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  1. 1 Part Eight. Religion
    1. 1.1 Division I. Religion in General
      1. 1.1.1 Section 811.         Knowledge and Understanding of Religion
        1. A. The philosophy of religion: diverse views of the nature and characteristics of religion
        2. B. Religious experience: its nature, elements, and varieties
        3. C. Religious phenomenology: the basic patterns of religious thought, action, and association
        4. D. Theology as an attempt to understand and state the rationale of religious belief
        5. E. The study and classification of religions
        6. F. Other systems of belief
        7. G. Religion in relation to other aspects of human experience
      2. 1.1.2 Section 812.         The Religious Life: Institutions and Practices
        1. A. Religious rites and customs
        2. B. Religious leaders and institutions
        3. C. Material manifestations of religious beliefs
    2. 1.2 Division II.          The Particular Religions
      1. 1.2.1 Section 821.         Prehistoric Religion and Primitive Religion
        1. A. Prehistoric religion
        2. B. Primitive religion
      2. 1.2.2 Section 822.         Religions of Ancient Peoples
        1. A. Religions of the ancient Near Eastern peoples
        2. B. Religions of the Iranian peoples
        3. C. Greek religion
        4. D. Roman religion
        5. E. Religions of the Hellenistic world
        6. F. Religions of the early peoples of eastern and central Europe
        7. G. Religions of the ancient Celtic and Germanic peoples
        8. H. Religions of the early peoples of northeastern Europe
        9. I. Religions of pre-Columbian American civilizations
      3. 1.2.3 Section 823.         Hinduism and Other Religions of India
        1. A. History of Hinduism
        2. B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Hinduism
        3. C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Hinduism
        4. D. Other religions of India
      4. 1.2.4 Section 824.         Buddhism
        1. A. History of Buddhism
        2. B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Buddhism
        3. C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Buddhism
      5. 1.2.5 Section 825.         Indigenous Religions of East Asia: Religions of China, Korea, and Japan
        1. A. Characteristics and development of Chinese religion
        2. B. Confucianism
        3. C. Taoism
        4. D. The religions of Korea
        5. E. The religions of Japan
      6. 1.2.6 Section 826.         Judaism
        1. A. History of Judaism
        2. B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Judaism
        3. C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Judaism
      7. 1.2.7 Section 827.         Christianity
        1. A. History of Christianity before the schism of 1054
        2. B. History of Eastern Orthodoxy from the schism of 1054 to the present
        3. C. History of the Roman Catholic Church from the schism of 1054 to the present
        4. D. History of Protestantism
        5. E. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Christianity
        6. F. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Christianity
        7. G. The major traditional forms of Christianity
        8. H. Sects and movements tangentially related to traditional Christianity
        9. I. Ecumenical, interdenominational, and intradenominational associations
      8. 1.2.8 Section 828.         Islam
        1. A. History of Islam
        2. B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Islam
        3. C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Islam
      9. 1.2.9 Section 829.         Other Religions and Religious Movements in the Modern World
        1. A. New religious movements reflecting the impact of dominant cultures and religions
        2. B. Negro cults in Western cultures
        3. C. Theosophical groups
        4. D. Spiritualist groups
        5. E. Religions and religious movements of Islamic origin or influenced by Islam
        6. F. Residues or revivals of ancient and primitive religious beliefs and practices in modern civilizations

Introduction to Part Eight:


Religion as Symbolism

by Wilfred Cantwell Smith


There is more to human life than meets the eye. More to oneself; more to one's neighbour; more to the world that surrounds us. There is more to the past out of which we come; and especially, it would seem, more to the present moment, maybe even infinitely more. There is more to the interrelationships that bind us together as persons. And the further we probe, we have always found, the deeper the mystery, or the reward, or the involvement. It is this "more," perhaps, that provides at least one of the bases for human religion. We have seldom been content to be "superficial," to remain on the surface, to imagine that reality does not transcend our finite grasp; and throughout most of our history on this planet we have ordered our lives, both personal and cultural, in terms of that transcendence.

Yet how is one to point to what one does not visually see? How to resort to a milieu beyond all space? How to talk or to think about what transcends not only words but the reach of the mind? How even to feel about what one does not touch? Man's inherent and characteristic capacity to do these things finds expression through his special relation to symbols. These have proven over the centuries sometimes more, sometimes less, adequate to such a task, but in any case indispensable, and ubiquitous. Such symbols, it turns out, have the power not merely to express man's otherwise inchoate awareness of the richness of what lies under the surface, but also to nurture and to communicate and to elicit it. They have an activating as well as a representational quality, and an ability to organize the emotions and the unconscious as well as the conscious mind, so that into them we may pour the deepest range of our humanity and from them derive an enhancement of the personality. Without the use of symbols, including religious symbols, man would be radically less than human.

Quite diverse types of things have served the purpose: a beaver, the sky, a ceremonial procedure, silence; erotic love, or austere asceticism; the Qur'an; a historical figure; reason. The variety has been immense, different groups having chosen different things to serve them as symbols, not all equally successful. Virtually universal, however, is that peoples have found it possible to designate some item from within the visible world and to sacralize it in such a way that it becomes then for them the symbol or locus of the invisible, the transcendent. In Japan, a simple open gateway (torii) marks off the shrine precincts: one passes through it, leaving behind psychologically, symbolically, the humdrum ordinary world to enter the sacred space of the temple; and after worship, one again moves through the gate in the other direction, to reenter now the realm of everyday life, but as a renewed person. Virtually all peoples have set aside some portion of what outsiders would regard as ordinary terrain to serve for them as sacred space, erecting in it temple, church, or shrine whereby is thenrepresented for them, often with great force, quite another dimension of reality.

Similarly with time: the Jew, for instance, sets apart one day in seven, whereby the other six days symbolize the mundane world with its bitter imperfections, perhaps its devastating pain, and at best its transient successes, while the Sabbath creatively represents the inviolate splendour of transcendence—with which therefore the other six days, however bleak, cannot keep him out of touch. Every people has its festivals, weekly or seasonal or occasional, its sacred times when life in its empirical and work-a-day aspects is transcended and life in its timeless dimension is reaffirmed, reactivated: moments when truth, significance, worth are recognized and cultivated—and carried back then into the ordinary world.

We are somehow aware, if only through imaginative vision or sensibility or our special capacity for hope, not only of what is but also of what ought to be. We have sensed that the status quo (nowadays, the fluxus quo) is not the final truth about man or the world. We have felt, to take one example, that social justice and concord, personal righteousness, health, joy stand over against the current observable condition of strife, loneliness, wickedness, poverty, and sorrow not as fancy against truth, wishful and irrational dreaming against reality, but in some fashion vice versa—as a norm by which the present imperfect world is judged, in some sense a truth in relation to which empirical actuality is in some sense an error. This too has been affirmed symbolically. One rather common way of doing so has been by representing a more perfect world elsewhere. Some have located their utopias chronologically in the past ("Once upon a time"; or Golden Age theories, as in Greece and India); or in the future (millennialisms, a coming just ruler, secular ideas of progress, a life after death); or geographically, somewhere else (the medieval Irish "Isle of the Blessed" in the then inaccessible Western Sea); or high above the sky (heaven, the heaven of heavens); or in a domain beyond time (Paradise); or in another realm than this universe (a metaphysical order, idealist realities).

However it be symbolized and articulated, a moral dimension to human life has been perceived and affirmed. Man has been aware not only of the profitable and the disadvantageous but also of the better and the worse, and has been inspired by some power to pursue the better; he has known that some actions are right, some wrong, and that it matters. At most times and most places, morality has been an integral part of the religious complex (although situations have on occasion arisen when the two have become historically dislocated—when a given form of religion has seemed not good; or to put it another way, when man's sense of what is worthwhile, and the inherited symbols by which worth used to be formulated, have no longer converged).

If the panorama of man's religious life is, in its outward form, selected mundane data symbolizing the more than mundane, then the task of the student of religion is to know those data but to consider them not in themselves but in their role in our lives. Our concern is not primarily the doctrines and scriptures and prayers and rites and institutions; but rather, what these do to us. Not the tribal dance, so much as what happens to the African dancing; not the caste system, so much as what kind of person the Hindu becomes within it, or without it; not the events at Sinai, so much as what role the recounting of these events has played in both Jewish and Christian life over the centuries since; not the Qur'an, so much as what the Qur'an means to a Muslim.

In illustration, let us consider as an example a statue of the Buddha, and take note specifically of one small part of it, the pose of the right hand. Among several such stylized poses used throughout the Buddhist world, we may choose just one, the abhaya mudra ("fearlessness pose"), in which the right arm is somewhat raised, that hand held straight up, palm facing out. Over and above the more universal significance of such a gesture (power, authority, benediction), in the Buddhist case this represents also an incident from the life of the Buddha, in which reputedly a wild elephant charging him and his group was stopped in its tracks when the Teacher raised his hand so, and became tame. The gesture gives artistic expression, then, to the Buddha's fearlessness in the face of the threat, and also to his conferring of fearlessness, and of grounds for fearlessness, on his disciples: his serene triumph over danger.

To say that this particular feature of sculpture symbolizes for Buddhists the overcoming of fear is to indicate not merely that it depicts an event in someone else's life, but also that it effects a change in one's own—since, to repeat, symbols not only represent but activate. The animal in its fury in the remembered anecdote may itself be taken as symbolic, representative of the pressures and assaults of life, which faith in the Buddha gives one the inner resources to withstand: the passions, for instance, to which such faith bestows on one the power quietly to say "no." To understand this particular item in the religious life of Buddhists, accordingly, is to know the history of how a Japanese emperor or a Thai merchant or a Chinese peasant through contemplating it in some nearby temple has had his life transformed, his fear removed, his personality healed. A parallel may be observed of the role in the lives of Christians, over the centuries, of the story of Christ's stilling of the tempest. His words, "Peace, be still!" read in the Lesson, and the portrayal of the scene in stained-glass windows, have served to symbolize, for people of faith, on the one hand Christ's power over the elements in his own life, and on the other hand the power that their faith in Him has in their lives, they have then found, to confer peace, to quell storms.

A special sort of symbolization, developed characteristically in, for instance, the Western world but by no means only there, has been the conceptual. A few recent philosophers have itched to legislate that concepts must be used to refer only to the sensible or phenomenal world; that it is illegitimate to use them symbolically to refer to a transcendent order. It would be manifestly stultifying to apply so austere a restriction to art or to most other humanpursuits, apart from the natural sciences (from which these persons have learned it). Such an orientation has seemed to work rather well with the "objective" world—better, with the objective facets of the world (at least, until one raises moral questions about atomic bombs or ecology); but it appears stubbornly to misunderstand life in its distinctively human form.

One of the most powerful symbols in human history has, without question, been the concept "God." This concept, like other religious and other human symbols, has demonstrably meant different things to different persons and groups and ages; yet it is hardly too drastic an oversimplification to suggest that the concept has on the whole at least subsumed, integrated, deepened, and made operationally effective in the lives of many hundreds of millions of persons and in the life and social cohesion of many thousands of communities their awareness and their potential awareness of the entire range of transcendence with which they are surrounded or endued—of grandeur, order, meaning, aspiration, awe, hope, virtue, responsibility, rapport, integrity, worth, renewal. The highest, deepest, most comprehensive that they were capable of attaining, individually and socially, was organized, focused, and nurtured in and through this concept. (Given the distinction, observed by all believing theorists, between God and people's ideas of God, such theorists may themselves make this same point by saying that God has used the idea of God to enter people's lives; that the concept has served as a sacrament. More recent developments, with the concept "God" no longer serving so effectively, as a symbol, for many, will be touched on below.)

Although correlative conceptualizations are virtually worldwide and history-long, this particular concept was developed in its most powerful and characteristic form in the Near East and has permeated, at times dominated, the civilizations that have emerged from there to cover almost half the planet, especially the Islamic and the Judeo-Christian. The Indian counterpart has been in many respects closely similar: in many, subtly different. China and Japan, although also employing symbolic concepts richly, have tended toward other religious and cultural patterns than this particular one.

Even so major a symbol, however, as the concept "God," however all-embracing it may seem, is in the end significant not in isolation but within a whole system of ideas, practices, values, and the like, forming a pattern of which it is no doubt the keystone but not the totality. Certainly minor symbols like the pose of the right hand in a piece of sculpture or medium ones like the ceremonial holiness of the Sabbath, however significant they have been in the lives of many millions of persons, derive their meaning and their power from each being one item within a large pattern of symbolic structures, such as the Buddhist complex or the Christian.

And even these great complexes, each of which has an elaborate and ever-changing history, constitute systems to be understood not in themselves, as structures to be looked at, but rather in terms of the ambience that they make available for men and women to live within. "In order to understand Buddhists, one must look not at something called Buddhism, but at the universe, so far as possible through Buddhist eyes." It is not the symbols themselves that one must grasp, so much as the orientation that they induce: how the whole complex of symbols enables those who live in terms of it to see a sunset, a broken marriage, prosperity, the onset of cancer, one's election to public office.

The religious history of the Hindu community is a history, in part, of traditional ceremonial and ideological and sociological patterns. Yet in more significant part it is a history, however difficult this may be to discern, of fortitude and of quiet humaneness, of a conviction that life is worth living and death worth dying, that goals are worth striving for, that the immediate is caught up in the eternal. The Buddhist metaphors have served to kindle in the mind and heart of the Buddhist the perhaps unconscious awareness that one's own fortune is not a reason for gloating, or one's neighbour's fortune, for envy; that knowledge is more important than wealth, and wisdom than knowledge; that the world is to he appreciated and not merely exploited; that one's fellow is to be treated as an end, not merely as a means; that sorrow is not a reason for despair. Islamic law, theology, architecture, and the rest have been symbols that at their best have crystallized and nurtured, for Muslims, the courage and serenity, the sense of order and the aspiration to justice, the forbearance, the humility, the participation in community, that the Islamic system traditionally inspired. Christian symbols have given both form and actuality, among Christians, to many things, including for instance the ability of human suffering to become redemptive.

Of course, religious symbols and sets of symbols have been used also for mean and destructive purposes. Man's wickedness, and not only his capacity for virtue, has been expressed and even encouraged by his symbol systems, at times. Through them he has found his freedom, his transcendence of the immediately given, his ability to move beyond being merely an organism reacting to its environment; but sometimes he has used these destructively, or has become a victim of their inherent ambiguities. Nothing has turned a society into a community so effectively as religious faith: to share common symbols is about the most powerful of social cohesions. And yet few gulfs have been greater than those that separate differing religious communities, few hostilities so fierce as those between groups whose symbols differ.

Religious symbols do not raise man above the human level; only to it.

A final word about history. The history of religion has at times been mistaken for the history of its symbols; but this is superficial. The same symbols have discernibly changed their meanings over time, and indeed from person to person, and even within one person's life; also,persisting or widespread orientations and perceptions have been expressed in strikingly different symbolizations. The true history of religion is more deeply personalist—not in the sense of individualist: the personal is also the social, and especially so in the religious realm. The true history of religion, not yet written, is the history of the depth or shallowness, richness or poverty, genuineness or insincerity, splendid wisdom or inane folly, with which men and women and their societies have responded to such symbols as were around them. It is also, however, the tale, and to some degree this can be told, of when and in what fashion they have forged new symbols, or neglected or found themselves unable to respond to old. And nowadays it is also the story of how they deal or fail to deal with a plurality of symbolisms.

One's faith is in some sense the meaning that religious symbols have for one; but more profoundly, it is the meaning that life has, and that the universe has, in the light of those symbols. For religious symbols do not "have" meanings of their own; they crystallize in various ways the meaning of the world, of human life. There is a history of their varying ability to do this, at various times and places (or of people's varying ability to have them do it). How new symbols or patterns of symbols emerge is too complex or controversial a question to be summarized here: but how they develop once launched, how they are reinterpreted (sometimes radically) over the centuries, how their success in pointing beyond themselves often gives way to a rigidity and narrowness in which they or their institutions are prized or defended simply in themselves; how iconoclastic movements arise, to shatter the symbols (literally, smashing idols; or figuratively, attacking concepts and mores), whether in the name of something higher or out of misunderstanding, and often both; saddest of all, how a time may arrive when the symbols no longer serve a community, no longer communicate a transcendent vision, and then a profound malaise settles on the society and life comes to seem without meaning, and people become alienated from each other and even from themselves and from the world in which they live—all this the historian can trace.

In recent Western history an aberrational tendency has arisen to imagine that human life is fundamentally or naturally "secular," and that religion has been an added extra, tacked on here and there to the standardly human. This view now appears to be false. Rather, the various religious systems have expressed varying ways of being human. The unbiased historian cannot but report that it has been characteristic of man to find that life has meaning and to formulate that meaning in symbolic ways, whether grostesque or sublime.

Part Eight. Religion


The outlines in the eleven sections of Part Eight set forth studies of religion in general and studies of the particular religions. The ways in which religion is related to studies of human society, the fine arts, the history of civilizations, and science and philosophy are dealt with in Parts Five, Six, Nine, and Ten.


Division I. Religion in General

Division II. The Particular Religions


Division I. Religion in General


The outlines in the two sections of Division I deal with diverse views of the nature, purpose, validity, and value of religion, and with the problems, methods, and results of the empirical, comparative, and phenomenological study of religions and of religious experience.


Section 811. Knowledge and Understanding of Religion

Section 812. The Religious Life: Institutions and Practices


Section 811.         Knowledge and Understanding of Religion


A. The philosophy of religion: diverse views of the nature and characteristics of religion

     1. Basic questions and problems

          a. The existence of the divine or sacred (God)

          b. The attributes of the divine or sacred

          c. The extent to which mankind can have knowledge of the divine or sacred

          d. The special problems of free will, evil and suffering, and immortality

     2. Questions about the nature and character of the divine or sacred

          a. Whether the divine or sacred is personal or impersonal

          b. Whether the divine or sacred is one or more unique beings or powers


B. Religious experience: its nature, elements, and varieties


C. Religious phenomenology: the basic patterns of religious thought, action, and association


D. Theology as an attempt to understand and state the rationale of religious belief

     1. Theology in relation to divine revelation

          a. The role of Sacred Scriptures

          b. Doctrine and dogma

          c. Articles of faith: religious creeds

     2. Mystical theology: immediate experience of the divine or sacred

     3. Doctrines concerning God or the gods

          a. Polytheism

          b. Religious dualism

          c. Monotheism

            i. Theism

            ii. Deism

            iii. Pantheism and panentheism

          d. Atheism and agnosticism

     4. Doctrines of creation

     5. Angelology

     6. Doctrines of divine government and providence

     7. Eschatological theories

     8. Doctrines of grace and salvation

     9. Sacramental doctrines

     10. The doctrine of the Covenant

     11 . Miracles


E. The study and classification of religions


F. Other systems of belief

     1. Myth and mythology

     2. Magic

     3. Witchcraft

     4. Shamanism

     5. Astrology and alchemy

     6. Ancestor worship

     7. Hero worship

     8. Nature worship


G. Religion in relation to other aspects of human experience

     1. Religion and art

[see also Part Six]

     2. Religion and science

     3. Religion and society

[see also 521.D.6.]

     4. Religion and morality

[see also 10/52.B.6.]

     5. Religion and philosophy

[see also Pan Ten, Division V]


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:


MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the knowledge and understanding of religion

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious

fideism            Neo-Paganism religious           secularism

High God        pantheism        syncretism       theism

monotheism     polytheism                  



Campbell, Joseph        Frazer, Sir James         Malinowski,    Tiele, Cornelius

Durkheim, Emile         George            Bronislaw        Petrus

Eliade, Mircea James, William            Muller, Tylor, Sir Edward

Evans-Pritchard, Sir    Jung, Carl (Gustav)     (Friedrich) Max           Burnett

Edward (Evan)           Lang, Andrew Otto, Rudolf   Wach, Joachim

Frankfort, Henri          Levi-Strauss, Claude   Sifiderblom, Nathan   Weber, Max

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 812.         The Religious Life: Institutions and Practices


A. Religious rites and customs

     1. Rituals of worship

          a. Prayer

          b. Confession

          c. Pilgrimage

          d. Sacrifice

     2. Passage and purification rites: birth, puberty, marriage, death

     3. Religious regulation of personal and social behaviour

          a. Religious law

[see 551.B.3.d. and 827.F.6.a.]

          b. Dietary customs

          c. Monasticism

          d. Celibacy

          e. Asceticism

          f. Prophecy and divination

     4. Religious feasts and festivals


B. Religious leaders and institutions

     1. The religious state: theocracies, sacred kingships

     2. Forms of religious organization: church, temple, congregation, sect, council; the priesthood

     3. Sainthood

     4. Institutions of religious education


C. Material manifestations of religious beliefs

     1. Sacred writings

     2. Art and architecture, religious symbolism and iconography

     3. Ceremonial and religious objects, the sacraments

     4. Religious dress and vestments


Suggested reading in the Encyclopzdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the religious life: institutions and practices

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious Religious Experience

Religious Symbolism and Iconography Rites and Ceremonies, Sacred

Sacred Offices and Orders

            of reference information        


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries               

General subjects          places of worship:       monasticism    cremation

disciplines and                                   

practices:         altar     priesthood       embalming

asceticism        church prophet            marriage

celibacy           high place        sacred kingship           passage rite

fasting mosque            saint     purification

feast    synagogue       shaman            other:

human sacrifice           religious offices,          rites of passage and     amen

meditation       orders, and      associated practices:    aniconism

pilgrimage       personages:      anointment      confession of faith

prayer  abbot   Baptism           creed

sacrament        canonization    burial   idolatry

sacrifice           hagiography    circumcision    relic

tonsure            hermit  clitoridectomy scripture



See Section 811

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division II.          The Particular Religions


[For Part Eight headnote see page 303.]


The outlines in the nine sections of Division II treat the particular religions of mankind, in different          historical eras and world areas.


Section 821. Prehistoric Religion and Primitive Religion

Section 822. Religions of Ancient Peoples

Section 823. Hinduism and Other Religions of India

Section 824. Buddhism

Section 825. Indigenous Religions of East Asia: Religions of China, Korea, and Japan

Section 826. Judaism

Section 827. Christianity

Section 828. Islam

Section 829. Other Religions and Religious Movements in the Modern World



Section 821.         Prehistoric Religion and Primitive Religion


A. Prehistoric religion

     1. The study of prehistoric religion: nature, scope, methods of interpretation, problems special to the subject

[see also 10/41.B.]

     2. Inferred prehistoric religious beliefs and practices

          a. Burial customs and cults of the dead

          b. Cannibalism

          c. Sacrifices: human, animal, and other offerings

          d. Hunting rites and animal cults

          e. Female fertility deities

          f. Shamanism, sorcery, and magic

     3. Religions attributed to various prehistoric cultural stages and regions


B. Primitive religion

     1. The nature and significance of primitive religion

     2. Primitive views of reality

          a. The distinction between the sacred and the profane

          b. Dynamistic, daemonistic, and theistic views of the sacred: the concept of mana

          c. Animism: external reality viewed as living presence

          d. Sacred time and times, sacred space and places, and man's nature, origin, and destiny: primitive cosmogonies, cosmologies, eschatologies

     3. The nature and function of myth and symbol in primitive religion: their role in ritual, the iconographic character of primitive art

     4. Primitive religious practices and institutions

          a. Sacrifice, purification, passage rites

          b. Worship or veneration centred on natural objects or forces

          c. Totemism: the socioreligious system in which men are intimately related to plants, animals, or other natural phenomena

          d. Worship of ancestors, kings, and heroes

          e. The roles of asceticism, shamanism, divination, and spiritualistic practices

     5. The primitive religions of the major world areas

          a. Africa: traditional religions of the indigenous African peoples

          b. Australia and Oceania: religions of the Pacific Island peoples

          c. The Americas: religions of the indigenous peoples of North, Central, and South America

[see also 822.1.]

          d. Asia: aboriginal religions of Asian peoples

          e. The Arctic: religions of the Eskimo, Aleuts, Sami (Lapps), Chukchi, Yakuts, Nganasan, Nenets, and other Arctic peoples


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with prehistoric religion and primitive religion

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious


See Section 811

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 822.         Religions of Ancient Peoples


A. Religions of the ancient Near Eastern peoples

     1. Characteristics of the ancient Near Eastern religions

     2. Mesopotamian religions

     3. Egyptian religion

          a. Historical developments from the late Neolithic Period to the Hellenistic Age

          b. Religious literature and mythology

          c. Beliefs and doctrines: the Egyptian pantheon

          d. Major forms of Egyptian religion

          e. Religious symbolism and iconography

     4. Religions of the ancient peoples of Asia Minor

     5. Syrian and Palestinian religions

     6. Religions in the Arabian Peninsula


B. Religions of the Iranian peoples

     1. General characteristics of the Iranian religions

     2. Early Indo-Iranian religion: nature-polytheism

[see also 823.A.1.]

     3. Religion of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alani

[see F., below]

     4. The cult of Ahura Mazda (Ormazd): its influence on the preaching of Zoroaster and the priestly institutions of the Magi

     5. Mithraism

     6. Zurvanism

     7. Manichaeism

[see E.3.. below]


C. Greek religion

     1. Historical development

     2. Greek mythology and other religious literature

     3. Religious beliefs and speculation: the Greek pantheon

     4. Worship, practices, institutions

     5. Religious art and iconography


D. Roman religion

     1. Historical development

     2. Roman gods, goddesses, numina, and genii and their place in family and civic religion

     3. Worship, practices, institutions

     4. Religious art: sculpture, metalwork, painting, mosaic


E. Religions of the Hellenistic world

     1. Mystery religions

     2. Gnosticism

     3. Manichaeism

     4. Hellenistic religious philosophies: neoplatonism, stoicism, epicureanism

[see also 10/51.A.1 c ]

     5. Quasi-scientific and magical cults: e.g., numerology, astrology

     6. Judaism

[see 826]

     7. Christianity

[see 827]


F. Religions of the early peoples of eastern and central Europe

     1. Scythian religion

     2. Religions of the Sarmatians and associated peoples

     3. Religion of the pre-Christian Slavic peoples


G. Religions of the ancient Celtic and Germanic peoples

     1. Religion of the Celts

     2. Religion of the Germanic peoples


H. Religions of the early peoples of northeastern Europe

     1. Religion of the Baltic peoples

     2. Religion of the Finno-Ugric peoples


I. Religions of pre-Columbian American civilizations

     1. Inca religion

     2. Mayan religion

     3. Aztec religion


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with religions of ancient peoples

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious

Ved-ava          Amphitryon     Laomedon       Trojan horse

Veralden-radien          Ananke            Leto     Typhon

vorgud Ancaeus          Leucothea       Uranus

Germanic mythology: Andromache   Linus   Greek pantheon:

Aurgelmir        Andromeda     Lotus-Eater     Aphrodite

Balder Antigone         Lycaon            Apollo

Fenrir   Antiope           Marsyas           Ares

Freyja  Arethusa          Medea Aristaeus

Germanic religion        Argonaut         Medusa           Artemis

and mythology            Ariadne           Meleager         Asclepius

Heimdall         Anion  Memnon          Athena

Hel      Asclepius         Menelaus         Chaos

Idun    Atalanta          Midas  Cronus

Kvasir  Athamas          Minos  Demeter

Loki     Atlas    Minotaur         Dionysus

Midgard          Atreus Myrmidon       Eros

Mimir  Autolycus        Narcissus         Fury

Norn    Bellerophon     Neoptolemus   Grace

Odin    Briareus           Niobe  Hades

Ragnariik         Britomartis      Nisus   Hebe

Skadi   Busiris nymph Hecate

Svadilfari        Cadmus           Odysseus         Helios

Thor     Caeneus           Oedipus           Hephaestus

Tyr       Calchas            Orestes            Hera

Ull       Calliope           Orion   Hermes

Valhalla           centaur            Palamedes       Hestia

Valkyrie          Cephalus         Pandora           Hippolytus

Yggdrasill       Cyclops           Paris    Hora

Gnosticism,     Daedalus         Pegasus           Hygieia

Manichaeism, and       Danaus            Peleus  Muse

related movements:     Daphne            Pelias   Nemesis

aeon     Daphnis           Pelops  Nereus

Archon            demon Penelope          Nike

Cainite Dido    Perseus            Pan

Carpocratian    Echo    Phaethon         Persephone

Cathari            Endymion       Philoctetes       Poseidon

Docetism         Eos      phoenix           Priapus

Encratite          Erechtheus      Pirithous          Prometheus

Gnosticism      Erigone            Pleiades           Rhea

Hellenistic       Fama   Polyphemus     Selene

religion            Fate     Priam   Themis

Mandaeanism  Fury     Protesilaus       Tyche

Manichaeism   Galinthias        Proteus            Zeus

Marcionite       Gorgon            Pyramus and   Greek worship,

Mazdakism      Greek mythology        Thisbe  practices, and

Ophite Hector Sarpedon         institutions:

Paulician          Hecuba            Satyr and         Anthesteria

Greek mythology        Helen   Silenus Bacchanalia

and legend:     Helenus           Scylla and       baetylus

Acestes            Heracles          Charybdis        Daphnephoria

Achilles           Hesperides      Semele Delphi

Actaeon           Hyacinthus      Seven Against Didyma

Admetus         Hyperborean   Thebes Dodona

Adonis            Hypnos            Sibyl    Eleusinia

aegis    Idomeneus      Siren    Greek religion

Agamemnon    Ilos      Sisyphus          Heraeum

Aglauros          Io         Tantalus           herm

Ajax    Iphigeneia       Theseus           lectisternium

Alcmaeon        Ixion    Thetis  oracle

Amazon           Jason   Tiresias            Palladium

Amphitrite       Laocoolin        Titan   

Panathenaea    Ninsun Diana   Perun

Pyanopsia        Ninurta            Dioscuri           rusalka

Scirophoria      Shamash          Faunus Syrian and

Thargelia         Sin       Fides   Palestinian

Thesmophoria  Tammuz          Fortuna            pantheon:

Inca religion:   Mesopotamian Fury     Anath

Chosen Women           religious literature       Janus   Asherah

huaca   and mythology:           Juno     Astarte

Inti      Adapa Jupiter Atargatis

Pachacamac     Enmerkar         Lar       Baal

Viracocha        Eridu Genesis  Liber and Libera         Dagon

Iranian religion            Etana Epic       Libitina            El

(pre-Islamic):   Gilgamesh       Mars    Kothar

Mithra Lahmu and      Mercury           Melqart

Mithraism        Lahamu           Minerva           Resheph

Yima   Lament for the            Neptune          Shadrafa

Mayan religion:           Destruction of Ur        Penates            Tanit

Ah Kin            Mesopotamian Picus    Yamm

Bacab  mythology       Psyche Zoroastrianism:

Chac    mystery religions:        Quirinus          Ahriman

Cizin    Andania mysteries      Salus    Ahura Mazda

Dresden Codex           Attis    Saturn  amesha spenta

Itzamna.          Cabeiri Silvanus           Avesta

Madrid Codex            Corybantes      Sol       fravashi

Paris Codex     Eleusinian        Venus  Gabar

Popol Vuh       Mysteries         Vesta   Gahanbar

Mesopotamian Eumolpus        Roman worship,          Garamart

pantheon:        galli     practices, and  haoma

Adad   Great Mother of          institutions:     magus

Anu     the Gods         fetial    Nifiraz

Ashur  hierophant       flamen Parsi

Bel       Iacchus            genius  Rashnu

Belit    Jupiter Dolichenus      Haruspices       Saoshyans

Damu  mystery religion          lectisternium    Sraosha

Ea        Orpheus           Lupercalia       Verethraghna

Ereshkigal       Taurobolium    Matronalia       Vohu Manah

Ishkur  Roman pantheon:        Parilia  yazata

Ishtar   Aeneas            pontifex           Zoroastrianism

Lamashtu        Ascanius          Roman religion            Zurvanism

Marduk           Asclepius         Salii    

Mesopotamian Bona Dea        supplicatio      

religion            Cacus and Caca          Vestal Virgin  

Nabu   Camilla            Slavic religion:           

Nergal Ceres   domovoy        

Ningishzida     Cupid  leshy   


Biographies     Karter

Akhenaton      Mani

Anquetil-Duperron, A(braham)- H(yacinthe)             Valentinus

Basilides          Zoroaster


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above     

Section 823.         Hinduism and Other Religions of India


A. History of Hinduism

     1. The origins of Hinduism: Indo-European roots and other influences

     2. The prehistoric and protohistoric periods, through the 2nd millennium sc: the religions of the indigenous prehistoric peoples and of the Indus Valley civilization

     3. The Vedic period (2nd millennium-7th century sc)

          a. The religion of the Rgveda

          b. The religion of the later Vedas and Brahmanas

          c. The religion of the Upanisads

     4. The heterodox period (7th-2nd century sc): challenges to Brahmanism by reformers and ascetic groups

[see also D.1., below, and 824]

     5. The early Hindu period (2nd century sc-4th century AD): the rise of the major sects and other developments

     6. The Puranic period (4th-8th century)

     7. The rise of devotional Hinduism (8th-11th century): the Tamil hymnists, the Bhagavata-Purdna after Hinduism

     8. The age of bhakti (11th-19th century)

     9. The modern period (19th-20th century)

10. Hinduism today


B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Hinduism

[see also C.4., below]

     1. Hindu sacred literature

          a. Primary scriptures regarded as eternal revelations: the Veda

          b. Post-Vedic Sanskrit literature; e.g., epics, Puratjas, Tantras

          c. Sacred literature in Indian regional languages

     2. Hindu mythology: varieties of myths, modes of representation and themes

     3. Hindu philosophy: the integral relation of philosophy and religion in Hinduism

     4. Hindu mysticism: its general characteristics, varieties, goals, and methods


C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Hinduism

     1. Common characteristics of Hindu belief

          a. Views about God or the sacred

          b. Views about the universe

          c. Views about mankind

            i. Ahimsä, the obligation to respect all living beings

            ii. The doctrines of karman, samsära, and transmigration

            iii. The three margas: the paths of duties, of knowledge, and of devotion

     2. The forms of Hinduism

          a. Vedism and Brahmanism

          b. Vaisnavism

          c. Saivism

          d. Tantrism and Shaktism

          e. Folk Hinduism

          f. Ethical, social, and nationalist movements in modern Hinduism

     3. Rituals, social practices, and institutions

          a. Sacrifice and worship

          b. Sacred times and places

          c. The class hierarchy: the caste system

          d. Religious orders, holy men, the four stages of life

     4. Cultural expressions of Hindu values and ideas

          a. The traditional religious functions of Indian art: symbols and images

            i. Types of symbols: yantras, mandalas, taigas, yonis

            ii. Icons: their role in expressing theological elements of Hinduism

          b. The religious expression of particular arts


D. Other religions of India

     1. Jainism

          a. History of Jainism

            i. Early background: traditional accounts of Mahavira's predecessors

            ii. The life, work, and teachings of Vardhamana Mahavira

            iii. Later developments (6th century BC-20th century AD)

          b. Myths about Jaina "great souls": Tirthafikaras, ascetic and monastic figures, and lesser deities

          c. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Jainism

     2. Sikhism

          a. History of Sikhism

            i. Islamic and Hindu background (11th-15th century)

[see also A., above, and 828.A.]

            ii. The origin of Sikhism in the life and work of Nanak, first of the ten Gurus (15th-16th century)

            iii. The establishment and growth of Sikhism under the nine succeeding Gurus, the establishment of Sikh militarism (16th-18th century)

            iv. The condition of Sikhism during the Sikh empire (18th—I9th century)

            v. The condition of Sikhism under British rule (19th-20th century)

            vi. Sikhism in independent India and Pakistan

          b. Sikh religious literature

          c. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Sikhism

     3. Parsiism: Zoroastrianism in India

[see 822.B.4.]

          a. History of Parsiism

          b. Sources of beliefs and doctrines in Zoroastrian literature

          c. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of the Parsis


Suggested reading in the Encyclopa'dia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Hinduism and other religions of India


Indian Philosophy

Jainism Sikhism

            of reference information        


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries               

General subjects                                 

Hinduism        Matsya            Saura sect        Vaisheshika

caste system:   Meru, Mount   Shaktism         Vedanta

Agarwala         Murugan          Smarta sect      Vigistadvaita

Bania   naga     Srivaisnava      yama

bhaiband         Nandi  Swami-Närayani         Yoga

Brahman          Narasimha       Tantric Hinduism        Hinduism—ritual

Carnal. Nataraja           Tenkalai           and practice:

caste    Para§urama     Vadakalai        antyesti

Christian caste Parvati vairagin           ärti

Dasa    Prajapati          Vaishnavism    agvamedha

Devadasi         Radha  Vaisnava-        darshan

Dom    rakshasa           Sahajiya           diksa

dvija    Rama   Vallabhacarya Diwall

gotra    Bavaria            Hinduism        guru

Islamic caste    Saptamatrka    philosophy and            Holi

jajmani system Sarasvati          doctrine:          Janmästami

jati       Sita      Advaita           kirtana

Kshatriya         Siva     ahankara          Kumbh Mela

kul       Skanda            ananda linga

Mahar  Sarya   anumäna          Maha-givardtri

Maratha           vahana artha    mudra

Nambadiri       Vamana           asana   navaratra

Nayar  Varna  ashrama           Om

outcaste           Varuda            astika   Pongal

panchayat        Vasudeva        atman  pradaksina

sabha   Vishnu avatar  puja

Sudra   yaksha bhedabheda     Rathayatra

untouchable     Yama   brahma            sarnskara

Vaisya yuga    Carvaka           soma

varna   Hinduism—fivms,      chakra  sraddha

Hinduism—deities      sects, movements,       cow, sanctity   Sri-Nathaji

and mythology:           and orders:      of the   suttee

Aditi    Ajivika            deva    tapas

Agni    Arya Samaj     dharma            tilak

Ardhanarigvara           Bhagavata       Dvaita tirtha

Balardma         bhakti  Hatha Yoga     upanayana

bhut     Brahmo Samaj indriya yajiia

Brahma            Caitanya          jnana    Hinduism

Candi  movement       karma  sacred and secular

churning of the            daSnämi sannyasin      kundalini         literature:

milky ocean     Ganapatya       marga  agama

Dharma-Thakur           Kanphata Yogi            maya    Aranyakas

Durga  Kapalika and   Mimamsa         Artha-gästra

Gane§a            Kalamukha      nirguda            Astchap

Garuda            Kashmir Saivism         Nyaya  Bhagavadgita

gramadevata    Lingayat          prakriti Bhagavata-Purana

Hanuman         Naha    pramana           Brahmana

Harihara          Paricaratra       prana   dharmashastra

Indra   Pagupata         pranayama       dharmasutra

Jagannatha      Prarthana Samaj          pratyaksa         Gitagovinda

Kali     Radha Soami   purusha            Grhya-sutra

Kalkin Satsang            gabda  Kalpa-sutra

Kama   sadhu and swami        samadhi           Mahabharata

Krishna            Saiva-siddhänta          Sarnkhyd         mangal-kavya

Kubera            Saivism            samsara            Manu-smrti

Karma sampradaya     tat tvam asi      Nayanar

Laksmi            sannyasi           upadhi Purada

Manasa            Satnami sect               


Ramayana       Bahubali          Par§vanatha    gurdwara

Smrti   Digambara       Paryusana        Guru

Srauta-sutra     dravya Rsabhandtha   Harimandir

Sruti    gaccha Siddha Khalsä

sutra    gunasthana      Sthanakavasi   Namdhari

Tantra  Jaina canon      Svetambara     Nirankäri

Upanishad       Jaina vrata       syadvada         Ram Raiya

Veda   Jainism            Tirthankara      Sikhism

Jainism:           jiva      Sikhism:          Singh Sabha

ahimsa Kälakacaryakatha        Adi Granth      Udasi

ajiva     Kalpa-sutra      Aka' Takht      other:

Aristanemi       leSyä   Akali   Parsi

astamangala     nirjard  Dasam Granth Vedic religion


Aurobindo, Sri            Gobind Singh  Mira Bai          Ramanuja

Caitanya          Keshab            Nanak  Roy, Ram Mohun

Dada   Chunder Sen   Ram Singh      Sankara

Dayananda      Madhya           Ramakrishna   Tara Singh

Sarasvati          Mahavira         Ramana Maharshi       Vivekananda

Fateh Singh, Sant        Meher Baba                

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 824.         Buddhism


A. History of Buddhism

     1. The cultural context: its background in Hinduism; its geographical, ethnic, and cultural base

[see also 823]

     2. The founding of Buddhism: the life, work, and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (6th-5th century Bc)

     3. Developments in India (6th century Bc-12th century AD)

     4. Buddhism in Central Asia and China

[see also 825.A.]

     5. Buddhism in Korea and Japan

[see also 825.D. and E.]

     6. Buddhism in Tibet and the Himalayan kingdoms

     7. Buddhism in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Southeast Asia to the mid-19th century

     8. Buddhism in the late 19th and 20th centuries


B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Buddhism

[see also C.4., below]

     1. Buddhist sacred literature

     2. Buddhist mythology: basic types, contents, and functions of myths

     3. Buddhist philosophy: the role and contribution of systematic reflective thought

     4. Buddhist mysticism: universal characteristics; regional and historical variations; goals, techniques, and approaches


C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Buddhism

     1. Traditional beliefs and doctrines

          a. Views of the nature of reality; e.g., the impermanence of all existence, the absence of self, the underlying state of suffering and its causes

          b. The Eightfold Path to salvation or release

          c. The goal of the Eightfold Path: Nirvana

          d. The Threefold Refuge—in the Buddha, the doctrine, and the community

          e. Views of the gods, spirits, and demons: the role of miraculous powers

     2. The main forms of Buddhism

          a. The Theravada school and other ancient schools

            i. Views of the nature of things; cosmology, the classification of dharmas

            ii. The emphasis on self-cultivation and self-salvation: the stages leading to arhatship, the levels of meditation

            iii. Doctrines concerning Buddha and Buddhahood

            iv. Characteristics of the individual ancient and transitional schools

          b. The Mahayana version

            i. Views of the nature of absolute reality: the ultimate realization of the meditative quest

            ii. Views of the transcendence of the Buddha: the three aspects of the Buddha, the bodhisattva ideal

            iii. Characteristics of the individual Mahayana schools; e.g., Madhyamika, Yogacara, Avatamsaka, Zen, devotional schools

          c. Esoteric Buddhism: Tantrism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon

     3. Practices and institutions

          a. Universal or prevalent ethical and religious practices

          b. Monastic institutions: the characteristics and role of the satigha

          c. Ceremonies and festivals: the religious year, popular traditions, passage rites

          d. Regional variations in practices

     4. The religious and cultural role of Buddhist art

          a. Symbolism and iconography

          b. Religious expression in the arts

     5. The relationship of Buddhism to nationalist movements: its contemporary situation, its prospects


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major article dealing with Buddhism

Buddhism, The Buddha and


arupa-loka       Buddhist         Bhadracarya-   butsudan

asrava  meditation       pranidhana      caitya

bhava-cakra     dharani            bhanavara        Gandhara art

bhumi  gcod    Bka'-'gyur        Jogan style

bodhi   gtor-ma            Bstan-'gyur      kapala

brahma-loka    koan    Buddhacarita  kara-yo

brahmacharya  kyada  Dhammapada  Mai-chi-shan

brahmavihara   mandala           Diamond Sutra            mandala

dharma            mantra gsung-'bum      Mathura art

dukkha            mudra  Guhyasamaja   mudra

Eightfold Path            nang-mchod    Tantra  Northern Wei

Four Noble Truths       pabbajja           Heart Sutra      sculpture

kammatthana   päramita          Jataka  pagoda

karman            patimokkha     Khuddaka Nikaya       prayer wheel

Kegon phyi-mchod     Lalitavistara    Sänchi sculpture

Kusha  sadhana           Lankavatara-sutra       stapa

Madhyamika   sangha Lotus Sutra     Sukhothai style

maharnudra     Smon-lam        Mahavairocana-           Tempy0 style

Nirvana           chen-mo          satra     Tenjiku

paramita          upasarnpadd    Mahavastu       thang-ka

prajaapti          uposatha          Mahayana-Srad-          thread cross

Pramana-värttika         vassa    dhotpada-Sastra          T'ien-lung Shan

pratitya-samutpada     vihara  Milinda-panha Tadai Temple

pratyaya          zazen   Malamadhyama-         U Thong style

puntita sacred and secular       kakarika           vajra

saddha literature:         Prajnaparamita            yab-yum

samadhi           Abhidhamma  Pramana-varttika         Yan-kang caves

samsara            Pitaka  Pure Land Sutra          other:

sarnvrti-satya   Abhidhammattha-       Satyasiddhi-Sastra      Abhayagiri

Sarvastivada    safigaha           sutra    Bon

Satori   Abhidhammavatara     Sutta Pitaka     Buddhist council

sila       AbhidharmakoSa        Suttanipata      Mahavihdra

skandha           Abhisamayalan-          Ta-ts'ang Ching           mappo

smrtyupasthana           karaloka           Tipitaka           rock edicts

Triratna            Amitayur-dhyana-sutra           V inaya Pitaka

trisvabhäva      angd    symbolism,     

practices and   althakatha        iconography, and       

institutions:     Avadana          ritual objects:  

abhiseka          Avatarnsaka-sutra       Borobudur      

Biographies                             Padmasambhava

Asanga            Fa-hsien           Hui-neng         Shinran

ASoka             Hasegawa Tahaku       Ktikai 

Bodhidharma Flatten Nagärjuna       

Dogen Hsaan-tsang    Nichiren         

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 825.         Indigenous Religions of East Asia: Religions of China, Korea, and Japan


A. Characteristics and development of Chinese religion

     1. The distinction and relationship between the folk religions and the literate religions in China 2. History of religion in China

          a. The emergence of Chinese religion: ancestor worship, early cosmological beliefs

          b. The formulation of the Great Tradition: the development of the Confucian and Taoist ways (6th–Ist century BC)

          c. The dominance of the Buddhist Way and the rise of Taoist-inspired cults (1st-16th century)

          d. The modern period: the effects of Western religions and of nationalism and secularism on familial and social systems

     3. Traditional concepts in Chinese religious thought: the relation of the individual to the cosmos and to society

     4. Ritual practices and institutions

     5. Chinese religious symbolism

     6. Chinese mythology


B. Confucianism

     1. History of Confucianism

          a. Background in the institutions of the predynastic sage-emperors and the founders of the first three dynasties

          b. Origin in the life and teachings of Confucius (551-479 Bc), the first Sage

          c. The Confucian school and its various forms: the teachings of Mencius, the second Sage, and of Hsfin-tzu (c. 5th-3rd century Bc)

          d. Establishment of Confucianism as the state orthodoxy of the Han Empire: eclectic tendencies, skeptical and rationalistic reactions (2nd century Bc-3rd century AD)

          e. Introduction of Confucianism into Korea and Japan (1st and 4th centuries AD)

[see D. and E., below]

          f. Confucianism during the time of Buddhist ascendancy: its continued role in the family system, the government bureaucracy, and the examination system; textual studies

          g. The emergence and development of Neo-Confucianism (11th-20th century): metaphysical and humanistic emphases, the teaching of Chu Hsi, the development of Neo-Confucian schools

          h. Varied responses to intellectual and material challenges of the West and to other developments: reformist and conservative movements, the effect of political developments on Confucian ideology and scholarship

            i. Confucianism today: its current demographic and social aspects

     2. Confucian literature

     3. Confucianism as a religion and as a philosophy


C. Taoism

     1. History of Taoism

          a. Origin and early developments: the first evidence of the teachings of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu (c. 4th-3rd century Bc)

          b. Developments during the Ch'in and Han periods (3rd century Bc-3rd century AD): esoteric traditions, the Huang–Lao tradition, revolutionary messianism, developments in philosophy

          c. Developments from the 2nd to the 6th century: brief recognition of Taoism as the state religion; interaction with Buddhism; ceremonial, alchemical, and scriptural traditions

          d. Developments under the T'ang, Sung, and later dynasties: internal developments, the role of alchemy, syncretistic tendencies

          e. The later development of philosophical and religious Taoism from the 14th century to the present time

     2. Taoist literature

     3. Taoism as a religion and as a philosophy


D. The religions of Korea

     1. History of Korean religion from prehistoric times to the present: the influence of Chinese, Japanese, and Western religions

     2. Religious literature and mythology

     3. Beliefs and doctrines

     4. Practices and institutions


E. The religions of Japan

     1. History of Japanese religion

          a. Early clan religion before the 6th century AD

          b. Early historic and medieval periods (6th-16th century): the introduction of Buddhism, the impact of Chinese influences on Shinto, other developments

          c. The Tokugawa era (1603-1867): Neo-Confucian Shinto, Sect Shinto, other developments

          d. The Meiji era and after (1868 to the present): new religious movements

     2. Shinto: the Way of the Gods

          a. History of Shinto

[see E.1., above]

          b. Characteristics of primitive Shinto: the role of guardian shrines and shamans

          c. Shinto literature and mythology: the form and content of the Kojiki, Nihon shoki, and other writings

          d. Basic beliefs and doctrines: concepts of mankind, the sacred and related precepts and principles

          e. Ritual practices and institutions

     3. Japanese religious art and symbolism

     4. Japanese mythology


Suggested reading in the Encyclopiedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with indigenous religions of East Asia: religions of China, Korea, and Japan

Chinese Literature       Shinto

Confucianism, Confucius and            Taoism Japanese Literature


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

Chinese deities and     shen     Shu Ching       Susanoo

mythology:      Shen Nung      Ssu shu            tengu

Chang Kuo-lao            Shou Hsing     Ta hsiieh          ujigami

Ch'ang 0          Shun    Tso chuan        Ukemochi no

Ch'eng Huang Ta Yii  Wu ching         kami

ch'i-lin T'ien    Japanese deities and    Yama-no-kami

Chih Nu          Ts'ai Shen        mythology:      Yorimitsu

Chung-li Ch'iian          Tsao Chin        Amaterasu       Japanese religious

feng-huang      Ts'ao Kuo-chiu            Amenouzume  movements:

Fu Hsi Tsao Shen        Benten Hito-no-michi

Fu Shen           T'u-ti    Daikoku          HOtoku

Han Hsiang     Wen Ti            Ebisu   Kirishitan

Ho Hsien-ku    Wu hsing         Fukurokuju      Kokugaku

Hou Chi          Yao     goryö   Konka-kye

Hou I   Yii Ti   Hachiman        Kurozumi-kya

Hou T'u           Confucianism  hitogami          Neo-Confucianism

Hsi Wang Mu  philosophy:      Ho-musubi      Omoto

Huang-ti          Confucianism  Inari     PL Kyadan

Kuan Ti           hsiao    Izanagi and     Shinbutsu

K'uei Hsing     jen       Izanami           Shingaku

Lei Kung         li          Jimmu  TenshO Katai

Li T'ieh-kuai    T'ien Ming       kami    Jingfi-kya

Lu Hsing         Confucianism  kappa   Korean religion:

Lii Tung-pin    sacred literature:          Kusanagi         Ch'Ondogyo

lung     Chou li            Ninigi  mudang

Men Shen        Ch'un-ch'iu      Okuninushi      P'alkwanhoe

Nii Kua           Chung yung    Sarudahiko      Poch'Ongyo

Pa Hsien          I Ching            Shichi-fuku-    p'ungsuchirisol

P'an Ku           Li chi   jin        Sansin

p'an-t'ao           Lun yii Sugawara        Shinto—precept and

San Kuan        Mencius           Michizane        practice:

She Chi           Shih ching       Sukunahikona harai

320      Part Eight. Religion                           

jinja     shinten SannO Ichijitsu           hsii

kami    shOzoku          Shinto  Huai-nan-tzu

kamidana         tamaya Shrine Shinto  Lieh-tzu

Kojiki  torii      Shugen-do       p'o

matsuri            ujigami            State Shinto    p'u

musubi Shinto—sects and       Tajong-gyo      tao

Nihon shoki     schools:           Tangun            Tao-te Ching

norito   Fukkom Shinto           Tenriky0          to

Shichi-go-san  Ise Shinto        Taoism:            tzu-jan

shinsen            Kyoha Shinto  Five Pecks of Rice      wu-wei

shinshoku        RyObu Shinto hsien   

shintai              hsin-shu          


Ch'eng Hao and          Hayashi Razan            Lieh-tzu           Tung Chung-shu

Ch'eng I          Hsiin-tzu         Mencius           Wang Ch'ung

Chu Hsi           Lao-tzu            Motoori Norinaga       Wang Yang-ming

Chuang-tzu     Liang Shu-ming          Shao Yung      Yen Yuan

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 826.         Judaism


A. History of Judaism

     1. The biblical era

     2. The Hellenistic era

[see also 822.E.]

     3. The Talmudic era in Palestine and Babylonia: the foundations of rabbinic Judaism

[see also B.3., below]

     4. The medieval era: the European and Islamic phases of rabbinic Judaism (7th-18th century)

     5. The modern era from c. mid-18th century: developments in modern Judaism

     6. Judaism today: its current demographic and social aspects


B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Judaism

[see also CA., below]

     1. Biblical literature

          a. Canons, texts, and vernacular versions of the Bible; e.g., Septuagint, Targum

          b. TaNaKh, the Hebrew Bible: Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim

          c. Noncanonical literature: Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha

     2. Qumran literature (Dead Sea Scrolls)

     3. Talmud and Midrash

     4. Judaic exegesis and hermeneutics

     5. Mystical and devotional writings

     6. Jewish philosophical writings

     7. Jewish myth and legend


C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Judaism

     1. Basic beliefs and doctrines

          a. Doctrines concerning God

          b. Doctrines concerning the Jewish people: the concept of Covenant

[see also 811.D.10.]

          c. Doctrines concerning mankind

          d. Doctrines concerning the universe

          e. Eschatology: views about the future age of mankind and the world, the King-Messiah and his reign

[see also 811.D.7.. 827.F.I.d.. and 829 Al

     2. Basic practices and institutions

          a. Individual and familial practices

          b. Synagogue practices and other public institutions: the role of the rabbi, chief rabbinates, and general councils and conferences

          c. Sacred times: the sabbath, the Jewish holidays

          d. Sacred places: the land of Israel and Jerusalem

          e. The sacred language: Hebrew

     3. Present-day forms of Judaism

          a. Orthodox Judaism

          b. Reform, or Liberal, Judaism

          c. Conservative Judaism

          d. Other variations in belief and practices: Reconstructionism, Hasidism, regional or ethnic groups

     4. Art and iconography

          a. The anti-iconic principle: the influence of the biblical prohibition against idolatry

          b. Uses of the visual arts in ceremony and ritual: ceremonial objects, synagogue architecture, paintings, manuscript illumination

          c. Music: Jewish liturgical modes, the influence of folk traditions, vocal and instrumental music

          d. Literature: traditional legends and poetic exegesis, later religious poetry and tales


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaylia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with Judaism

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious

history:            Sambation       cantor  seder

Ammonite       sanhedrin         chief rabbinate            selihoth

amora  savora  cohen   Shabuoth

Ark of the       scapegoat        David, Star of shadkhan

Covenant         shewbread       derasha            shaharith

Asher   Simeon            Elijah's cup      Shema

Babylonian Exile         Sinai, Mount   etrog    shivah

Benjamin         Sodom and      exegesis           siddur

Bethel  Gomorrah        gabbai  sidra

Boethusian      sofer    gematria          Simhath Torah

Canaan            Tabernacle       genizah            siyyum

Dan     tanna   get       Sukkot

Diaspora          Ten      Haftarah          synagogue

Elohim Commandments          halitza  takkanah

ephod  Ten Lost Tribes of       Hallel   tallit

Ephraim           Israel   hands,  Tammuz, Fast of

Essene Therapeutae     imposition of   tashlik

Gad     Twelve Tribes of         Hanukka          terefah

gaon    Israel   Havdala           Three Weeks

golden calf      Western Wall  Hebraic law     Tisha be-Av

Hasidean         Yahweh           hermeneutics   yahrzeit

Haskala           Zealot  hol ha-mo`ed   yeshiva

high priest       Zebulun           Kaddish          yizkor

Holocaust        Zion     kashruth          Yom Kippur

Holy of Holies            mysticism:       ketubba           Talmud and

Issachar           ba'al shem        Kiddush          Midrash:

Jerusalem,        Habad Kol Nidre        Baraita

Temple of        Kabbala           kosher  Gemara

Judah   kavvanah         Lag ba-`Omer  Midrash

Judaism           maggid            maarib Mishna

K'ai-feng Jew  Merkava          mahzor            Mishne Torah

Karaism           Sefer ha-bahir  matzeva           Mo`ed

Kenite Sefer ha-temuna          menorah          Nashim

Kneset ha-Gedola       Sefer ha-zohar mezuzah          Neziqin

Levite  Sefer Yetzira   middot            Qodashim

ma'amadot       sefira   mikvah            responsa

Manasseh        Shabbetaianism           minhah            Shulltan 'arukh

manna  tzaddiq            minyan            Talmud

Midianite         rites, practices, and     musaf  Thirteen Articles

Mitnagged       institutions:     neilah   of Faith

Moabite           `alenu  Paschal lamb   Tohorot

Musar  aliyah   Passover          tosafot

Naphtali          amidah            peshat  Tosefta

Nazirite           anno mundi     phylactery       Zeralm

Pharisee           arba` kanfot     pidyon ha-ben other:

Qumran           ark       piyyut  anti-Semitism

Rechabite        Avinu Malkenu           prosbul            Gentile

red heifer         Bar Mitzvah    Purim   I-Thou

Reuben            berakha            rabbi    Jew

Sadducee        bet din Rosh Hashana

Samaritan        bimah  Sabbath          

Biographies     Jeremiah          Samson            Eleazar ben Judah

Biblical figures:                                  

Abraham         Jezebel Samuel            of Worms

Amos   Jonah   Saul     Elijah ben

David  Jonathan          Solomon          Solomon

Deborah          Joseph commentators. Heller, Yom Tov

Ezekiel            Melchizedek    scholars, teachers:       Lipmann ben

Isaiah   Moses  Akiba ben Joseph        Nathan ha-Levi

Jacob   Noah   Baal Shem Tov            Hillel

Hirsch, Samson           Jewish philosophers:   Baeck, Leo      Josephus, Flavius

Raphael           Buber, Martin  Dubnow,         Kohler, Kaufmann

Ishmael ben Elisha      Israeli, Isaac ben         Simon M.        Maccabees

Johanan ben    Solomon          Ezra     Magnes, Judah

Zakkai Maimon, Salomon       Frank, Jacob    Leon

Judah ben Samuel       Maimonides,   Gilnzburg, Horace,      Manasseh ben

Judah ha-Nasi Moses  Baron  Israel

Karo, Joseph ben         Mendelssohn,  Giinzburg, Joseph,      Shabbetai Tzevi

Ephraim           Moses  Baron  Wise, Isaac Mayer

Luria, Isaac ben           Philo Judaeus  Hertz, Joseph  Zuckerman,

Solomon          Rosenzweig, Franz      Herman           Itzhak

Moses de Leon            other:   Herzl, Theodor           

Rashi   Anielewicz,     ibn Tibbon, Judah      

Sa'adia ben Joseph      Mordecai         ben Saul         

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 827.         Christianity


A. History of Christianity before the schism of 1054

     1. The development of the Christian Church from the time of Jesus to the reign of Constantine

          a. The origins and growth of the primitive church (c. AD 30-70)

          b. Post-apostolic developments in the early Christian Church (c. AD 70-325)

     2. The early Christian Church from the reign of Constantine to the pontificate of Gregory I the Great (c. 4th-6th century)

          a. The establishment of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire: the problem of the alliance between church and empire, the increasingly important role played by the bishop of Rome as pope

          b. Doctrinal controversies that occasioned the further development of Christian theology: reaction to the teachings of Novatian, Donatus, Pelagius, and Arius; the role of St. Augustine; the councils of Nicaea (AD 325), Constantinople (381), Ephesus (431), and Chalcedon (451)

          c. The relation of the Christian religion to the culture of the late empire

     3. The growing division between Eastern and Western Christianity

          a. The political and religious bases of increasing tensions between Rome and Constantinople

          b. The relation of Christianity to Western and Byzantine cultures (7th-1 1 th century)

          c. Developments affecting institutions and practices in the East and the West: the expansion of Christianity in the West, the rise of the independent churches in the East

          d. The Photian schism and the beginnings of the great East-West schism


B. History of Eastern Orthodoxy from the schism of 1054 to the present

     1. The church of imperial Byzantium (up to 1453)

     2. Developments from the fall of Constantinople (1453) to the early 19th century

          a. Eastern Orthodoxy under the Ottomans (1453-1821)

          b. The Church of Russia (to 1800)

     3. The Orthodox churches in the 19th century: developments in various areas

     4. The Orthodox Church since World War I


C. History of the Roman Catholic Church from the schism of 1054 to the present

     1. The medieval and Renaissance eras (c. 11th-16th century)

          a. Development of the papacy as the chief spiritual and temporal power in the West

          b. Religious and cultural characteristics of Latin Christianity

[see also F.6.a., below, 10/51.A.2., and 10/53.A.1.1.]

     2. The era of the Reformation and the wars of religion: from Luther's reform to the Peace of Westphalia (16th-17th century)

[see also 961.A.3. and A.4.]

          a. Background of the Protestant Reformation in late medieval and Renaissance Catholicism

          b. The Protestant Reformation

[see D.1., below]

          c. The Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation

          d. The wars of religion

[see D.l.h., below]

          e. Missionary endeavours in other areas: the role of the church in the explorations and colonial policies of the European powers

     3. The transition era: from the Peace of Westphalia to the French Revolution (17th-18th century)

     4. The modern age: from the French Revolution to World War I (18th-20th century)

     5. Developments in the 20th century


D. History of Protestantism

     1. The Protestant Reformation and its aftermath, to the Peace of Westphalia (16th-17th century)

[see also 961.A.3. and A.4.]

          a. Its background in European Roman Catholic Christendom

[see C., above, and 961.A.]

          b. Luther and the German Reformation

[see also 961.A.5.f.]

          c. The Reformation in Switzerland, France, and the Low Countries

[see also 961.A.5.e., g., and h.]

          d. The English, Scottish, and Irish reformations

[see also 961.A.5.d.]

          e. Expansion of the Reformation to Scandinavia, the Baltic states, and eastern, central, and southern Europe

          f. Radical reform movements

          g. The Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation

[see C.2.c., above]

          h. The wars of religion: church-state relations and the gradual development of the concept of religious liberty during the 16th and 17th centuries

[see also 961.A.4.]

     2. The transition era: from the Peace of Westphalia to the French Revolution (17th-18th century)

          a. Political developments affecting the continental Protestant churches

          b. Developments in German Protestantism

          c. The challenge of rationalism, Deism, and the Enlightenment: the Protestant response

          d. Developments in English Protestantism

          e. Developments in American Protestantism during the Colonial period

          f. Developments in the Dutch Reformed churches

          g. Developments in other continental European churches

     3. The modern age: from the American and French revolutions to World War I (18th-20th century)

     4. Developments in Protestantism after World War I


E. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Christianity

[see also F.7., below]

     1. Biblical literature: the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Apocrypha

     2. Biblical exegesis and hermeneutics

     3. Patristic literature: the writings of the Church Fathers

     4. Formal, official statements of beliefs and doctrines: creeds, dogmas, confessions of faith

[see also F.5., below]

     5. Writings of the post-patristic theologians, reformers, and church leaders

     6. Christian mysticism

     7. Christian philosophy

[see also 10/51.A.2.]

     8. The role of myth and legend in Christianity


F. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Christianity

     1. Doctrines concerning the nature and activity of God

          a. The nature of God: the oneness of God, the transcendence of God, God as Father

          b. The self-revelation of God: the understanding of God as Creator, Sustainer, and Judge

          c. Christology: teachings concerning the person of Jesus Christ

          d. Eschatology: political and apocalyptic messianic concepts, expectation of the Kingdom of God

[see also 826.C.1.e.]

          e. The role of the Holy Spirit in the church: the tensions between continuity and revolution, institutional authority and charismatic activity, and order and freedom

          f. The doctrine of the Holy Trinity

     2. Doctrines concerning intermediary beings, powers, or principles; e.g., the angels, Satan

[see also 811.D.5.]

     3. Doctrines concerning the physical world

     4. Doctrines concerning mankind

     5. Doctrines concerning the church: Scripture, tradition, creeds, and confessions as normative expressions of Christian belief; the nature and role of doctrine and dogma

     6. Practices and institutions common or predominant among the various traditional forms of Christianity

          a. The structure of church institutions: canon law and church polity

          b. The role and characteristics of the liturgy: the church as a worshiping community, the church year

          c. Forms of Christian life: monasticism, the saintly life

     7. Art and iconography

          a. Major eras, regions, and schools of Christian art

          b. The expression of Christian faith and themes in the arts


G. The major traditional forms of Christianity

     1. Eastern Orthodoxy

          a. Historical development

[see A. and B., above]

          b. The Orthodox Church: general characteristics deriving from its historical development

          c. Teachings, forms of worship, and principles of organization that distinguish Eastern Christianity from Roman Catholicism and Protestantism

          d. The relationship of Eastern Orthodoxy to recent social movements

          e. Traditional (national) Eastern Orthodox churches; e.g., the Russian Orthodox Church, the Church of Greece

          f. Eastern Christian Independent churches: Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch; Armenian Apostolic Church; Coptic Orthodox Church; Ethiopian Orthodox Church; Malabar Christians; Nestorian (Assyrian) Church

     2. Roman Catholicism: Latin and Eastern rite churches

          a. Historical development

[see A. and C., above]

          b. The Roman Catholic Church: general characteristics deriving from its historical development

          c. Teachings, forms of worship, and principles of organization that distinguish the Catholic tradition from that of Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism

          d. The response of the Catholic Church to recent social and political developments

          e. The Eastern rite (Uniate) churches: ethnically and nationally distinct churches in canonical communion with the Roman Apostolic See

          f. Old Catholic churches: churches that separated from the see of Rome after the first Vatican Council

     3. Protestantism

          a. The Reformation and the historical development of Protestantism

[see D., above]

          b. Teachings, forms of worship, and principles of organization distinguishing the Protestant heritage from that of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy

          c. The influence of Protestantism on modern political and social thought

          d. Major forms of Protestantism: historical development, teachings, forms of worship, and organization

            i. Lutheran churches

            ii. Reformed and Presbyterian churches: Calvinism

            iii. The Anglican Communion

            iv. The Free churches: Baptists, Disciples of Christ, Congregationalists, Methodists

          e. Variations of the traditional forms of Protestantism

            i. Holiness churches

            ii. Pentecostal churches

            iii. Millenarian churches: Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses

            iv. Society of Friends (Quakers)

            v. Unitarians and Universalists

            vi. Old-line Protestant sects and their derivations: Mennonites (including Amish and Hutterites), the Moravian Church, Brethren

            vii. Other independent churches: various fundamentalist, evangelical, and other sectarian groups

            viii. Variations of traditional Protestant faiths in black American society


H. Sects and movements tangentially related to traditional Christianity

     1. New Thought: Unity and other groups

     2. Christian Science

     3. Mormonism


I. Ecumenical, interdenominational, and intradenominational associations


Suggested reading in the Encyclapxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with Christianity

Biblical Literature and Its Critical Interpretation

Calvinism, Calvin and Christianity

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious Eastern Orthodoxy

Jesus: The Christ and Christology Luther

Paul, The Apostle


Roman Catholicism

Sacred Offices and Orders


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Alpha and Omega       apostasy          atonement

belief doctrine, and                            

dogma:            anathema         apostolic          benefice

absolution        angel    succession       blasphemy

adiaphorism     Annunciation  Ascension        bull

agape   Antichrist        Assumption     catechism

catechumen     Virgin Birth     prelate Renovated

catholic            Visitation        presbyter         Church

charity canon law:       presbyterian     Romanian

cherub annates            priest   Orthodox Church

Christ, two      benefice           primate            Russian Orthodox

natures of        canon law        Roman Curia   church

concordat        Codex Juris     schism Serbian Orthodox

confession       Canonici          secular institute           Church

consubstantiation        conclave          synod  churches

deadly sin        concordat        vicar    Protestant (Anglican

Erastianism      consistory        churches—Eastern      Communion):

eschatology     Corpus Juris    Independent:   Anglican Church

evangelical church       Canonici          Armenian        of Australia

faith     decretal           Apostolic         Anglican

God, Kingdom of       dispensation    Church            Communion

grace    ecclesiastical court      Christians of Saint      Anglican

heaven encyclical        Thomas            Evangelical

hell      excommunication        Coptic Orthodox         Anglican

heresy  False Decretals            Church            religious

Holy Spirit      Gratian's          Ethiopian         community

hope    Decretum        Orthodox        Anglo-Catholicism

Immaculate     legate   Church            Broad Church

Conception      nomocanon      Nestorian         Canada, Anglican

imprimatur       nuncio Syrian Orthodox         Church of

Incarnation      ordination        Patriarchate     Canterbury,

indulgence       papal infallibility         of Antioch       archbishop of

Inner Light      penitential book          churches—Eastern      Canterbury

justification     simony Orthodox:       and York,

kerygma and   church polity and        Bulgarian         Convocations of

catechesis        ecclesiastical    Orthodox Church        Church Army

Last Judgment            hierarchy:        Cyprus, Church of      Church

limbo   almoner           Eastern Orthodoxy     Commissioners

logos    archbishop       Ecumenical      Church Missionary

Mariology        archdeacon      Patriarchate of Society

martyr  autocephalous Constantinople            England,

millennium      church Georgian         Church of

miracle bishop  Orthodox Church        Episcopal Church

monophysite    Bishops, Synod of      Greece, Church of       in Scotland

moral theology            cardinal           Greek Orthodox          Ireland, Church of

mystical body of         cathedral         Patriarchate of Lambeth

Christ  chaplain           Alexandria      Conference

nomocanon      church Greek Orthodox          New Zealand,

original sin       churchwarden Patriarchate of Church of the

orthodox         clergy  Antioch and All          Province of

predestination collegiality       the East           Nonjuror

purgatory         conciliarism     Greek Orthodox          Oxford movement

resurrection     conge d'elire    Patriarchate of Protestant

Sacred Heart   congregation   Jerusalem         Episcopal Church

saint     council Japanese Orthodox     South Africa,

saints,  deacon church Church of the

communion of diocese            Jerusalem,        Province of

Satan   elder    Synod of         Wales, Church in

Second Coming          episcopacy       Old Believer    churches—Protestant

seraph  episcopus vagans         Orthodox Church        (Baptist):

sin        free church      in America       American Baptist

soul      holy order        Orthodox        Association

stigmata           metropolitan    Church of        American Baptist

Theotokos       ministry           Czechoslovakia           Churches in the

tongues, gift of           papacy Orthodox Church        U.S.A.

transubstantiation        parish   of Finland       Baptist

Trinity patriarch          Orthodox Church        Baptist Federation

Turin, Shroud of         pope    of Poland        of Canada

Baptist Missionary      Evangelical Church     Christian Catholic       Evangelical Church

Association of in Germany, The         Church            of Czech Brethren

America           Evangelical Church     Jehovah's Witness       Free Church of

Baptist Union of         of Czech Brethren       Plymouth         Scotland

Great Britain and        Evangelical      Brethren          Iona Community

Ireland Lutheran Church         Shaker Netherlands

National          in America       churches—Protestant  Reformed

Association of Evangelical      (old-line):        Church, The

Free Will         Lutheran People's        Amish  Presbyterian

Baptists           Church of        Bohemian        Church (U.S.A.)

National Baptist          Denmark         Confession      Presbyterian

Convention of Finland, Church of      Brethren          Church in

America           Lutheran Church         Ephrata            Ireland

National          in Wurttemberg           Community     Presbyterian

Primitive Baptist         Lutheran Church-        Hussite            Church of

Convention, Inc.         Missouri Synod           Hutterite          England

Southern Baptist         Lutheran Church         Mennonite       Presbyterian

Convention     of Oldenburg  Moravian church         Church of

churches—Protestant  Lutheran Council        Taborite           Wales

(Congregationalist):    in the United   Unitas Fratrum            Presbyterian

Congregational            States of America       Utraquist         churches

Church of        Lutheran          churches—Protestant  Reformed church

England and    Synodical        (Pentecostal):  Reformed Church

Wales  Conference      Assemblies of  in America

Congregational            Lutheran World          God     Reformed Church

Council for      Federation       God, Church of           of France

World Mission            Lutheranism    God in Christ, Reformed Church

Congregationalism      National Church          Church of        of Hungary

churches—Protestant  of Iceland        International    Reformed

(Disciples of Christ):   Norway, Church of     Church of the  Churches in The

Disciples of Christ      Sweden, Church of     Foursquare      Netherlands

churches—Protestant  United Evangelical     Gospel Scotland,

(Friends):         Lutheran Church         Jesus Only       Church of

Friends, Society of      United Evangelical     Latter Rain revival      United Church of

Friends World Lutheran Church         Pentecostal      Canada

Committee for of Germany     Assemblies of the        United Free

Consultation    Wisconsin        World, Inc.      Church of

churches—Protestant  Evangelical      Pentecostal      Scotland

(Holiness):       Lutheran Synod          Church of God of       United

Christian and   churches—Protestant  America, Inc.  Presbyterian

Missionary       (Methodist):    Pentecostal      Church

Alliance           African Methodist      Holiness Church,         churches—Protestant

God (Anderson           Episcopal         Inc.      (Unitarian and

Ind.), Church of          Church            Pentecostalism            Universalists):

Holiness          African Methodist      churches—Protestant  Unitarian

movement       Episcopal Zion            (Reformed and            Universalist

Nazarene, Church       Church            Presbyterian):  Association

of the   Christian          Christian          Unitarianism

Pillar of Fire    Methodist        Reformed Church       Universalism

United House of         Episcopal Church        in North America        churches—Protestant

Prayer for All  Evangelical      Cumberland    (United Church of

People United Brethren          Presbyterian    Christ):

Wesleyan Church        Church            Church            Evangelical and

churches—Protestant  Methodism      Dutch Reformed         Reformed Church

(Lutheran):      United Methodist       Church            General Council

American         Church            Dutch Reformed         of Congregational

Evangelical      World Methodist        Church in Africa         Christian

Lutheran Church         Council            Dutch Reformed         Churches

Augustana       churches—Protestant  Mission Church           United Church of

Evangelical      (millenarian):   in South Africa           Christ

Lutheran Church         Adventist        Evangelical Church     churches—Protestant

Batak Protestant         Christadelphian           in Germany, The         (other):

Christian Church                                 Christ, Church of

Conservative   New Apostolic            circuit rider      Inquisition

Baptist Church            Clergy Reserves          Institutes of

Association of Peace Mission collegia pietatis           the Christian

America           Reorganized    Confessing Church     Religion

Evangelical      Church of        Constance,      Investiture

Alliance           Jesus Christ of Council of       Controversy

Evangelical Free          Latter-day Saints        Constantine,    Jerusalem,

Church of        Unity School of          Donation of     Council of

America           Christianity     Constantinople,           Jesuit Estates

National          heresies:           Council of       controversy

Association of Adoptionism   Counter-Reformation  Lambeth

Evangelicals    Albigenses       covenant theology       Quadrilateral

New Church    Anomoean       Covenanter      Lateran Council

Protestantism  Aphthartodo-  crusade            Lateran Treaty

Undenominational      cetism  Dead Sea Scrolls         Lollard

Fellowship       Arianism          Death of God  Lutheranism

of Christian     Cathari            movement       Lyon, councils of

Churches and  Macedonianism           Desert Fathers Marburg,

Churches of     Monarchianism            devotio moderna         Colloquy of

Christ  Montanism      Diamper, Synod of     Marprelate

churches—Roman       Pelagianism     Donatist          Controversy

and Eastern     Sabellianism    Dort, Synod of            Melchite

Catholic:          semi-Arianism Douai-Reims   Milan, Edict of

Armenian Catholic      history.            Bible    mission

Church            Acacian Schism           Dukhobor        Modernism

Bulgarian Catholic      Anabaptist       Eastern Orthodoxy     Monothelite

Church            anticlericalism Ebionite           Moral

Chaldean Catholic      antinomianism ecumenism      Re-Armament

Church            Antioch,          Eight Saints, War        Neoorthodoxy

Coptic Catholic           Council of       of the   Nicaea, Council of

Church            antipope          Elvira, Council of        Ninety-five

Eastern rite church      Apology of      Ephesus,          Theses

Italo-Albanian the Augsburg  councils of       Nisibis, School of

Church            Confession      Familist           Oneida

Malabarese      Apostle            Ferrara-Florence,         Community

Catholic Church          Ariminum,       Council of       Orange, councils of

Malankarese    Council of       fundamentalism          Oxford movement

Catholic Church          Arles, Council of         Gallican           Papal States

Maronite Church         Arminianism    Confession      Parliament,

Old Catholic   Augsburg,       Gallicanism     Admonition to

church Peace of          Geneva Bible  Paschal

Old Catholic   Augsburg        Geneva Catechism      controversies

Church of The Confession      German Christian        Penal Laws

Netherlands     Augsburg Interim        Great Awakening        pentarchy

Polish National            auto-da-fe       Guarantees,     Pietism

Catholic Church          Avignon papacy          Law of            Pilgrim Fathers

of America      Barmen, Synod of       Half-Way        Pisa, Council of

Roman Catholic          Basel, Council of        Covenant         Pistoia, Synod of

Church of        Belgic Confession       Hampton Court           Pragmatic

Romania          Brest-Litovsk, Conference      Sanction of

Roman Union of          Helvetic           Bourges

Catholicism     caesaropapism Confession      Protestant

Russian Catholic         Cambrai,          Holiness          Orthodoxy

church League of        movement       Puritanism

Syrian Catholic           Cameronian     Holy League   Quietism

Church            camp meeting  Homoean         Quinisext

Ukrainian Catholic      Chalcedon,      homoousian     Council

Church            Council of       Hsi-an monument        Raskol

churches—other:         Children's Crusade      Huguenot        Reformation

Christian Science        Chinese Rites  Iconoclastic     Reformed League

Mormon          Controversy    Controversy    regium donum

            Christian Socialism     Independent   

revivalism        literature—New          Peter,   Old Testament

Roman Testament:       Apocalypse of Proverbs, The

Catholicism     Acts of the      Peter, Gospel of          Psalms

Saint    Apostles, The  Protevangelium of       Rechabite

Bartholomew's            Beatitude        James   Ruth, Book of

Day, Massacre of        Benedictus      literature—Old            Samuel, books of

Sandemanian   Colossians,      Testament:       Septuagint

Sardica, Council of     The Letter of   Amalekite        Sodom and

Savoy Conference       Paul to the       Ammonite       Gomorrah

Savoy Declaration       Corinthians,     Amos, Book of           Solomon, Song of

Schmalkaldic   The Letter of   Babel, Tower of          Ten

Articles            Paul to the       Bethel  Commandments

Schmalkaldic   Diatessaron     Chronicles, books        Torah

League            Ephesians, Letter        of the   Yahweh

Schwabach,     of Paul to the  Daniel, Zechariah, Book of

Articles of       Galatians,        The Book of    Zephaniah,

Scots Confession        The Letter of   Deuteronomy  Book of

Seeker Paul to the       Ecclesiastes     literature

semi-Pelagianism         Gethsemane    Eden, Garden of         Old Testament

Social Gospel  Golden Rule    Elohim apocrypha:

Sccinian           Gospel Esther, Book of           Adam and Eve,

Solemn League           Hebrews, Letter          Exodus            Life of

and Covenant  to the   Ezekiel,           Ahikar, The

Sonderbund    James,  The Book of    Story of

stylite  The Letter of   Ezra and          Aristeas, Letter of

Sunday school John, Gospel   Nehemiah,       Azariah, The

1054, Schism of          According to   books of          Prayer of

theological       John, letters of            Genesis            Baruch,

liberalism         Jude, Letter of            golden calf      Apocalypse of

Thirty-nine      Lord's Prayer   Habakkuk,       Baruch, Book of

Articles            Luke, Gospel   The Book of    Damascus

Treatise on the According to   Haggai,            Document

Power and       Magnificat       The Book of    Ecclesiasticus

Primacy of the Mark, The Gospel       Hexapla           Enoch, First

Pope    According to   Holiness, Code of       Book of

Trent, Council of         Matthew, Gospel        Hosea, Book of           Enoch, Second

Troubles,         According to   Isaiah, Book of           Book of

Council of       Nazarene         Israel   Esdras, First

Twenty-five    New Testament           Jeremiah,         Book of

Articles of       Nunc Dimittis The Book of    Esdras, Second

Religion           Peter, letters of            Job, The Book of        Book of

Ultramontanism          Philippians, Letter       Joel, Book of   Genesis

Unigenitus       of Paul to the  Jonah, Book of            Apocryphon

Vatican Council,         Revelation       Joshua, Book of          Isaiah,

first      to John            Judges, Book of          Ascension of

Vatican Council,         Romans, Letter of       Kenite Jeremiah,

second Paul to the       Ketuvim          The Letter of

Vienne,            Thessalonians, Kings, books of           Jubilees, Book of

Council of       letters of Paul  Lamentations of          Judith, Book of

Vulgate           to the   Jeremiah, The  Maccabees, The

Waldenses       Timothy,          Leviticus         Books of the

Warsaw,          The Letter of   Malachi,          Manual of

Compact of     Paul to The Book of    Discipline

Western Schism          Titus, The Letter         Masoretic text Moses,

Westminster    of Paul to        Micah, Book of           Assumption of

Assembly        literature          Midianite         Prophets, The

Whitby, Synod of       New Testament           Moabite           Lives of the

Worms,            apocrypha:       Nahum, Book of         Solomon,

Concordat of   John, Acts of   Nevi'im            Psalms of

Worms, Diet of           Paul, Acts of   Numbers          Solomon,

                        Obadiah, Book of       Wisdom of

Tobit    Easter  Marist Brother Confessions,

Twelve Patriarchs,       Ember Days and         Marist Father   Book of

Testaments of the        Ember Weeks  Mary Immaculate,       confirmation

War of the Sons          Epiphany         Oblates of       creed

of Light Against         Good Friday   Maurist            cross

the Sons of      holy days of    Mechitarist      cross, sign of the

Darkness, The obligation        mendicant       Cross, Stations

literature—patristic:    Holy Family, Feast      Mercedarian    of the

Ambrosiaster   of the   Mercy, Sisters of         crucifixion

Apologist        Holy Innocents,          Minim  Dies Irae

Apostolic         Feast of the     monasticism    divine office

Constitutions   Holy Saturday Oratorian         doxology

Apostolic Father         Holy Week      Passionist        Ecce Homo

Barnabas, Letter of     Jubilee, Year of           Poor Clare       epiclesis

Clement, First Lent     Premonstratensian       Eucharist

Letter of          Maundy Thursday       Redemptorist  exorcism

Clementine      Michaelmas     Sacred Heart,  feet, washing of

literature          Palm Sunday   Society of the  godparent

Didache           Pentecost         Salesian           Hail Mary

Diognetus,       Reformation Day        Servite hands,

Letter to          Rogation Days            Spiritual           imposition of

Hippolytus,     Shrove Tuesday          Templar           Heidelberg

Canons of Saint          Sunday            Teutonic Order            Catechism

Martyrdom of Transfiguration,           Trappist           Holy Family

Polycarp          Feast of the     Trinitarian        Holy Sepulchre

patristic literature        religious communities Ursuline           holy water

Peregrinatio     and orders:      Vincentian       icon

Etheriae           Anglican religious       Visitandine      iconostasis

Shepherd of    community      White Father   James, Liturgy of

Hermas            Augustinian     Zoe      Saint

Testamentum   Basilian           worship, liturgy,          Jesus prayer

Domini            Benedictine     ritual, and        kanön

literature—other:         Bridgettine      iconography:   Last Supper

apocalyptic      Camaldolese    acolyte lector

literature          Capuchin         Agnus Dei       Liturgical

apocrypha        Carmelite         Alexandrian rite          Movement

biblical criticism          Carthusian       anointment      Lord's Prayer

Douai-Reims Bible      Charity of Saint          Antiochene rite           Madonna

exegesis           Vincent de Paul,         Apostles' Creed           Magnificat

Geneva Bible  Daughters of   Armenian rite  mass

hermeneutics   Christian Brother        Athanasian Creed       missal

Imitation of Christ      Cistercian        Baptism           monstrance

logia    Common Life, Basil, Liturgy of          Nativity

Mormon, Book of       Brethren of the            Saint    Nicene Creed

Peshitta           Divine Word   bell, book, and            orant

Philokalia        Missionary       candle  Pieta

polyglot Bible Dominican       benediction     prayer

Targum            Franciscan       breviary           Preconsecrated

Vulgate           Good Shepherd           Byzantine rite  Offerings, Liturgy

liturgical year: Sister   cantor  of the

Advent            Grandchamp   Chaldean rite   procession

All Saints' Day            and Taize         chalice pyx

All Souls' Day communities    chrismation      rosary

Ascension of the         Hesychasm      Common Order,          Sabbatarianism

Lord, Feast of the       Holy Ghost Father      Book of           sacrament

Ash Wednesday          Jesuit   Common Prayer,         shepherds,

Candlemas      Knights of Malta         The Book of    adoration of the

Christmas        Little Brothers of        Concord, The  thurible

church year      Jesus and Little           Book of           tithe

Corpus Christi,            Sisters of Jesus            confession       troparion

Feast of           Marianist         confessional   

332 Part Eight. Religion

True Cross       Westminster    other:   Protestantism

vespers            Confession      Christianity     Roman

Westminster    See Section 624 of      Eastern            Catholicism

Catechism       Part Six for      Orthodoxy      World Council of

            sacred music    liberation theology      Churches

Biographies     Eusebius of     Martin of Tours,          Vincent of Lerins,

            Nicomedia       Saint    Saint

early Christian                        

figures—to 1054:                               

Ambrose, Saint           Euthymius I    Nemesius of    Wilfrid, Saint

Anastasius the Euthymius the Emesa  Willibrord, Saint

Librarian          Great, Saint     Nestorius         Zosimus, Saint

Ansgar, Saint  Evagrius Ponticus       Nicephorus I, Saint     Christian figures

Anthony of Egypt,      Fursey, Saint   Nicetas of        medieval and

Saint    Gennadius of  Remesiana       Renaissance:

Aphraates        Marseilles        Nicholas, Saint            Aelred of Rievaulx,

Aristedes         Germanus I, Saint       Nicholas I        Saint

Arsenius the Great      Germanus of   Nicholas I, Saint         Ailly, Pierre d'

Athanasius, Saint        Auxerre, Saint Nilus of Ancyra,         Alexander III

Athenagoras    Gregory I, Saint          Saint    Alexander VI

Augustine, Saint         Gregory VII, Saint      Ninian, Saint   Arnold of Brescia

Augustine of   Gregory of      Novatian         Benedict (XIII)

Canterbury, Saint        Nazianzus, Saint         Origen Bernard of

Basil the Great,           Gregory of Nyssa,       Oswald of York,         Clairvaux, Saint

Saint    Saint    Saint    Bonaventure, Saint

Bede the          Gregory of Tours,       Palladius          Boniface VIII

Venerable, Saint          Saint    Paschal I, Saint           Borgia, Cesare, due

Benedict Biscop,         Gregory           Paschasius       de Valentinois

Saint    Thaumaturgus,            Radbertus, Saint         Catherine of Siena,

Benedict of Nursia,     Saint    Patrick, Saint   Saint

Saint    Hesychius of   Pelagius I        Celestine V, Saint

Berengar of Tours       Jerusalem         Pelagius II       Clare of Assisi,

Chad, Saint     Hilarion, Saint Philoponus, John         Saint    •

Chrysostom, Saint       Hincmar of Reims       Philostorgius   Clement V

John     Hippolytus of  Philoxenus of  Clement VI

Clement I, Saint          Rome, Saint    Mabbug           Dominic, Saint

Clement of      Honorius I       Photius, Saint  Duns Scotus, John

Alexandria, Saint        Humbert of Silva        Polycarp, Saint            Eckhart, Meister

Colman of       Candida          Priscillian         Edmund of

Lindisfarne, Saint       Ignatius of       Rabanus Marus           Abington, Saint

Cuthbert, Saint            Antioch, Saint Sergius I, Saint            Francis of Assisi,

Cyprian, Saint Irenaeus, Saint            Severian of Gabala      Saint

Cyril and         Isaac the Great,           Severus of Antioch     Gerson, Jean de

Methodius, Saints       Saint    Simplicius, Saint         Gilbert of

Cyril of            Isidore of Seville,        Sophronius      Sempringham,

Alexandria, Saint        Saint    Stephen VI      Saint

Damasus I, Saint         Jerome, Saint   Sulpicius Severus        Gregory VII, Saint

Diadochus of  Joan, Pope       Symmachus, Saint       Gregory IX

Photice            John of Damascus,      Tertullian         Gregory of Rimini

Dionysius of    Saint    Theodore Ascidas       Honorius III

Alexandria, Saint        John of Jerusalem        Theodore of    Hus, John

Dustan of        Justin Martyr,  Canterbury, Saint        Innocent II

Canterbury, Saint        Saint    Theodore of    Innocent III

Ennodius, Magnus      Kenneth, Saint            Cyrrhus           Innocent IV

Felix    Leo I, Saint     Theodosius of Isaac of Stella

Ephraem Syrus,           Leo III, Saint  Alexandria      Jerome of Prague

Saint    Leo IX, Saint  TheOdürus Abu          Joachim of Fiore

Erigena, John  Liberius           Qurrah John XXII

Scotus Lucifer            Theophilus of  John (XXIII)

Eusebius of     Macarius the    Alexandria, Saint        John of Avila,

Caesarea          Egyptian          Ulfilas Saint

            Mark the Hermit         Vigilius           

John of Matha, Saint

John of Mirecourt John of Salisbury Julius II

Malachy, Saint Martin V

Mille, John Nicholas III Nicholas IV Nicholas V Nicholas of Clemanges Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Hereford

Paschal II

Paul II

Peter Lombard Petrus Aureoli Pius II

Prester John Rokycana, Jan Savonarola, Girolamo

Seven Holy Founders

Sixtus IV

Suso, Heinrich Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Urban II

Urban VI William de la Mare

William of Auvergne

William of


William of Champeaux William of Hirsau William of Saint-Amour William of Saint-Thierry Wycliffe, John

Eastern Orthodox figures—from 1054: Akindynos, Gregorios

Alexis I

Alexis II

Anthony of Kiev Antony

Khrapovitsky Bartholomew I Bulgakov, Macarius Cydones, Demetrius

Dimitrios Eugenikos,

Markos Euthymius of Tiirnovo Gemistus Plethon, George

Gennadios II Scholarios Gregory of Sinai Isidore of Kiev Jeremias II

John XI Becchus Joseph of Volokolamsk, Saint

Maximus the Greek

Mogila, Peter Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos Nikon

Palamas, Saint Gregory Planudes, Maximus Prokopovich, Feofan

Sergius Theophylactus of Ochrida

Tikhon, Saint New Testament .figures:

Anne and Joachim, Saints James, Saint John the Apostle, Saint

John the Baptist, Saint

Joseph, Saint Judas Iscariot Luke, Saint

Mark, Saint


Mary Magdalene, Saint

Peter the Apostle, Saint

Pilate, Pontius Stephen, Saint Thomas, Saint

Old Testament figures:










Joseph Melchizedek Moses






Protestant figures: Agricola, Johann Arminius, Jacobus Ballou, Hosea Baxter, Richard Beecher, Henry Ward

Beza, Theodore Biddle, John Bonhoeffer, Dietrich

Bucer, Martin Bultmann, Rudolf Bunyan, John Bushnell, Horace Carey, William Chalmers, Thomas Channing, William Ellery

Clauberg, Johann Cranmer, Thomas David, Ferenc Eddy, Mary Baker Edwards, Jonathan Erastus, Thomas Farel, Guillaume Flacius Illyricus, Matthias

Fox, George Franck, Sebastian Harnack,

Adolf von Hembyze, Jan van Henderson, Alexander Hooker, Richard Huntingdon,

Selina Hastings, Countess of Jewel, John

Joris, David Judson, Adoniram Karlstadt,

Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein von Keble, John Knox, John Kuyper, Abraham

Labadie, Jean de Lefe'vre d'Etaples, Jacques

Leighton, Robert McPherson, Aimee Semple

Mather, Cotton Mather, Increase Mather, Richard Maurice, Frederick Denison Melanchthon, Philipp

Melville, Andrew Menno Simonsz. Miintzer, Thomas Niebuhr, Reinhold Ochino,

Bernardino Oecolampadius, John

Penn, William Ritschl, Albrecht Robinson, John Rogers, John Schaff, Philip Schleiermacher, Friedrich Schwenckfeld, Kaspar

Servetus, Michael Smith, Joseph Socinus, Faustus Spalatin, Georg Spener, Philipp Jakob

Strauss, David Friedrich Swedenborg, Emanuel

Tait, Archibald Campbell

Tillich, Paul Ussher, James Vermigli, Peter Martyr

Wesley, Charles Wesley, John Whitman, Marcus Williams, Roger Young, Brigham Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zwingli, Huldrych

Roman Catholic.


Arnauld, Antoine Arnauld family Bellarmine, Saint Robert

Benson, Edward         Jansen, Cornelius        Paul III            Uganda,

White  Otto     Paul IV            Martyrs of

Bêrulle, Pierre de        John XXIII     Paul VI            Urban VIII

Borromeo, Saint          John of Saint   Pius IV            Wiseman. Nichola!

Charles            Thomas            Pius V, Saint   Xavier, Saint

Bossuet,          John of the Cross,       Pius VI            Francis

Jacques-Benigne         Saint    Pius VII

Cajetan            John Paul II     Pius IX

Calasanz, Saint            Lacordaire, Henri        Pius X, Saint

Joseph Lamennais,      Pius XI

Carroll, John    Felicitê            Pius XII

Clement VII    Laval, Francois de       Ricci, Matteo

Clement XI     Montmorency  Sarpi, Paolo

Clement XIII  Lefebvre, Marcel         Sixtus V

Coindre, Andre           Leo X  Smet,

Dellinger, Johann        Leo XII           Pierre-Jean de

Joseph Ignaz von        Leo XIII         Stein, Edith

Drexel, Katharine,       Loyola, Saint   Teilhard de

Blessed            Ignatius of       Chardin, Pierre

Erasmus,          Maritain, Jacques        Teresa, Mother

Desiderius       Newman, John            Teresa of Avila

Innocent XI,   Henry  Tyrrell. George

Blessed            Paul II

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 828.         Islam


A. History of Islam

     1. The pre-Islamic setting in Arabia

[see also 822.A.6.]

     2. The origin of Islam in the life and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (6th-7th century AD)

     3. The foundations of the Islamic community and the early expansion of Islam beyond Arabia (7th and 8th centuries)

     4. The development of Islamic religion, culture, and society during the first centuries of the caliphate of the `Abbasids (8th-11th century)

     5. The Middle Ages of Islam: developments in theology, law, and culture (11th-18th century)

     6. Islam in the modern world (18th-20th century)

     7. Islam today


B. Intellectual, spiritual, and imaginative expressions of Islam

[see also CA., below]

     1. The Qur'an: its form and contents, views about its origin, interpretations or translations

     2. The Hadith: the oral tradition

     3. Islamic law: Sharfah,figh

     4. Islamic theology and philosophy: philosophic and antiphilosophic trends in Islam. the major schools of Islamic philosophy

     5. The mystical path: Sufism

     6. Mythical elements and elaborations of Islamic beliefs and doctrines


C. Beliefs, practices, and institutions of Islam

     1. Beliefs and doctrines

          a. Doctrines concerning God

          b. Doctrines concerning the universe

          c. Doctrines concerning mankind

          d. Doctrines concerning Satan and other intermediate beings, powers, or principles

[see also 8I [Di.]

          e. Doctrines concerning Muhammad and the nature of prophecy

          f. Eschatological doctrines

          g. Social and ethical doctrines

     2. The forms of Islam: the orthodox community and its variations

          a. Kharijism: the doctrines of the Kharijis and Ibaclis

          b. Mfftazilism

          c. Sunnism

          d. Shi’ism and its subjects: the Ismffilis and other Ismaili sects

          e. Religious groups of Islamic origin, now considered non-Islamic; e.g., Druzes, Baha'i faith

[see 8291.]

          f. Variations among the urban and rustic Sufi orders

     3. Practices and institutions

          a. The Five Pillars of Islam: the profession of faith, the five daily prayers, the obligatory tax (zakat), fasting, the pilgrimage to Mecca

          b. Sacred places and days: the mosque and festivals in public worship

          c. The family: Islamic teaching regarding marriage, divorce, chastity, and inheritance

          d. The SharEah: law and jurisprudence, the schools of law

     4. Art and iconography

          a. Major eras, regions, and schools of Islamic art

          b. The expression of Islamic faith and themes in the arts

          c. The religious and cultural context of Islamic art and iconography: the effect of the anti-iconic principle on representational art

     5. Modern reform movements


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Islam

Islam, Muhammad and the Religion of

jahannam         Hegira zakat    hal

Jibril    'id        zawiyah           haqiqah

jinni     ihram   ziyarah kashf

Khidr, al-         jihad    zuhd    khirqah

mandi  jum`ah sects, schools,  Malamatiyah

Mikal   Ka`bah            branches:         maqam

mi`raj   khitan  Alawite           Mawlawiyah

shaitan khutbah           Bohra  mujahadah

Sheba, Queen of         mawlid            Deoband school          mushahadah

Yajtaj and Majtaj        minaret            Demme            Naqshbandiyah

offices and orders:      minbar Druze  (Winyah

caliph   mosque            Ismallite          Qalandarlyah

imam   muezzin           Ithnd Ashariyah          Rifalyah

marabout         mullah Kharijite          sama`

qurra'   mut' ah            Mandist           shath

Shadhiliyah     purdah Maturidiyah    Shattariyah

Qui'dnic literature:      qibla    Mu`tazilah       Subud

basmalah         rajm     Rafidah           Sufism

fatihah Ramadan         Shiite   Suhrawardiyah

fawatiti            salat     Sufism tariqa

Qur'an sawm   Sunnite            other:

surah    sayyid  Wahhabi          Ahl-e klaqq

ritual, practice,            sharif   Yazidi American Muslim

observance:     subhah 51ifism:           Mission

adhan  sunna   Ahmadiyah     Islam

`Àshara'           tafsir    Bektashi          Muhammadiyah

Black Stone of            tahajjud           Chishtiyah       M'zabite

Mecca  talbiyah           dervish            sheikh

crescent           taqiya  dhikr    ulama

ghusl    tazia     fakir    

hajj      `umrah fana    

Biographies     Jalal ad-Din     theologians and           Ghazali, al-

leaders and teachers:                          

Abd Allah       ar-Rfni philosophers:   Hasan

Alma Bakr       Jamal ad-Din   Abduh,            al-Basri, al-

Ahmad Khan, Sir        al-Afghani       Muhammad     Ibn al-Arabi

Sayyid Junayd, Shaykh           Abu Hanifah   Ibn Aqil

Ahsa'i, al-        Mandi, al-        Ahmad ibn      Ibn Hazm

Ali       Muhammad     Hanbal Ibn Taymiyah

Ghaznavid       Rashid Rida    Ash`ari, Abu   Muhasibi, al-

Dynasty           Sha`rani, ash-  al-Hasan al-     Sirhindi, Shaykh

Hallaj, al-         `Umar I           Averroes          Ahmad

Ja'far ibn          `Umar II          Avicenna         Suhrawardi, as-

Muhammad     `Umar Tal        Fakhr ad-Din   Tabart, at-



INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 829.         Other Religions and Religious Movements in the Modern World


A. New religious movements reflecting the impact of dominant cultures and religions


B. Negro cults in Western cultures

     1. The Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims

[see E.3., below]

     2. Black Jewish cults: the Church of God; the Commandment Keepers, or Black Jews; the Church of God and Saints of Christ


C. Theosophical groups


D. Spiritualist groups


E. Religions and religious movements of Islamic origin or influenced by Islam

     1. The Bahal faith

     2. The Druze religion

     3. The Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims


F. Residues or revivals of ancient and primitive religious beliefs and practices in modern civilizations

     1. Witchcraft, black magic, Satanism

[see also 811.F.]

     2. Prophecy, divination, astrology

     3. Healing cults or practices

     4. Pharmacological cults or practices


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with other religions and religious movements in the modern world

Doctrines and Dogmas, Religious



Bab, the           Divine, Father Mahesh Yogi,  Muhammad,

Bhaktivedanta,            Fard, Wallace D.         Maharishi        Elijah

A.C.    Gurdjieff, Georges      Moon, Sun Myung      Smohalla

Blavatsky, Helena       Ivanovitch                   Steiner, Rudolf


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above