dollar   resources,

time deposit    economics       drachma          allocation of

business           Laspeyres index          ecu       supply curve

organization:   multiplier         Eurodollar       work and

account payable          Paasche index fractional reserve         employment:

account receivable       Phillips curve   system boycott

amortization    price index      franc    child labour

audit    wholesale price            gold-exchange closed shop

bookkeeping    index   standard          collective

cartel   insurance:        gold reserve     bargaining

chartered company      actuary            gold standard  coolie

clearinghouse  annuity            Gresham's law enterprise

conglomerate   casualty insurance       lira       unionism

corporation      fire insurance   mark    featherbedding

credit bureau   friendly society           monetarism      fringe benefit

depletion         group insurance           money general strike

allowance        guaranty and   money supply  guaranteed wage

depreciation    suretyship        parity   plan

industrial         health insurance          peso     industrial union

espionage        insurance         pound sterling labour

inventory         liability insurance        quantity theory            labour, hours of

limited liability            life insurance   of money         labour economics

mercantile agency       marine insurance         ruble    labour law

merger motor-vehicle  rupee   lockout

monopoly        insurance         seigniorage      maquiladora

multinational   markets, marketing,     silver standard mediation

corporation      and merchandising:     tael      migrant labour

partnership      advertising      two-tier gold   minimum wage

pawnbroking   auction            system pension

public enterprise          bazaar  yen      personnel

public relations            black market    production:      administration

public utility    chain store       conservation    profit sharing

trust company department store         cost      retraining program

zaibatsu           fair       cost–benefit    right-to-work law

economic         general store    analysis            strike

measurement and        mail-order business     marginal-cost   trade union

forecasting:     market research           pricing unemployment

consumer price            marketing        mathematical   union shop

index   retailing           programming   wage theory

cost of living   supermarket     pollution          yellow-dog

Dow Jones average     trade fair         price    contract

econometrics   trading stamp             

Biographies     Markowitz,      Rothschild family       Hughes, Howard

            Harry M.         Sage, Russell   Hunt, H.L.

advertising and                                  

public relations:                                  

Benton, William          Mellon,            industry:          Iacocca, Lee

Bernays, Edward I.     Andrew W.     Carnegie, Andrew       Krupp von Bohlen

Bernbach, William      Miller,  du Pont family            und Halbach,

Byoir, Carl      Merton H.       Field, Marshall            Alfred

Lasker, Albert Modigliani,      Ford, Henry    Krupp von Bohlen

finance:           Franco Getty. J. Paul  und Halbach,

Baring family  Morgan, John  Guggenheim,   Gustav

Belmont family           Pierpont           Meyer and Daniel       McCormick, Cyrus

Fugger family              Hammer, Armand       Hall

198      Part Five. Human Society                              

Pew, J. Howard;         Thyssen family            Meany, George           Penney, J.C.

and Pew, Joseph         labour: Reuther, Walter           Sears, R.W.

N., Jr.  Chavez, Cesar Stephens, Uriah           Ward,

Rockefeller, John D.   Debs, Eugene V.         Smith   Montgomery

Schwab, Charles M.    Feather, Victor            Woodcock, George     See also Section

Squibb, E.R.    Hill, Joe           merchandising:            10/36 of Part Ten

Tata family      Hoffa, James R.          Marcus, Stanley         

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 534.         The Distribution of Income and Wealth


A. The distribution of wealth and income by categories of the population

     1. The nature and measurement of wealth and income

     2. Methods of classifying the distribution of wealth and income

          a. Distribution by factor shares: wages, profits, interest, and rent

          b. Distribution according to the number of persons in various classes of wealth and income

     3. Patterns of wealth and income distribution among various countries and among persons within a country

          a. Frequency distributions

          b. Comparisons among wealth and income groups


B. The routes by which government affects the distribution of wealth and income

     1. The national budget as the program of the government's revenues and expenditures

     2. The nature and purposes of taxation

          a. Principles of taxation; e.g., adequacy, adaptability, universality, ability to pay

          b. The effect of taxes on the distribution of income: progressive and regressive taxes

          c. The burden of taxation: the problem of shifting and incidence

          d. Characteristics of national tax systems: comparisons of tax burdens

     3. Kinds of taxes

          a. Taxes on real and personal property

          b. Sales and excise taxes

          c. Tariffs and export taxes

          d. Taxes on personal income and capital gains

          e. Taxes on corporate income and excess profits

          f. Death and gift taxes

          g. Social security and payroll taxes

     4. Transfers and subsidies

          a. Interest payments on the public debt

[sec B.5., below]

          b. Subsidies and tax concessions

          c. Government-sponsored and government-administered welfare programs

     5. The financing of budgetary deficits and surpluses

     6. Direct controls over the private sector

          a. Price, wage, and profit control

          b. Control of restrictive practices: antitrust legislation, regulations imposed upon public utilities, labour legislation imposed on unions

[see also 532.C.1.d.]

          c. Economic mobilization for war

     7. Land reform: the redistribution of land tenure


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the distribution of income and wealth

Economic Theory        Social Sciences, The

Government Finance   Social Welfare

International Trade     Taxation Land Reform and Tenure


M1CROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

government revenue    inheritance tax taxation           protectionism

and spending:  likin     toll       rationing

ad valorem tax            luxury tax        treasury bill     wealth and income..

aid       poll tax            unemployment            absentee

assessment       progressive tax            insurance         ownership

capital-gains tax          property tax     use tax allodium

capital levy      public debt      value-added tax          disposable income

death tax         regressive tax  war finance     ejido

depletion         relief    welfare state    enclosure

allowance        revenue bond  workers'           equal-field system

estate tax         sales tax           compensation  investment credit

excess-profits tax        single tax         regulation of    living, standard of

gift tax            social insurance           economic activity:       metayage

government budget     social security  antitrust law    profit

guaranteed      social welfare  fair-trade law  wealth

minimum income         program           laissez-faire     and income,

income tax       subsidy            land reform     distribution of

indexation       tariff    nationalization


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 535.         Macroeconomics


A. National income and employment theory

     1. The concern of income and employment theory with changes in aggregate output, employment, and prices

          a. The classical law of markets contrasted with the Keynesian theory of effective demand

          b. The classical and Keynesian theories of unemployment

     2. The circular flow of income and expenditure: national product as goods and as earnings

     3. Analyses of fluctuations in national income


B. International economic and financial equilibrium and disequilibrium

     1. Foreign exchange markets: problems of alternative monetary standards and fixed and fluctuating exchange rates

          a. Equilibrating movements in the balance of payments and the mechanisms of adjustment: arbitrage, short-term movements, interest rates, and forward exchange

          b. Disequilibrating movements as a response to currency devaluation: covering, hedging, and speculation

          c. Balance of payments accounting

          d. Methods for adjusting to fundamental disequilibrium: fiscal and monetary policy, incomes policy, devaluation and revaluation, and restrictions on capital movements

     2. International monetary and financial institutions: the International Monetary Fund, the Group of Ten, and other attempts at international cooperation

[see also 533.D.2.f.]

          a. Problems of maintaining adequate gold and currency reserves: gold crises, special drawing rights

          b. The aftermath of major wars: economic and financial crises, economic nationalism


C. Business cycles

     1. The statistical study of cycles: the identification and measurement of business cycles, various cyclical theories

     2. Theories of the business cycle and business cycle models

     3. Countercyclical monetary and fiscal policy


D. Inflation and deflation


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica: MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with macroeconomics

Economic Theory


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 536.         Economic Growth and Planning


A. The nature and causes of economic growth

     1. Various factors influencing economic growth; e.g., technology, markets, the supply of capital, the labour force, governmental fiscal policies

     2. The theory of economic growth and models of growth

          a. Various models of economic growth: supply-determined models, demand-determined models, and target-instrument models

          b. The practical functions of growth theory and mathematical growth models

     3. Social costs and benefits of economic growth

     4. Economic growth in developing countries

          a. The relationship between economic underdevelopment and low per capita income: the rate of increase of gross domestic product (GDP) as compared to population growth

          b. Various theories of national economic development and economic retardation

     5. Changes in economic efficiency as measured by changes in output per unit of input: economic productivity


B. Planning for economic growth and stability

     1. The nature of economic planning

     2. Economic planning in Communist countries

     3. Economic planning in developed non-Communist countries

     4. Economic planning in developing countries


Suggested reading in the EncyclopEdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with economic growth and planning

Economic Growth and Planning Economic Theory

Government Finance

International Trade

Social Sciences, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

economic         economic growth        Gosplan           international trade

development   economic planning      government budget     productivity


See Section 10/36 of Part Ten

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division IV.        Politics and Government


[For Part Five headnote see page 173.]


The outlines in the four sections of Division IV treat general theories of the state and of government; the structure, branches, and offices of government; the functioning of government; and international relations in peace and war.


Section 541. Political Theory

Section 542. Political Institutions: the Structure, Branches, and Offices of Government

Section 543. The Functioning of Government: the Dynamics of the Political Process

Section 544. International Relations: Peace and War


Section 541.         Political Theory


A. The national state as viewed in political theory

     1. Properties of statehood: sovereignty

     2. The state and the individual

     3. The national state in the international community

[see also 552.B.]

     4. Various conceptions of the bases of legitimacy and authority of government

          a. Continuing consent of the governed: popular sovereignty

          b. The social contract

          c. Venerable sanction: hereditary monarchy, constitutional succession

          d. Divine right: God as the source of political authority

     5. Theories of constitutionalism, modern constitutional governments

[see also 551.B.4.]

          a. Origins and theories of constitutional government

          b. Features of constitutional government

          c. Methods of constitutional growth: evolution and substantive replacement


B. Patterns of political action as viewed in political theory

     1. Political action within small groups, villages, or communities

     2. Political action by organized parties

     3. Political action by special-interest groups

     4. The political influence of public opinion


C. Political concepts, ideologies, and problems

     1. The concept of political power

     2. The concept of human rights

     3. Modern ideologies

          a. The importance of ideology to a political system or movement: the relationship between ideological and civil politics

          b. Current political ideologies and tendencies

            i. Anarchism

            ii. Communism

            iii. Conservatism

            iv. Fascism

            v. Liberalism

            vi. Marxism

            vii. Nationalism

            viii. Socialism

     4. Contemporary political issues and problems

          a. The problem of church and state: its background and contemporary form

          b. The urban problem: the administration of cities and metropolitan areas

[see also 524.B. and 542.A.1.c.]

          c. The problem of international cooperation and integration

[see also 544.A.]

          d. The issue of centralization of power versus decentralization

          e. The problem of adapting traditional political forms to changing conditions

          f. Bureaucracy: the issue of responsive government

[see 542.C.]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopiedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with political theory

Constitution and Constitutional Government

charters and     representation  individualism  political

documents:      self-determination       jingoism           organizations:

Constitution of the      social contract Leninism         commonwealth

United States of          sovereignty      liberalism         interest group

America           political ideologies:     Maoism           political machine

Kapital, Das    anarchism        Marxism          political party

Magna Carta   authoritarianism          National Socialism      popular front

Rights, Bill of Christian Socialism     nationalism      soviet

Rights of Man and      collectivism     nihilism            status of the

of the Citizen, communism     pluralism          individual:

Declaration of the       conservatism   radical alien

Universal         corporatism     revisionism      bourgeoisie

Declaration of democracy       social democracy         citizenship

Human Rights dialectical        socialism          freedman

concepts of      materialism      Stalinism         nationality

sovereignty.     Eurocommunism         Syndicalism     naturalization

church and state          fascism            totalitarianism proletariat

divine right of Fourierism       Trotskyism      refugee

kings    Guild Socialism           utopia 

established church       Ideologie                    

powers,            ideology                     

separation of                          


Bakunin, Mikhail        Herzen, Aleksandr      Mao Zedong   Tocqueville,

Aleksandrovich           Jefferson, Thomas       Marx, Karl       Alexis de

Bebel, August Kropotkin, Peter         Plekhanov, Georgy     Trotsky, Leon

Bentley, Arthur F.       Laski, Harold J.           Valentinovich  Webb, Sidney and

Bernstein, Eduard       Lasswell,         Proudhon,       Beatrice

Blanc, Louis    Harold D.        Pierre-Joseph   See also Section

Brecht, Arnold            Lenin, Vladimir           Rousseau,        10/36 of Part Ten

Burke, Edmund          Ilich     Jean-Jacques   

Engels, Friedrich         Lippman, Walter                    

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 542.         Political Institutions: the Structure, Branches, and Offices of Government


A. Political systems

     1. Levels and structures of various systems of government

          a. Supranational political systems: empires; leagues, confederations, and commonwealths; regional federations; world congresses

[see 544.A.]

          b. National political systems: the unitary nation-state system, the federal state system

          c. Urban governments

          d. Other subnational political systems: tribal community governments, rural community governments, regional community governments

[see also 521.A.]

     2. Types and models of political systems


B. The branches of government

     1. The concentration of legislative and executive functions: parliamentary rule

     2. The legislature

     3. The executive

     4. The judiciary

[see also 552.F.1.]


C. Public administration: the planning, organization, and coordination of governmental bureaucratic operations; civil service


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with political institutions: the structure, branches and offices of government

Cities   Political Systems        

Government, The Forms of:    Public Administration

Their Historical Development Social Sciences, The   

MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information


See Section 541

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 543.         The Functioning of Government: the Dynamics of the Political Process


A. The ways in which political power is exercised

     1. Internal and external security functions of government

     2. The conduct of foreign relations: the function of government in relation to other sovereign states, its own dependencies, and international organizations

[see 544]

     3. Supervisory functions of government: the resolution of conflicts through mediation and the adjudication of suits

[sec also 552.F.1. and 3.]

     4. Regulatory functions of government: the establishment and active enforcement of standards

     5. Law enforcement and the corrective functions of government: sanctions, inducements, and penalties

[see also 522.C.6. and D.2.i.]

     6. Enterprising functions of government

[see 355.D., 424.D., 522.D., 533.G.4., 534.B.4.c. and 6.b., 561, 724.A.2.a., and 732.1.]


B. Government's role in production and consumption


C. Methods of changing the form of government

     1. Peaceful changes: by electoral process (plebiscite), by constitutional mandate

     2. Violent changes: revolution, civil war, conquest by a foreign power


Suggested reading in the Encyclap.rdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the functioning of government: the dynamics of the political process

Censorship      Political Parties and Interest Groups

Crime and Punishment            Political Systems

Police  Social Sciences, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information


See Section 541

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above


Section 544.         International Relations: Peace and War


A. The politics of international relations

     1. Transnational political parties and movements, e.g., Pan-Africanism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Slavism, European federalism

     2. International and nonnational organizations and agencies, e.g., the United Nations, Red Cross and Red Crescent


B. International treaties and agreements

     1. Nonaggression treaties: collective security

     2. Treaties terminating wars

     3. Arms limitation and disarmament treaties

     4. Territorial treaties regarding the sale or transfer of land; treaties granting rights of access and other uses of territory; treaties settling border disputes

     5. Economic and commercial treaties

[see 533.F.3.]

     6. Communications and transportation treaties

     7. Cultural exchange treaties


C. Foreign policy and diplomacy

     1. Foreign policy: its aims and compatibility with national and humanitarian interests

     2. The use of diplomacy in the negotiation of international disputes; public international conferences, arbitration, and mediation; secret diplomacy

     3. Foreign aid; government-sponsored organizations that affect internal relations in nonpolitical spheres, e.g., economic, cultural, technological organizations


D. The use of intelligence and counterintelligence activities in the preservation of national security and the conduct of international affairs


E. War among states

     1. Degrees and kinds of war: limited war; total war; ethnic or tribal wars; religious wars; national, regional, and worldwide wars; civil wars and insurrections; guerrilla warfare

     2. The conduct of war

          a. Military strategy

          b. Military tactics

          c. Military logistics

          d. Effects of psychological warfare on troops and civilians during wartime

          e. International law relating to the treatment of persons during wartime

[see also 552.B.4.]

          f. The management of military expenditures

     3. Armed forces: military organizations designed for conquest or defense

          a. Types of soldiers: e.g., professional, volunteer, conscripted, and mercenary

          b. Historical development of organized military forces

          c. Establishment and maintenance of various branches of the armed forces

            i. Ground forces

            ii. Naval and amphibious forces

            iii. Air forces

            iv. Various auxiliary branches: e.g., police, intelligence, logistics, communications, medical, and legal corps

     4. The consequences of war


Suggested reading in the Encyclopeedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with international relations: peace and war


Biographies     Dulles, John    Khrushchev,    Stevenson,

            Foster  Nikita S.          Adlai E.

diplomats and                        


Adenauer, Konrad      Eisenhower,    Kissinger,        Sun Yat-sen

Ben-Gurion, David     Dwight D.       Henry A.         Thant, U

Bismarck,        Gandhi, Mohandas     Lie, Trygve      Weizmann, Chaim

Otto von          Karamchand    Marshall,         Wilson, Woodrow

Bunche, Ralph            Gaulle, Charles de       George C.        intelligence agents

Chamberlain,   Gladstone,       Metternich,      and officers:

Neville William Ewart Klemens,         Baker, Lafayette

Chou En-lai     Goebbels, Joseph        Furst von         Curry

Churchill, Winston      Gromyko, Andrey       Mussolini, Benito        Bancroft, Edward

Clemenceau,    Andreyevich   Nasser. Gamal Boyd, Belle

Georges           Hammarskjold,            Abdel  Burgess, Guy; and

Curzon, George           Dag     Nehru, Jawaharlal       Maclean, Donald

Nathaniel         Hitler, Adolf   Roosevelt,       Donovan.

Curzon,           Ho Chi Minh   Franklin D.      William J.

Marquess         Kennedy, John F.        Stalin, Joseph  Hiss, Alger

Disraeli, Benjamin                               Mata Hari

208      Part Five. Human Society                              

Redl, Alfred    militan, theorists:         Mahan, Alfred            Scharnhorst,

Schulmeister, Karl       Clausewitz,     Thayer Gerhard Johann

Van Deman,    Carl von          Montalembert, David von

Ralph H.          Douhet, Giulio            Marc-Rene,     Sun Tzu

Winterbotham,            Jomini, Henri,  Marquis de      Vauban, Sebastien

Frederick William       baron de          Montecuccoli, Le Prestre de

Yardley, Herbert         Liddell Hart, Sir          Raimondo      

Osborne           Basil               

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division V.         Law

[For Part Five headnote sec page 173.]

The outlines in the three sections of Division V treat philosophies and systems of law, and the practice of law; the branches of public law; and the branches of private law.


Section 551. Philosophies and Systems of Law; the Practice of Law

Section 552. Branches of Public Law, Substantive and Procedural

Section 553. Branches of Private Law, Substantive and Procedural


Section 551.         Philosophies and Systems of Law; the Practice of Law


A. Western and non-Western philosophies of law

     1. Western philosophy of law

          a. The scope of the Western philosophy of law and its relationship to other branches of philosophy

          b. Problems of the philosophy of law, various approaches to a theory of law or jurisprudence

          c. The relationship between law and morality: the influence of the principles of natural law

          d. Historical survey of legal theories from the ancient world to the 20th century

     2. Non-Western philosophies of law: Islamic, Chinese, and other non-Western philosophies of law


B. Ancient and modern legal systems

     1. Primitive law: the legal systems of nonliterate peoples

     2. Ancient systems of law

          a. Egyptian law

          b. Cuneiform law

          c. Chinese law

          d. Greek law

          e. Hellenistic law

          f. Roman law

          g. Germanic law

     3. Medieval European law

          a. Origins and development of medieval European law

          b. Sources and institutions of medieval constitutional law

          c. Institutions of private law in medieval Europe

          d. Development of canon law

     4. Modern systems of law

          a. Anglo-American common law

          b. Continental civil law

          c. Soviet and socialist law


C. The study of the distinctions and parallels among diverse legal systems


D. The profession and practice of law

     1. The profession of law

     2. Legal ethics

     3. Educational requirements for the legal profession


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the philosophies and systems of law; the practice of law

Law, The Profession and Practice of

Legal Systems, The Evolution of Modern Western


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

ancient legal codes,     ecclesiastical court      Chambre des   sergeanty

principles and  excommunication        Enquets           socage

institutions-     False Decretals            Chambre des   tallage

aedile   Gratian's          Requets           usury

archon Decretum        Clarendon,      wardship and

Basilica            Hadith Assize of         marriage

censor  Halakha           court baron      wergild

civitas  Mishna            court leet         modern legal codes

clientship         penitential book          curia    and systems:

comitia            Sharrah            fehmic court    adat

concubinage    Talmud            High Commission,      Chinese law

cuneiform law Torah   Court of          German Civil

decemviri        legal practitioners:       High Court of Code

delator advocate          Admirality       Indian law

delict   assessor           law merchant   Israeli law

dharmashastra attorney general          legal glossator Japanese Civil

dicastery          barrister           manorial court Code

Egyptian law   lawyer Parlement        Japanese law

emphyteusis and         notary  piepoudre court           Napoleonic Code

superficies       solicitor           prerogative court         Prussian Civil

Greek law        medieval European     Privy Council  Code

Hammurabi,    law—codes and          Reichskammergericht  Roman-

Code of           systems:           Requests, Court of      Dutch law

hypothec         Anglo-Saxon law        Star Chamber, Scottish law

interdict           Brehon law      Court of          Soviet law

jus gentium      capitulary        medieval European     Swiss Civil Code

jus Latii           Germanic law  law—principles:          other:

Justinian, Code of       Jerusalem,        blood money   assize

manus  Assizes of        clergy, benefit of         bar association

nomos  Sachsenspiegel            composition     civil law

Pandects          Salic Law        compurgation  common law

patria potestas Salic Law of    copyhold         custom

proscription     Succession       demesne          disbarment

Roman law      Scandinavian law        entail   duel

talion   Welsh law       feudal land tenure       equity

Twelve Tables,            Westminster,   feudalism        feud

Law of the      Statutes of       fief      law

ecclesiastical law:        medieval European     frankpledge     law code

canon law        law—institutions         freehold           movable and

Codex Juris     and officers:    heriot   immovable

Canonici          audiencia         homage and fealty      natural law

Corpus Juris    Augmentations,           liege     sumptuary law

Canonici          Court of          peine forte et dure      

decretal           Chambre des   right, petition of         

dispensation    Comptes          seisin  



Austin, John    Cockburn, Sir  Hand, Learned            Pufendorf, Samuel,

Blackstone, Sir            Alexander James         Harlan, John    Freiherr von

William            Edmund          Marshall          Savigny, Friedrich

Brandeis, Louis           Coke, Sir Edward       Holmes, Oliver            Karl von

Brennan, William        Darrow, Clarence        Wendell, Jr.     Solon

J., Jr.    Draco  Jackson, Robert H.      Stone, Harlan

Brougham and            Erskine, Thomas          Johnson, William         Fiske

Vaux, Henry   Erskine, 1st     Mansfield, William     Story, Joseph

Peter Brougham,         Baron  Murray, 1st      Taney, Roger

1st Baron         Field, Stephen Earl of Brooke

Burger, Warren E.       J(ohnson)         Marshall, John Waite, Morrison

Cardozo, Benjamin     Fortas, Abe     Matthews, Stanley      Remick

Nathan            Frankfurter, Felix        Miller, Samuel Warren, Earl

            Grotius, Hugo Freeman          White, Edward

            Hale, Sir Matthew                   Douglass

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 552.         Branches of Public Law, Substantive and Procedural


A. Laws defining and implementing the authority and power of the state

     1. Basic laws governing the organization and functions of the state: constitutional law

     2. Laws governing public administration: regulation of the organization, powers, duties, and functions of public administrative authorities


B. Laws governing relations among sovereign states

     1. Sources and concepts of international law

     2. The attempt to create a supranational legislative and executive authority: the United Nations

     3. The attempt to create a supranational judicial authority

     4. The attempt to impose rules of warfare

     5. The attempt to limit and punish war crimes and crimes against peace and humanity

     6. The attempt to preserve the peaceful uses and exploration of outer space


C. Laws governing acts viewed as crimes

     1. Principles and doctrines of criminal law: comparisons between common law and civil law systems

[see also 543.A.5.]

     2. Laws governing offenses committed by military forces and other persons subject to military discipline


D. Laws promoting the public welfare

     1. Laws providing for general social security and welfare

     2. Laws promoting public health and safety

     3. Laws regulating the health, safety, and welfare of workers


E. Laws governing taxation

[see also 534.B.2. and 31


F. Laws of judicial procedure

     1. The organization and administration of the legal system: the courts and the judiciary

     2. Methods and procedures of the law

          a. Criminal procedure

          b. Civil procedure

[see 553.E.]

          c. Administrative procedure

     3. Methods of adjudicating litigious disputes: the jury system, systems of arbitration


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with branches of public law, substantive and procedural

Constitutional Law

Criminal Law

International Law

Judicial and Arbitrational Systems Procedural Law

Public Administration


United Nations

War, The Theory and Conduct of


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

constitutional law: advisory opinion attainder

commerce clause constitution

due process

equal protection ex post facto law interstate


judicial review police power powers,

delegation of privacy, rights of standing to sue states' rights

courts, court officials, and juries:

amicus curiae Appeal, Court of assigned counsel attorney general bailiff

Chancery, Court of Common Pleas, Court of


Conseil d'Etat Cour de Cassation court

court-martial Crown Court family court Federal Constitutional Court

grand jury

High Court of Justice

juge d'instruction jury

justice of the peace juvenile court lord chancellor lord chief justice lord high steward lord steward magistrates' court ministêre public

petit jury prosecutor

public defender Queen's Bench, Court of rapporteur

Supreme Court of Japan

Supreme Court of the United States Tax Court

United States Claims Court United States Court of Appeals United States Court of Military Appeals

United States District Court

criminal law: accomplice


assault and battery bribery

child abuse confidence game conspiracy contempt counterfeiting crime, dêlit, and contravention criminal law delinquency diminished responsibility disorderly conduct disturbing the peace

embezzlement entrapment extortion

felony and misdemeanour forgery





insanitykidnapping lynching


mens rea mutiny

obscenity pardon


poaching rape



seduction self-defense smuggling solicitation theft


unlawful assembly usury


criminal procedure: accused, rights of acquittal arraignment arrest


clergy, benefit of commutation confession double jeopardy exclusionary rule extenuating circumstances extradition habeas corpus impeachment indictment inquest

interrogation outlawry preventive detention probation recognizance search and seizure self-incrimination sentence

warrantgeneral procedural law:

adversary procedure appeal



certiorari circumstantial evidence competence and jurisdiction complaint demurrer domicile equity

evidence examination interlocutory


judgment law report legal fiction legal maxim limitations, statute of mistrial

nolle prosequi pleading privileged communication procedural law stare decisis summary jurisdiction


international law: aggression air law

armistice asylum

Berne Convention Calvo Doctrine continuous voyage contraband genocide

Hague Convention high seas

international law laws, conflict of mutiny

neutrality         sequestration   war, law of      legislative

Nurnberg trials            space law         war crime        investigative

piracy  territorial waters          other.   powers

prisoner of war            Universal         administrative law       military law

prize court       Copyright                    United Nations

safe-conduct   Convention                


See Section 551                                 

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 553.         Branches of Private Law, Substantive and Procedural


A. Law of property

     1. Historical development of property rights

     2. Methods of acquiring property rights

     3. Types of property rights classified by types of ownership

     4. Laws concerning tangible property: the distinctions between real and personal property

     5. Laws protecting intangible or incorporeal property rights

          a. Easements and servitudes: profits and mineral rights

          b. Rights to the exclusive exploitation of literary, dramatic, musical, and other artistic works

          c. Rights to the exclusive exploitation of inventions and other discoveries of useful processes and materials

          d. Rights to the exclusive exploitation of symbols and other devices used to identify the origin or ownership of business products

     6. Laws concerning the temporal division of property rights

          a. Common law land ownership: freehold and leasehold estates

          b. Civil law land ownership: dominium (absolute ownership) and usufruct (life estate)

     7. Laws concerning trusts: ownership for the benefit of others

          a. The elements of a trust: settlor, trust property, trustee, beneficiary, trust instrument

          b. Types of trusts: express, implied, constructive, statutory, and public and private trusts

          c. Trusts established for the benefit of families, social and philanthropic organizations, and business corporations

          d. The status of the trust in civil law systems: a comparison of the trust and the fidei cornmissum

     8. Law of mortgages

     9. Laws concerning bankruptcy


B. Family law

     1. Laws governing the institution of the family and the relationships among its members

[see also 513A.2.]

          a. Laws concerning the marriage contract: civil effects of marriage, the legal status of married women

          b. Laws concerning children: legitimacy, adoption, and guardianship; parental obligations and rights

          c. Laws concerning the termination of marriage: divorce and other forms of marital dissolution

     2. Laws concerning the devolution of property by means of inheritance


C. Law of torts

     1. The doctrine of strict liability as compared with negligence liability: recent changes in tort liability burden

     2. Intentional personal injuries: battery and assault, false imprisonment, mental anguish

     3. Intentional injuries to property: trespass to land and chattels, nuisance, unlawful appropriation and conversion of property

     4. Injuries resulting from negligent acts

          a. Injuries resulting from failure to comply with required standards of care: the proximate cause doctrine, effects of contributory negligence and third-party intervention

          b. The employer's liability and the master–servant relationship

          c. The manufacturer's liability to the consumer

     5. Injuries to personality and personal relationships: physical, mental, and economic injuries

          a. Defamation: libel and slander, other invasions of privacy and interference with familial relationships

          b. Interference with economic relationships: deceptive practices, unfair competition, infringement


D. Laws governing economic transactions

     1. Law of contracts

     2. Law of commercial transactions

          a. Principal elements of commercial law: commercial transactions as contracts

            i. Sales of goods and requirements for delivery

            ii. Transfer of negotiable instruments; e.g., promissory notes, checks, drafts or bills of exchange

            iii. Issuance of documents of title; e.g., bills of lading, warehouse receipts

            iv. Issuance of letters of credit

            v. The use of security interests (liens and pledges) as collateral for loans of money

          b. Laws governing the relationship between agent and principal in the transaction of commercial and other legal affairs

     3. Law of business associations

          a. Principal forms of business associations

            i. Partnerships

            ii. Corporate companies or corporations

            iii. Cooperative and mutual organizations

            iv. State and municipal corporations, quasi-public enterprises and utilities

[see also 533.G.4. and 534.B.6.b.]

          b. Laws governing the management and control of business entities

          c. The structure of corporate finance

            i. Common and preferred shares of stock: rights and interests of owners of equity capital

            ii. Borrowed capital: rights acquired by holders of bonds and debentures

            iii. Reinvestment of company earnings

          d. Trends in laws governing mergers and consolidations: employee participation

[see also 533.H.2.c.]

          e. Laws governing the liquidation of insolvent business and nonbusiness estates: the law of bankruptcy

     4. Labour law

     5. Laws governing commercial transportation

          a. Laws regulating the carriage of goods

          b. Maritime law

          c. Air law


E. Civil procedural law

     1. Elements of civil procedure

          a. National or territorial jurisdiction and venue of courts: the competence of a court to handle a case

          b. Jurisdiction or venue in private international law: the source and nature of the conflict of laws, foreign judgments and choice of law

          c. Definitions and limitations of parties to a suit: class actions and amicus curiae

          d. Provisional remedies sought prior to trial; e.g., writs of attachment, injunctions, and other restraining orders

          e. The commencement of civil action: summons, pleadings, appearance, pretrial motions, discovery procedures, and pretrial conference

     2. The conduct of civil trials: the law of evidence

     3. The rendering of judgment in civil cases: assessment of damages, res judicata, collateral estoppel

     4. Post-trial appeals and other methods of review


Suggested reading in the EncycloArdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with branches of private law, substantive and procedural

Business Law  Property Law 

Family Law     Torts   

Inheritance and Succession     Transportation Law    

Procedural Law


See Section 551

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division VI.        Education

[For Part Five headnote see page 173.]


The outlines in the two sections of Division VI treat the subjects of education and the world's educational systems.


Section 561. The Aims and Organization of Education

Section 562. Education Around the World


Section 561.         The Aims and Organization of Education


A. Philosophies of education

[see also 435.A.]


B. The learning process and the teaching art

     1. Processes of learning and thinking: experimental findings and theories

[see 435]

     2. Pedagogy: the art and science of teaching

          a. Components of the teaching situation

          b. General theories concerning the role of the teacher in the learning process

          c. The organization of instruction: contemporary practices and techniques

          d. Instructional media: speaking-listening facilities, visual and observational aids, computer-based instruction


C. The organization of education

     1. Phases or levels of education

          a. Preschool education

          b. Elementary and secondary education

          c. Higher education: colleges, universities, and professional schools

          d. Special education: education of exceptional children

          e. Education of the adult population

          f. Vocational training: apprenticeship and employee training

     2. The preparation and performance of teachers

          a. The education of teachers

          b. The teaching profession

     3. The economics of education

     4. Social aspects of education


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the aims and organization of education

Philosophies of the Branches of Knowledge Teaching


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                      eleven-plus      Hauptschule

adult education:          elementary and            graded school  high school

adult education           secondary education: grammar school

chautauqua      comprehensive            Grundschule

movement       school  Gymnasium

folk high school          elementary      

lyceum movement       education       

lycee    madrasah         computer-assisted       retraining program

preparatory school       military, naval, and     instruction       vocational

public school   air academies   correspondence           education

realschule        nation  education        other:

secondary        normal school  Dalton Plan     academic freedom

education        Rhodes scholarship     Initial Teaching           educational

technical education     university        Alphabet         psychology

Vorschule        university extension    monitorial system        physical education

higher education:        preschool education:   programmed    special education

college children's house           learning           student aid

degree day nursery     progressive      summer camp

fraternity and  kindergarten    education       

sorority            maternal school           Quincy Plan   

Fulbright         preschool education    teaching          

scholarship      teaching methods and teaching machine       

higher education         theories:           vocational education: 

junior college   audiovisual      apprenticeship

land-grant college       education        employee training       


See Section 562

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 562.         Education Around the World


A. Systems of education

     1. The formation of educational policy

     2. Administrative functions and procedures

     3. Types of educational systems and their characteristics

          a. Centralized systems: systems in which control is exercised through a national administrative agency

          b. Decentralized systems: systems in which control is exercised at the regional or local level

          c. Joint national and local systems

          d. Systems controlled by political parties

          e. Sectarian systems: national and regional sectarian systems, sectarian education as an alternative system to public education


B. History of education: philosophies, practices, and institutions

     1. Education in ancient cultures

          a. Ancient Indian education

          b. Ancient Chinese education

          c. Ancient Hebrew education

          d. Ancient Greek education

          e. Ancient Roman education

     2. Education in the Persian, Byzantine, early Russian, and Islamic civilizations

          a. Ancient Persian education: influences of Zoroastrian and Sasänid cultures

          b. Byzantine education: influences of Greek Christian and humanistic culture; development of primary, secondary, and higher educational institutions

          c. Kiev and Muscovy: Russian education to the period of the early Romanovs

          d. Islamic education

     3. Education in the European Middle Ages

          a. Christian education to the 8th century: early schools; development of monastic schools in England, Ireland, Italy, and Spain

          b. The cultural revival under Charlemagne and his successors

          c. The 12th-century renaissance: reform of monastic schools and the rise of secular urban schools, development of universities and grammar schools, courtly education

     4. Education in Asian civilizations from c. 700 to the eve of Western influence

          a. Indian education from c. 700 to 1707

          b. Chinese education from 618 to 1911

          c. Japanese education from ancient times to 1867

     5. European education during the Renaissance and Reformation

          a. Development of Renaissance education: Arabic and secular influences on humanism

          b. The humanistic tradition in Italy

          c. The humanistic tradition in northern and western Europe

          d. Education during the Reformation and Counter-Reformation

     6. European education in the 17th and 18th centuries

          a. The social and historical setting

          b. Educational theories and practices

          c. European influences in New World educational development

     7. Western education in the 19th century

          a. The social and historical setting: nationalism, industrialism, urbanization, political revolution and reform

          b. The early reform movements: the new pedagogy and psychology

          c. Development of national systems of education

          d. Spread of Western educational practices to Asian countries

     8. Education in the 20th century

          a. Political, social, economic, and intellectual trends

          b. Traditional and experimental educational movements in the West

          c. The modernization of education in Asia and Africa

          d. Education in colonies and newly emerging nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America C. International educational activities


Suggested reading in the Encyclopadia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with education around the world

Education, History of



Adler, Mortimer J.      Cygnaeus, Uno           Hutchins,         Richards, Ellen

Alcuin Dewey, John   Robert M.        Swallow

Ascham, Roger           Eaton, John     Lancaster, Joseph        Sadler, Sir Michael

Bagley, William          Froebel, Friedrich        Mann, Horace Ernest

Chandler         Griswold, Alfred        Melanchthon,  Stowe, Calvin E.

Basedow, Johann        Whitney          Philipp Vittorino da Feltre

Bernhard         Herbart, Johann           Montessori, Maria       Vives, Juan Luis

Comenius, John           Friedrich          Pestalozzi, Johann      

Amos   Hopkins, Johns            Heinrich         

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above