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  1. 1 Part Nine. The History of Mankind
    1. 1.1 Division I. Peoples and Civilizations of Ancient Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe
      1. 1.1.1 Section 911.         Early Peoples and Civilizations of Southwest Asia and Egypt, the Aegean, and North Africa
        1. A. The character and achievements of ancient Near Eastern, Aegean, and North African civilizations; the geography of these regions; archaeological and documentary historical sources; historiographic problems
        2. B. Mesopotamia and Iran to c. 1600 BC
        3. C. Emergence of river valley civilization in Egypt (to c. 1600 BC)
        4. D. Early civilizations in Syria and Palestine, Anatolia, and the Aegean to c. 1600 BC
        5. E. The era of the Egyptian and Hittite empires (c. 1600-1050 BC): the expansion of the Indo-Europeans
        6. F. The era of the new states of Southwest Asia: the beginning of the Iron Age (c. 1050-700 BC)
        7. G. The era of the Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires and the Achaemenid Persian Empire (746250 Bc)
        8. H. The Parthian and Sasanian (Sassanid) empires (c. 250 BC-AD 651), Armenia
      2. 1.1.2 Section 912.         Peoples of Ancient Europe and the Classical Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean World to AD 395
        1. A. Non-Classical ancient Europe
        2. B. Archaic Greece and the development of Classical Greek civilization (c. 1200-323 BC)
        3. C. The Hellenistic Age (323-27 Bc)
        4. D. The rise of Rome
        5. E. The Roman Empire (31 BC-AD 395)
    2. 1.2 Division II.          Peoples and Civilizations of Medieval Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia
      1. 1.2.1 Section 921.         Western Europe, the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and Eastern Europe from AD 395 to c. 1050
        1. A. The study of medieval and Byzantine history: the historical sources, historiographic problems, chronological outline
        2. B. The eclipse of the Roman Empire in the West and the development and Christianization of Germanic successor states (AD 395—c. 750)
        3. C. The early Byzantine Empire (AD 395-717)
        4. D. Western Christendom and Scandinavia from the Carolingian era to the general European revival (c. 750-c. 1050)
        5. E. Peoples and states of eastern Europe to c. 1050: early empires and later development of Christianized states
        6. F. The zenith and incipient decline of the Byzantine Empire (717-1081), the growth of Venice
      2. 1.2.2 Section 922.         The Formative Period in Islamic History, from AD 622 to c. 1055
        1. A. The study of Islamic history: the historical sources historiographic problems
        2. B. The rise and spread of Islam and the Arab Empire to the end of the Umayyad dynasty (AD 622750)
        3. C. The 'Abbasid Empire and its successor states (750-c. 1055)
      3. 1.2.3 Section 923.         Western Christendom in the High and Later Middle Ages (c. 1050–c. 1500)
        1. A. The medieval western European revival and the economy, society, and culture of Western Christendom in the High Middle Ages
        2. B. The decline of medieval European political institutions, economy, and culture and the incipient transition to the modern age (c. 1300-c. 1500)
      4. 1.2.4 Section 924.         The Crusading Movement, the Islamic States of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe, and the States of Eastern Christendom from c. 1050 to c. 1480
        1. A. The expansion of western Europe in the crusading movement and the Muslim response, the states of Eastern Christendom and the crusader states from c. 1050 to c. 1480
        2. B. The Islamic states of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe (c. 1050-c. 1480): Turkish and Kurdish dynasties, the Mongol invasions, and the rise of the Ottoman Empire
    3. 1.3 Division III.         Peoples and Traditional Civilizations of East, Central, South, and Southeast Asia
      1. 1.3.1 Section 931.         China to the Beginning of the Late T'ang (AD 755)
        1. A. The character and achievements of Chinese civilization, the geography and ethnography of China, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. The emergence of traditional Chinese civilization
        3. C. The unification of China under the Ch'in and Han dynasties (221 BC-AD 220)
        4. D. The breakdown and revival of the empire
      2. 1.3.2 Section 932.         China from the Late T'ang (AD 755) to the Late Ch'ing (c. 1839)
        1. A. The late T'ang dynasty, the Ten Kingdoms, the Five Dynasties, and the Sung dynasty
        2. B. Mongol-Chinese rule under the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
        3. C. The Ming and Ch'ing dynasties to c. 1839: the tribute system, relative stability, ethnocentrism, and emphasis on cultural unity
      3. 1.3.3 Section 933.         Inner (Central and Northeast) Asia to c. 1750
        1. A. The peoples of the steppes, their cultures, and their interactions with neighbouring civilizations; the geography and ethnography of Inner Asia; archaeological and documentary historical sources; historiographic problems
        2. B. The peoples and states of Inner Asia to c. AD 1200
        3. C. The Mongol Empire and its successor states
        4. D. Tibet and Nepal to c. 1750
        5. E. The waning of nomad power from the 16th to the 18th century: the Manchu conquest of China and parts of Inner Asia, the Afghans as the last nomad power in Inner Asia, Russian expansion into Siberia and western Turkistan
      4. 1.3.4 Section 934.         Japan to the Meiji Restoration (1868), and Korea to 1910
        1. A. Introduction: the character and achievements of Japanese and Korean civilizations, the geography and ethnography of Japan and Korea, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. Early Japan
        3. C. Feudal Japan
        4. D. Korea to 1910
      5. 1.3.5 Section 935.         The Indian Subcontinent and Ceylon to c. AD 1200
        1. A. The character and achievements of traditional Indian civilizations and their influence on Ceylonese and Southeast Asian civilizations, the geography and ethnography of the Indian subcontinent and Ceylon, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. India from the prehistoric period to AD 300: the emergence of civilization in the Indus River Valley, the growth of kingdoms and the great empires
        3. C. North India, the Deccan, and South India (AD 300-750)
        4. D. North India (750-1200), the Deccan, and South India (750-c. 1330): new dynasties and centres of power
        5. E. Ceylon from the prehistoric period to the end of the Classical Age (AD 1200)
      6. 1.3.6 Section 936.         The Indian Subcontinent from c. 1200 to 1761, and Ceylon from c. 1200 to 1505
        1. A. North India under Muslim hegemony (c. 1200-1526)
        2. B. The Deccan (c. 1320-1627) and South India (1336-1646)
        3. C. The beginning of the political and administrative unification of the subcontinent under the Mughal Empire (1526-1761)
        4. D. The emergence of the Maratha empire in Maharashtra: rise to power and decline after 1761
        5. E. Ceylon from c. 1200 to the arrival of the Portuguese (1505)
      7. 1.3.7 Section 937.         The Peoples and Civilizations of Southeast Asia to c. 1600
        1. A. The character and achievements of traditional Southeast Asian civilizations, South and East Asian influences, the geography and ethnography of Southeast Asia, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. Mainland Southeast Asia to c. 1600
        3. C. Islands of the Indonesian Archipelago to c. 1600
    4. 1.4 Division IV.        Peoples and Civilizations of Sub-Saharan Africa to 1885
      1. 1.4.1 Section 941.         West Africa to c. 1885
        1. A. The geography and ethnography of West Africa, definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in West Africa
        2. B. West Africa until the advent of the Europeans (c. AD 1500)
        3. C. The precolonial period of European activity (c. 1400–c. 1885): exploration, development of the slave trade, and eventual collapse of indigenous states
      2. 1.4.2 Section 942.         The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia from c. AD 550 to 1885
        1. A. The Nilotic Sudan from c. 550 to 1885
        2. B. Ethiopia and Eritrea from c. AD 650 to 1855
      3. 1.4.3 Section 943.         East Africa and Madagascar to c. 1885
        1. A. The geography and ethnography of East Africa and Madagascar: definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in East Africa
        2. B. East Africa to c. 1856 and Madagascar to c. 1810
        3. C. East Africa from 1856 to c. 1900 and Madagascar from 1810 to 1896
      4. 1.4.4 Section 944.         Central Africa to c. 1885
        1. A. The geography and ethnography of Central Africa, definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in Central Africa
        2. B. Central Africa to c. 1885
      5. 1.4.5 Section 945.         Southern Africa to c. 1885
        1. A. The geography and ethnography of southern Africa: definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in southern Africa
        2. B. Southern Africa before c. 1500
        3. C. Southern Africa from c. 1500 to c. 1885
    5. 1.5 Division V.         Peoples and Civilizations of Pre-Columbian America
      1. 1.5.1 Section 951.         Andean Civilization to c. .0 1540
        1. A. The character and achievements of Andean civilization, the geography and ethnography of the Andean region. archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. Pre-Inca cultures and states
        3. C. The empire of the Incas (c. I400-c. 1540)
      2. 1.5.2 Section 952.         Meso-American Civilization to c. AD 1540
        1. A. The character and achievements of Meso-American civilization, the geography and ethnography of Meso-America, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems
        2. B. Meso-America in the Pre-Classic and Classic periods
        3. C. Post-Classic Period in the Valley of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula (c. 900-c. 1519)
        4. D. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec state and the Yucatan Peninsula (1519-c. 1540): destruction of Aztec government and culture, imposition of Spanish colonial policies and religion
    6. 1.6 Division VI.        The Modern World to 1920
      1. 1.6.1 Section 961.         Western Europe from c. 1500 to c. 1789
        1. A. The effects of religious and cultural change: the emergence of the nation-state system, the predominance and decline of Habsburg power centred in Spain (c. 1500-1648)
        2. B. European overseas expansion and commercial development from c. 1400 to 1763
        3. C. France and Great Britain as the dominant powers in Europe, the emergence of Prussia and Austria as European powers
      2. 1.6.2 Section 962.         Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa from c. 1480 to c. 1800
        1. A. The Christian states of eastern Europe
        2. B. The Islamic states of eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa
      3. 1.6.3 Section 963.         Europe from 1789 to c. 1920
        1. A. European political and economic revolution (1789-1850): the French Revolution and its effects, the development and effects of industrialization
        2. B. Realism and materialism, nationalism, the reorganization of Europe. imperialist expansion (1850c. 1920)
      4. 1.6.4 Section 964.         European Colonies in the Americas from 1492 to c. 1790
        1. A. The geography and ethnography of the Americas
        2. B. Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas, other European powers in South America and the Caribbean to c. 1790
        3. C. Norse, English, Dutch, and Swedish discoveries, explorations, and settlements in North America (c. 1000-1763)
        4. D. French discoveries, explorations, and settlements in North America: New France and Louisiana (1524-1763)
      5. 1.6.5 Section 965.         Development of the United States and Canada from 1763 to 1920
        1. A. The United States to 1865: national formation and territorial expansion, conflict between North and South
        2. B. The United States from 1865 to 1920: Reconstruction, industrialization, increased immigration, development of the West, and emergence as a world power
        3. C. Canada under British colonial rule from 1763 to 1867, the Dominion of Canada from 1867 to 1920
      6. 1.6.6 Section 966.         Development of the Latin-American and Caribbean Nations to c. 1920
        1. A. The Latin-American independence movement (1790-1825)
        2. B. Mexico from independence (1821) through the end of the Revolution (1917) 1. Mexico from 1821 to 1855
        3. C. Central America and the Caribbean to c. 1920
        4. D. The successor states of Gran Colombia to c. 1930
        5. E. The Indian nations of the Andes to c. 1930
        6. F. Chile from 1810 to 1920
        7. G. The successor states of the Rio de la Plata (excluding Bolivia) to c. 1920
        8. H. Brazil from the establishment of the empire to the fall of the First Republic (1822-1930)
      7. 1.6.7 Section 967.         Australia and Oceania to c. 1920
        1. A. The character and historical development of the diverse peoples of Oceania and the effects of colonization
        2. B. Australia to 1920
        3. C. New Zealand to 1928
      8. 1.6.8 Section 968.         South Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism from c. 1500 to c. 1920
        1. A. European activity in India (1498–c. 1760)
        2. B. Extension of British power (1760-1858)
        3. C. British imperial power (1858-1920)
        4. D. Ceylon under foreign rulers from c. 1505 to 1920
        5. E. Tibet and Nepal from c. 1750 to c. 1920
      9. 1.6.9 Section 969.         Southeast Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism to c. 1920
        1. A. The states and European colonies of mainland Southeast Asia from c. 1600 to c. 1920
        2. B. The states and European colonies of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippines from c. 1500 to c. 1920
      10. 1.6.10 Section 96/10. China from 1839 Until the Onset of Revolution (to c. 1911), and Japan from the Meiji Restoration to c. 1910
        1. A. China under the late Ch'ing: the challenges of rebellion and Western penetration
        2. B. The modernization of Japan and its emergence as a world power (1868-c. 1910)
      11. 1.6.11 Section 96/11. Southwest Asia and North Africa (c. 1800-1920), and Sub-Saharan Africa (1885—c. 1920)
        1. A. The Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1920: European intervention and the continuation of westernization
        2. B. Egypt, the Maghrib, and the Arabian Peninsula: the development of Arab nationalism and Zionism
        3. C. Iran under the Qajar dynasty from 1779 to 1925, Afghanistan from 1809 to 1921
        4. D. Sub-Saharan Africa from c. 1885 to c. 1920
    7. 1.7 Division VII.       The World Since 1920
      1. 1.7.1 Section 971.         International Movements, Diplomacy, and War Since 1920
        1. A. The period between the World Wars (1920-39)
        2. B. World War II (1939-45)
        3. C. International relations
      2. 1.7.2 Section 972.         Europe Since c. 1920
        1. A. The nations of western Europe since c. 1920
        2. B. Eastern and central Europe
        3. C. The arts and intellectual life in Europe since 1920: increasing concern with the problems of alienation and despair, the importance of popular culture
      3. 1.7.3 Section 973.         The United States and Canada Since 1920
        1. A. The United States since 1920
        2. B. Canada since 1920
      4. 1.7.4 Section 974.         Latin-American and Caribbean Nations Since c. 1920
        1. A. Mexico since 1920
        2. B. Central America and the Caribbean since c. 1920
        3. C. Venezuela and Colombia since c. 1930
        4. D. Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia since c. 1930
        5. E. Chile since 1920
        6. F. Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay since c. 1930
        7. G. Brazil since 1930: the Second Republic
        8. H. Development of Latin-American literature, music, and visual arts in the 20th century: the intermingling of European, Indian, and African cultures
      5. 1.7.5 Section 975.         East Asia: China in Revolution, the Era of Japanese Hegemony, and the Influence of the United States in the 20th Century
        1. A. China since 1912
        2. B. Japan since c. 1910
        3. C. Korea since 1910
      6. 1.7.6 Section 976.         South and Southeast Asia: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations Since 1920
        1. A. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Tibet, and Nepal since 1920
        2. B. Mainland Southeast Asia since 1920
        3. C. Indonesia and the Philippines
      7. 1.7.7 Section 977.         Australia and Oceania Since 1920
        1. A. International developments in the Pacific and the disposition of the dependent territories in Oceania since 1920
        2. B. Australia since 1920
        3. C. New Zealand since c. 1920
      8. 1.7.8 Section 978.         Southwest Asia and Africa: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations in the 20th Century
        1. A. Turkey since 1919 and Cyprus since 1920
        2. B. Development of the Arab states and Israel in Southwest Asia and Egypt
        3. C. Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia since c. 1920
        4. D. North Africa since 1920
        5. E. The maturation of the European colonial system and the nationalist movements in sub-Saharan Africa since 1920

Introduction to Part Nine:


The Point and Pleasure of Reading History

by Jacques Barzun


Everything that we call the arts and the humanities comes out of some natural desire and acquires value by satisfying it. Painting and music and literature are important not because there are museums and concert halls and libraries to be kept supplied but because human beings want to draw and sing and tell stories as well as enjoy seeing others fulfill these native and universal impulses.

Among the humanities, history holds a special place in that its origin within each of us is not even dependent on impulse. A person may lack altogether the wish to sing or the knack of telling a story, but everybody without exception finds occasion to say: "I was there; I saw it; I remember it very well." In saying (or even thinking) these words, every man is a historian. History is inescapably a part of consciousness. The Greeks expressed this truth by describing Clio, the muse of history, as the daughter of memory.

Without going into the subtleties of how we are able to remember and what the contents of memory actually are, it is clear that as soon as we take thought about our experiences, whether the farthest back or the nearest and most immediate, we are dealing with what is past. The so-called present vanishes in the very act of reflecting upon it, and the future is all surmise and imagination. Hence the greater our interest in the facts and truths of human existence—our own existence included—the greater, necessarily, is our concern with the past. "To live in the past" ought not, therefore, to be the phrase of reproach that it commonly is. The larger part of the thoughtful life that one leads during the intervals of action cannot be anything but some form of living in the past. If this part of our lives is to be criticized, it should be in words different from the cliché. One should ask, How does he or she live in the past? What past does he or she recall, prefer, imagine?

It is at this point that history as the organized story of the whole human past comes in to contribute its pleasures and its illumination to the thoughtful life. A person who remembered only his own past would be pretty poor indeed—living on a starvation diet. Actually, it is a question whether such a life is not an impossible supposition. Everybody remembers pieces of other people's pasts; everybody, whether he means to or not, finds that he has learned about his country, his town, his street, his business office, or his factory many things that came to pass well before his time. To possess that information, if it is accurate, is in essence a knowledge of history. It differs in extent but not in kind from a knowledge of how Rome rose and fell. And this relation tells us what reading history affords in the first instance. Just as knowing about our neighbours' and friends' histories adds to our sense of reality, so does reading history: it gives us vicarious experience.

If we add to the habitual, unconscious intake of personal and local history the daily filling of the mind by newsreports—which is contemporary history and which usually brings with it fragments of a remoter past—we begin to see that every man who lives in a modern, communicative society is forced to become in some sense a conscious historian. His interest begins with himself and his environment, but it is soon stretched out, haphazardly, into such domains of history as chance or special interests have developed. And special interests need not mean explicitly intellectual ones; baseball and chess, model trains and furniture, pottery and boat-building have their heroes and revolutions too, and whoever cares about these activities or artifacts for themselves inevitably becomes engrossed in their histories.

It is of course true that when we ordinarily speak of someone having an interest in history we mean the political, social, or cultural history of great civilizations; and for a long time history was arbitrarily taken to mean the sequence that leads from the ancient civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean to the modern ones of the West. It is a tremendous spectacle, even though concentrated on a relatively small territory. But now that certain dynamic elements of Western civilization have aroused the rest of the world to both imitation and resistance, it has become imperative to widen the panorama and see behind the vast and confused modern scene the several histories of the great Eastern civilizations as well as the traditions and vicissitudes of the African societies.

Two questions readily occur at the mere thought of so much to know. Can a reader who is not a professional historian find his way in this huge maze of names, dates, and facts? And if he can, why should he? The answer to the first question is the old reply of the mathematician to the nervous student: "What one fool can do, another can." A real compliment is concealed in this gruff retort, for what it implies is that given an interest, a motive, any man can inform himself about any part of world history through secondary accounts such as are digested in an encyclopaedia. There is no obligation to master every detail, to dispute or criticize sources—in a word, to ape the professional, who, for the best of reasons, limits himself to a small segment of the whole. A reader of history is one who follows with his mind the steps another took on his voyage of discovery; and this is easier in history than in mathematics, for history is told in plain words and deals with ordinary human relationships.

So the main difficulty lies in the second question: Why embark on the journey? The answers are numerous and varied, for temperaments differ, as do "special interests" in the sense referred to above. But there is one answer that covers the rest; it is the answer suggested by what was said earlier about every man's unconscious absorption of haphazard fragments of history. The best motive for reading history deliberately is curiosity about the portions missing from one's own picture of the past. Curiosity: How did things come to be as they are? How was it when they were different? Is it true that once upon a time men did thus and so? History deals with particulars, and most recorded particulars contain puzzles, contradictions, enormities, all of them spurs to curiosity: the Hudson River in the state of New York was named after the navigator often called Hendrik Hudson, who first sailed up the stream. But why Hendrik and not Henry? Well, Henry was his baptismal name; how did he acquire the other and why? The full answer leads really to a comprehensive view of exploration and colonization by the national states at the dawn of the modern age—the aims, drives, desires, errors, follies, cruelties, and incalculable consequences of a great movement that occupies two and a half centuries and that has continued in different forms down to the landings on the Moon.

The most striking feature of history is its fusion of purposeful direction and unexpected drift. For example, read about Plato, Aristotle, and the ancient mathematicians, and you will discover how their speculations and discoveries have been transformed and amplified into the methods and systems that we still work with. But you will also be told how at various times these same streams of thought or belief generated entirely new and remote, strange and absurd consequences. Again, ancient astrology led to the science of astronomy, and science (as we think) replaces superstition. Yet astrology fills columns in 20th-century newspapers and the minds of their millions of readers. What is the explanation? We lack the pythoness of Delphi, in whom Socrates believed or affected to believe, and we have no official college of augurs to scan the entrails of birds as a guide to future political action, but fortune-tellers are never out of business and we do have Gallup polls. Truly, the wonders of cultural history are infinite.

To conjure up these beliefs and institutions in this comparative fashion is not to equate them with one another or across the centuries; it is rather to stress the identity in diversity that is the principle of human affairs and that makes human history accessible to any willing reader. In different times and places, men are the same and also different. The differences are due to the varying emphases given by one people at one time to some element of life and feeling or to some form of its expression. This is most easily seen in the plastic arts. Think of the representations of the human body in Egypt, Greece, medieval Europe, the west coast of Africa, pre-Columbian America, and the art galleries of world capitals in the second half of the 20th century: is it the same human body or different? The question is really idle, for it is both and neither. In paint or marble there is strictly no human body, only a view of it, a feeling about it. Similarly, what we see in history is not so much Man distorted in one way or another as men who existed only as we see them; that is, in their society and culture, under their skies and gods, never staying put for more than a short time, never to be reduplicated elsewhere or at a later time, even when the effort to imitate is strong and shrewd—as in the Italian Renaissance, which tried to restore the ancient culture of Greece and Rome.

Despite this irreducible plasticity, diversity, and restlessness, we draw historical parallels, we make comparisons. That we can do so is what persuades us of the unity and continuity of history. When we find the Celtic druids andthe Aztecs making human sacrifices to their gods we say we recognize a human tendency, though we profess to abhor it. Yet some future reader of history might be tempted to compare with those ancient peoples our contemporary revolutionists, who sacrifice 400.000 kulaks (or some other hapless group) for the good of the tribe and its eternal prosperity. But we also notice a strange difference: we know that fanatical faith presides over each type of human sacrifice, ancient and modern, but even as we condemn we think we understand the modern more readily: we know its background, have heard its advocates. It is one of the illuminations of history, not merely to know abstractly, but, by learning the local shape of things, to feel how the reality of each time and place differs; how the faiths diverge in contents and origins and thus in persuasiveness. We may now lump together the Celts and the Aztecs. but they were far apart in thought and character: in short, nothing is truly comparable; in history everything is sui generis.

The wise reader of history keeps his equilibrium between these two extremes of likeness and difference. He tries to see the unfamiliar in the familiar, and vice versa. He stands away from his own prejudices and satisfies his curiosity by trying to sympathize with what is farthest away or most alien. This is very hard to do when what is before us is a bloody sacrifice, a massacre. a piece of treachery or cynical greed that violates our sensibilities as well as our moral principles. But to sympathize is not to condone or approve, it is only to acknowledge in oneself the ever-present possibility of the same feeling or action. Certainly the enlightened 20th century has no warrant for looking down on times and places where treachery and massacre were commonplace. And it is a sobering observation to find in both past and present the evidence that inhumanities have been and are being committed by the brutish and civilized alike, the ignorant and the educated, the cynical and the devout, the selfish and the heroic.

A principal good derived from history is thus an increase in self-knowledge, through a fellow-feeling with men singly and in groups as history tells about them. That self-knowledge in turn makes the reader of history less ready to find "monsters of error" in his own time and place. Let it be said again, he need not condone or accept with indifference, but he is spared one of the very errors that perpetuates man's inhumanity to man—fanatical self-righteousness.

On the constructive side, what history tells is the long series of efforts to overcome the constraints of nature and the difficulties of living in society. Those efforts we call civilizations. They start small. In the West they first take the form of city-states. They clash, with one another or with the barbarians "outside." Trade and war, war and trade expand the scope of power, government, and law. Great men introduce broader conceptions of citizenship, morals, and religions. Others invent practical devices of administration, manufacture, and—again—war. Still others discover the workings of nature, create mathematics or art or systems of philosophy. A concentration of such activities over a given, territory is what is meant by a high civilization—Egypt, Greece, the Hellenistic Age, Rome, the Saracens, the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance. And also China, Japan, the Khmers, India, the Mayas, the Incas, and so on.

Along this hazardous and always violent course, innumerable characters rise and play their parts. Their fates provide stories within the story. Visibly, biographies are the bricks of which history is made, for the story of mankind can only be the stories of men. But by a paradox of man's social existence, the life of communities is not a simple sum of individual lives. The reader of history must therefore imagine from the printed page characteristic acts, moods, errors, disasters, achievements that are nobody's doing and everybody's doing. This imagining is another important good bestowed by historical reading, for it dispels the illusion that H.G. Wells called the "governess view" of history: They (the bad people) are doing this terrible thing to Us (the good people). The fallacy in it is to suppose that any large group acts as with one mind, clear in purpose and aware of consequences. Such a projection of the single ego upon whole masses is a form of provincialism that is encountered in most political discussions and certainly in all social prejudices: "If the President would only act ... if those people would only see reason...." A reader of history is cured of this simple-mindedness by developing a new sense—the historical sense—of how mankind in the mass behaves, neither free nor fatally pushed, and in its clearest actions mysterious even to itself.

It is this peculiarity that, while marking the difference between history and biography (where acts can be deemed individual and responsible), has led many minds to postulate a meaning in history, a meaning discoverable but obscured by the multiplicity and confusion of facts. A famous passage in Cardinal Newman's Apologia records in admirable prose the feelings that lead to the elaboration of philosophies of history: for Newman it is of course the traditional Christian interpretation that unifies the multiplicity and resolves the confusion:

To consider the world in its length and breadth, its various history. the many races of man, their starts, their fortunes, their mutual alienation, their conflicts: and then their ways, habits, governments, forms of worship; their enterprises, their aimless courses, their random achievements and acquirements, the impotent conclusion of long-standing facts, the tokens so faint and broken, of a superintending design, the blind evolution of what turn out to be great powers or truths, the progress of things. as if from unreasoning elements, not towards final causes, the greatness and littleness of man, his far-reaching aims. his short duration, the curtain hung over his futurity, the disappointments of life, the defeat of good, the success of evil, physical pain, mental anguish, the prevalence and intensity of sin, the pervading idolatries. the corruptions, the dreary hopeless irreligion, that condition of the whole race, so fearfully yet exactly described in the Apostle's words, "having no hope and without God in the world,"—all this is a vision to dizzy and appal, and inflicts upon the mind the sense of a profound mystery'. which is absolutely beyond human solution.

Other famous philosophies, from Vico's and Hegel's to Marx's and Spengler's. discover a direction in history, or a principle of action, and often a goal or terminus (as in Marx), after which history as we know it shall cease and a kind of second Eden be restored.

To the practical writer or reader of history these philosophies appeal mainly by their suggestiveness: they are valued for their scattered insights and analogies. As systems they negate the very spirit of history, which seeks the concrete and particular, the opposite of system and abstraction. True, there have been historians who took a middle course and attempted to find empirical regularities in history—again with occasionally suggestive results—but very soon their methods begin to do violence to the facts in order to group them and count them and treat them like identities in physical science. When the physical world itself has not yet been fully systematized, to assume or "find" a system in history without the means and the liberties that science uses is to think like neither a scientist nor a historian. It is in fact an attempt to remove the difficulty of history at the cost of destroying its unique merit and interest.

By the "liberties" that science takes is meant the experimenter's elimination of all but a very few components in a given trial, so as to ascertain precisely the nature and amount of a given effect. When this is done, the result is usually stated in causal terms—so much of this, under such and such conditions, will produce so much of that. Hardly anyone needs to be told that history defies a similar treatment. Its elements cannot be exactly measured, and although each historical situation presents to the discerning eye a variety of clear conditions or factors, the isolating of a cause for what happens is beyond reach.

That is but another way of saying that history is and must remain a story. And a story, if properly told, is a whole, to be understood as a whole—synthetically, not analytically. History in this regard resembles the arts. We say we "analyze" a work of art, but that is to speak metaphorically. We can enjoy and understand the products of art only as wholes. In history, the artful story is offered as a true story, and great pains are taken to see that it is true. But except in the broadest sense, the historical wholes are not given as such in the record; they are devised by the historian, to make the welter of facts intelligible and hence able to be remembered. Clio was not only the muse of history but also of eloquence, by which the Greeks meant good, intelligible prose, to be spoken before an audience unused to books. The same requirements still hold; written history must be readable with pleasure, or Clio is defeated.

But, it will be said, from many diverse writers will come divergent stories, rival interpretations. That is true, for only a divine mind could know "how it actually happened." But this limitation of history is also a merit, for it can thereby be written and read over and over again in as many versions as are plausible or accessible. There is and will be no final statement; the perspective forever changes, and with it the interest of history renews itself into infinity. As the philosopher William James once remarked, "What has been concluded that we should conclude about it?"

Part Nine. The History of Mankind


The outlines in the thirty-nine sections, in seven divisions, of Part Nine deal with the history of the peoples and civilizations of the world.

Certain points should be noted about Part Nine.

History, like philosophy, has developed methods applicable to the subject matter of other disciplines. The results of these applications are set forth in other parts. Each of the nine sections of Division II of Part Six includes a historical treatment of each of the arts. Similarly, each of the nine sections of Division II of Part Eight includes a historical treatment of each of the particular religions dealt with. Certain sections of the five divisions of Part Ten set forth the history of logic and mathematics; the history of science generally; the history of each of the natural and social sciences; the history of medicine; the history of technology; the history of philosophy; the history of humanistic scholarship; and the history of historiography and of the study of history itself.

It should also be noted that here and in the other portions of the Outline of Knowledge that treat historical matters, the level of detail is greater than that elsewhere. This reflects the editors' belief that an outline of history imposed upon a geographical or chronological base requires a high degree of particularization.

The topical breakdown of the history of mankind into seven divisions and thirty-nine sections reflects more or less traditional judgments—judgments regarding the regional divisions of world history; the identification of peoples and civilizations; the temporal periodization in historical accounts of particular civilizations; and the periods of relative isolation and of relative confluence of different civilizations.


The titles of the seven divisions in this part indicate the regional and temporal divisions used. Introductory headnotes for each of the seven divisions indicate the temporal periodizations used in the accounts of particular civilizations.


Division I. Peoples and Civilizations of Ancient Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe

Division II. Peoples and Civilizations of Medieval Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia

Division III. Peoples and Traditional Civilizations of East, Central, South, and Southeast Asia

Division IV. Peoples and Civilizations of Sub-Saharan Africa to 1885

Division V. Peoples and Civilizations of Pre-Columbian America

Division VI. The Modern World to 1920

Division VII. The World Since 1920


Division I. Peoples and Civilizations of Ancient Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe


The outline in Section 911 first treats of the geography of the regions covered in the section, the sources for the history of the peoples in these regions, and the character and achievements of ancient Near Eastern, Aegean, and North African civilizations. It then deals separately with the history of each of the peoples in these regions in ancient times.

The outline in Section 912 begins with the history of the peoples of non-Classical ancient Europe. It then deals with the whole course of the Classical Greco-Roman civilization, extending from the emergence of Classical Greece from Archaic Greece, through the Hellenistic Age and the history of republican Rome, to the history of the Roman Empire up to AD 395.

Section 911. Early Peoples and Civilizations of Southwest Asia and Egypt, the Aegean, and North Africa 344

912. Peoples of Ancient Europe and the Classical Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean World to AD 395 350


Section 911.         Early Peoples and Civilizations of Southwest Asia and Egypt, the Aegean, and North Africa


A. The character and achievements of ancient Near Eastern, Aegean, and North African civilizations; the geography of these regions; archaeological and documentary historical sources; historiographic problems


B. Mesopotamia and Iran to c. 1600 BC

     1. Development of river valley civilization in Mesopotamia

          a. The Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and protohistoric (pre-urban) periods

          b. The Sumerians from their origins to the end of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2350 BC)

            i. Their conjectured origins: literary and other historical sources (king lists and invention of cuneiform writing), early kings and legendary figures (Gilgamesh)

            ii. Foundation of city-states (e.g., Kish, Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Mari, Umma): rivalry among the cities, the temple city and theocracy, social and economic organization, contacts with Egyptian and Indus Valley civilizations, Sumerian culture

          c. Sumer and Akkad from c. 2350 to 2000 BC

            i. The ascendancy of the Semitic Akkadians under Sargon I of Akkad and his successors, invasions and the fall of the dynasty

            ii. The unification of Sumer, Akkad, and Elam under the 3rd dynasty of Ur (c. 21122004 BC): administration and composition of the empire, Ur in decline

          d. The Old Babylonian Period and the early history of Assyria

            i. Isin and Larsa: rivalry and political fragmentation. literary texts, decentralization

            ii. Early Assyria: Ashur, Nineveh, and Urbilum; Akkadian inscriptions and language; the economy; the reign of Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1813-1781 BC)

            iii. Establishment of the Old Babylonian Empire under the dynasty of Hammurabi (c. 1792-1750 BC): law, society, and literature

          e. Hurrian expansion to c. 1600 BC and the decline of the Old Babylonian Empire after c. 1750 BC

     2. Early Elam (Iran): cultural ties and political and military interaction with Mesopotamia


C. Emergence of river valley civilization in Egypt (to c. 1600 BC)

     1. The Predynastic Period (to c. 2925 BC) and the Early Dynastic Period (1st through 3rd dynasties, c. 2925-c. 2575 BC): unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under King Menes (Narmer), capital at Memphis

     2. The Old Kingdom (c. 2575-2130 BC) and the First Intermediate Period (c. 2130-1939 BC)

          a. The Old Kingdom (4th-8th dynasties, c. 2575-c. 2130 BC): divine kingship; the building of the great pyramids near Memphis; centralized government; class structure; foreign trade; increased provincialization; instability of the throne

          b. The First Intermediate Period (9th-1 lth dynasties, c. 2130-1939 BC): governmental decentralization; collapse of the Old Kingdom and ensuing disunity and foreign raids; reunification by Mentuhotep I under the 11th dynasty, ruling from Thebes

     3. The Middle Kingdom (1938-c. 1600 BC) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630-1540 ix)

          a. The Middle Kingdom (12th-14th dynasties, 1938-c. 1600 BC): the cult of Amon; developments in the monarchical institutions; the conquest of Lower Nubia; trade; immigration

          b. The Second Intermediate Period (15th-17th dynasties, c. 1630-1540 BC): internal decentralization and the Asiatic Hyksos occupation


D. Early civilizations in Syria and Palestine, Anatolia, and the Aegean to c. 1600 BC

     1. Emergence of civilization in Syria and Palestine

          a. The Stone Age cultures and their transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age until c. 2300 BC, agricultural and technological developments, Proto-Urban settlements, Jericho

            i. Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods: development of horticulture and the domestication of animals

            ii. Pre-Pottery Neolithic areas, grouped houses and town walls, arrival of new peoples and their rectangular architecture, Pottery Neolithic areas, molded plaster vessels, dark-faced burnished ware and the spread of its associated culture in. The Chalcolithic Period and the Early Bronze Age: migrations and spread of Halafian culture, development of trade, beginnings of urbanization, Early Bronze Age cities

          b. The Intermediate Period (c. 2300-c. 1900 Bc) and the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1900- c. 1525 Bc): revival of trade and connecting link between the greater states; e.g., Aleppo, Byblos, Alalakh in Syria

            i. The Amorite invasion: breakup of settled areas by nomadic peoples, bronze weapons and votive objects

            ii. Reappearance of urban civilization in the Middle Bronze Age: hieroglyphics, clay tablets, development of new pottery in Canaan

     2. Emergence of civilizations in Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Aegean

          a. Anatolia: the Neolithic, Chalcolithic. and Bronze ages; settlement by the Hittites

            i. Neolithic farming communities: house styles, tools and weapons, pottery, foodstuffs

            ii. Appearance of painted pottery in the Chalcolithic Period, uses of metal

            iii. Bronze Age culture; e.g., Troy, Alaca Hi  jewelry, pottery, burial customs, metalworking, weaponry, migrations

            iv. The Hittite occupation of Anatolia and establishment of the Old Hittite Kingdom (c. 1700-c. 1500 BC): expansion into northern Mesopotamia and Syria under Hattusilis and Mursilis, the Hurrian invasions, the Middle Kingdom

          b. The Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Bronze ages in Cyprus

          c. The early Aegean civilizations (to c. 1450 BC)

            i. The Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic ages in Greece, Crete, and the Aegean islands; the pre-Greek (Early Bronze or Helladic) population of Greece from c. 3000 BC; the Early Bronze or Cycladic Age in the Aegean islands; the shaft grave period on the mainland

           ii. The Minoan civilization on Crete: the period of the Early Palaces (c. 2200-1700 BC), cultural efflorescence, Kamares ware, commerce, Knossos, Middle Cycladic culture, period of the Later Palaces (c. 1700-c. 1450 BC) on Crete, the arts, Linear A tablets


E. The era of the Egyptian and Hittite empires (c. 1600-1050 BC): the expansion of the Indo-Europeans

     1. The New Kingdom of Egypt (18th-20th dynasties, 1539-1075 BC)

          a. The 18th dynasty (1539-1292 tic): the emergence of strong centralized administration, territorial expansion, religious and cultural developments

            i. Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt under Ahmose (1539-1514 BC): cult of Amon-Re, expansion into Syria and Palestine, contacts with the Aegean and its arts

            ii. Egyptian culture and prosperity in the reigns of Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BC) and Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV; 1353-1336 BC): domination over Nubia, erection of new temples at Thebes, cult of the god Aton, subsequent eclipse of the dynasty

          b. The 19th and 20th dynasties (1292-1075 Bc): political shift to the north, new construction, foreign policies

            i. Reassertion of Egyptian power: campaigns against the Hittites and Libyans, succession disputes

            ii. The reign of Ramses III (1187-1156 BC) and subsequent decline of the 20th dynasty, campaigns against the Sea Peoples, growth of influence of the priests of Amon-Re

          c. Society and culture in the New Kingdom: the king as the embodiment of the state; the civil service; the military; the priesthood; the artisans, common people, and slaves; trade and commerce

     2. The Hittite Empire and its conflict with Egypt: Syria and Palestine under Egyptian and Hittite domination; the period of the migrations of new peoples

          a. The Hittite Empire (c. 1525-1190 BC)

            i. Expansion of the Hittite Empire under Suppiluliumas I into Syria (c. 1365 BC): reduction of the Mitannian state. ensuing conflicts and treaties with Egypt, relations with neighbouring states

            ii. The capital of the Hittite Empire at Hattusa (BogazkOy): geographical position, architecture, invasions from the West, fall of the empire and destruction of the capital (c. 1190 BC), emergence of the Indo-European Phrygians as the chief Anatolian power

          b. Syria and Palestine under Egyptian, Mitannian, and Hittite domination, and the period of the migrations of new peoples (c. 1550-1200 sc.)

            i. The development of Levantine seafaring trade: the Levantine city-states (e.g., Ugarit), political organization, economy, culture, development of the linear alphabet by the Canaanites and the spread of its use

            ii. The origins of the Hebrews in the patriarchal age and their sojourn in and Exodus from Egypt in the 13th century BC, their conquest of Palestine, the Sea Peoples and the Philistine conquest of the Palestinian littoral

            iii. The Syro-Hittite states and the migration of the Semitic Aramaeans into Syria and Palestine c. 1100 Bc and their foundation of states in Syria: spread of the Aramaic language, trends in religion and the arts

     3. Mesopotamia from c. 1600 to c. 900 BC

          a. The Kassites in Babylonia (c. 1595-c. 1155 BC): their conjectured origins, their adoption of Mesopotamian culture, Elamite and Assyrian invasions after c. 1250, the fall of the Kassites

          b. The kingdom of the Hurrians and the Mitanni (c. 1500-1360 Bc) in northern Mesopotamia, its displacement by Assyria

          c. The rise of Assyria (c. 1360-1076 Bc): expansion under Ashur-uballit I (C. 1365-c. 1330 BO, conquest of Babylon, continued expansion to Tiglath-pileser I (c. 1115-c. 1077 BC), temporary eclipse of Assyria (to c. 900 BC)

     4. The Elamite kingdom and its struggle with Babylonia in the 13th and 12th centuries BC

     5. Mycenaean (Achacan, Late Helladic) civilization in Greece (c. 1450-1100 BC): the eruption of Thera (c. 1500 Bc), the conquest of Minoan Crete (c. 1450 nc), and the arrival of the Greeks

          a. The overthrow of the existing social order, introduction of new artistic styles, conquest of the Cyclades, the evidence of the Linear B tablets, destruction of the palace at Knossos and period of the Mycenaean Empire

          b. The end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean: destruction of Mycenaean centres, invasion from the north and the coming of the Greeks

          c. The people of the Bronze Age Aegean: physical types, dress, society, economy, warfare, religion, and arts


F. The era of the new states of Southwest Asia: the beginning of the Iron Age (c. 1050-700 BC)

     1. Egypt and Babylonia in decline, further Assyrian expansion

          a. Egypt under the 21st-25th dynasties (c. 1075-656 BC): loss of influence in Syria, disunity and the diminution of royal power, Libyan domination, civil war and Kushite (Ethiopian) rule, the Assyrian conquest (671-664 BC)

          b. Babylonia (c. 1050-750 BC): the brief resurgence of Babylonian power under Nebuchadrezzar 1 (1124-1103 BC); the cult of Marduk: Aramaean, Assyrian, and Chaldean invasions from the 11th to the 9th century BC

          c. Emergence of Assyria as the dominant Mesopotamian state after c. 900 BC: internal dissension and the challenge of Urartu in the 8th century BC

     2. Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, and Iran

          a. Development of Canaanite-Phoenician commercial city-states from c. 1100 to c. 700 BC (e.g., Tyre, Sidon): trade and colonization, Phoenician civilization

          b. The Hebrew kingdom (c. 1020-c. 700 Bc): subjection of the Philistines, territorial expansion in Syria and Palestine

            i. The reigns of David and Solomon in the 10th century, growth of separate kingdoms of Judah (south) and Israel (north, conquered by Assyria in 722 BC)

            ii. The cult of Yahweh and biblical literature, social and political structure, arts

          c. The neo-Hittite states of southeastern Anatolia: Carchemish, Milid (Malatya), Tabal, and Que (c. 1180-700 BC); conquest by the Aramaeans and Assyrians

          d. Foundation of Urartu in about the 13th century BC, rise of the Urartian kingdom (c. 840c. 744 Bc), Assyrian influences, the Cimmerian invasion (c. 714 Bc) and destruction of the kingdom (c. 609 BC), influence of the Urartian state, the Armenian Empire under the Artaxiads

          e. Phrygia in central and western Anatolia (c. 1180–c. 700 Bc): capital at Gordium, relations with Assyrians and Luwians, the Cimmerian invasions in the beginning of the 7th century, the cult of Cybele

          f. The Aramaean kingdoms (e.g., Damascus) and their cultural and commercial role: conquest by Assyria

          g. The Neo-Elamite period: the occupation of Iran by the Indo-European Medes and Persians by the 9th century BC


G. The era of the Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires and the Achaemenid Persian Empire (746250 Bc)

     1. The first imperial unification of the ancient Near East under the Assyrian Empire (746-609 Bc)

          a. Assyrian culture in the context of the Mesopotamian tradition: the great cities; e.g., Nineveh

          b. Expansion of the empire under Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 Bc), Sargon II (721-705 Bc), and Sennacherib (704-681 Bc); decline from the reign of Ashurbanipal (668-627 Bc); conquest by the Medes (625-609 Bc)

     2. The interval between Assyrian and Achaemenid hegemony (610-539 Bc)

          a. The Neo-Babylonian Empire (636-539 Bc): conquests, treatment of Jews, decline of the empire

            i. The reign of Nebuchadrezzar II (604-562 BC): subjection of Syria and Palestine, the Babylonian Exile of the Jews and the post-Exile period, building activities

            ii. The last kings of Babylonia: internal dissension and early relations with Persia, surrender to Cyrus II the Great (539 BC)

          b. The Anatolian kingdom of Lydia (c. 700–c. 547 Bc): early relations with Assyria, the Cimmerian invasions, suzerainty over the Greeks in Anatolia, Greco-Lydian culture, growth of independent Cilicia in the late 7th century, conquest by Persia

          c. Saite Egypt (26th dynasty, 664-525 Bc) and its reassertion of independence after Assyrian rule; revival of traditional Egyptian culture, subjection to Persia

          d. The Kingdom of the Medes in Iran (c. 700-550 Bc) and the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire

            i. Conjectured origins of the Median state, expulsion of the Scythians, extension of control over the other Iranian peoples and into Armenia and eastern Anatolia after the downfall of Assyria

            ii. Cyrus II the Great's (550-529 Bc) establishment of his rule from Anatolia to east of Iran, relative generosity toward subject peoples

     3. The Achaemenid Persian Empire (529-330 Bc) under the successors of Cyrus II the Great, Greek rule to c. 250 Bc

          a. The empire under Cambyses II, Darius I, and Xerxes I (529-465 Bc): the subjugation of Egypt, establishment of peace in the empire, penetration of the Balkan Peninsula and the unsuccessful attempts to conquer mainland Greece

          b. Xerxes' weak successors: continued involvement in Greek affairs; internal disunity in the 4th century, resulting in conquest by Alexander III the Great (330 Bc)

          c. Achaemenid society and culture: Zoroastrianism, Persepolis and other capitals, social structure and economy

          d. Seleucid rule to c. 250 Bc, movement of Iranian peoples, revolt of the high satrapies


H. The Parthian and Sasanian (Sassanid) empires (c. 250 BC-AD 651), Armenia

     1. The revival of Iranian power with the establishment of the Parthian Empire by Arsaces, formation of the Arsacid Parthian state

          a. The "Philhellenistic Period" (c. 171 Bc–c. AD 10): eastern and western expansion until the mid-1st century BC, wars with Rome until the settlement of 20 Bc

          b. The "Anti-Hellenistic Period" (AD 2-162): Parthian government under Artabanus III (AD 12-38), dissolution of the Parthian state

          c. Roman invasions and the end of the Parthian Empire (AD 162-226)

     2. Extension of Iranian power under the Sasanian Empire

          a. Foundation of the empire: the rise of Ardashir I in the early 3rd century AD, the wars of Shaper I (AD 241-272), organization of the empire

          b. Religious developments: Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Manichaeism; art and literature

          c. Foreign policy: conflicts with the Romans, Byzantines, and Turks under Khosrow I (AD 531-579) and Khosrow II (AD 590/591-628); subsequent decline and extinction of the empire with the Arab conquest (AD 636/637-651)

     3. Armenia: client status under the Iranian empires of Rome in the period dominated by the Arsacids

     1. The Nilotic Sudan, South Arabia, and Ethiopia until c. AD 600; North Africa until the Roman conquest (from 146 Bc)

     1. Emergence of civilization in the Nilotic Sudan (Nubia): the origins of Nubian culture

     2. Egyptianization and the Kingdom of Kush (c. 1786-751 Bc), conquest of Egypt (c. 730 BC) and later expulsion by the Assyrians (by 654 Bc), conquest by Aksum (AD 350)

     3. Pre-Islamic South Arabia: the kingdoms of Main, Saba', Qataban, Hadramawt, and the tribes of central and northern Arabia; economic activities; religion; foreign relations

     4. Ethiopia to c. AD 650

          a. Remotest antiquity: the land of Punt, the Sabaean period

          b. The Aksumite Empire (2nd century AD): the Abyssinian peoples, maritime trade, Ezana's rule (4th century AD), reign of Ella-Asbeha (6th century AD) and relations with Persia

     5. North Africa until the Roman conquest

          a. Emergence of civilization in North Africa: the Early Neolithic culture in the Maghrib and Libya, the Berbers, the influence of Egypt, the advent of the mercantile Phoenicians and their foundation of Carthage c. 814 BC (Utica, 1101 Bc?), the Greeks in Cyrenaica from c. 630 BC

          b. Emergence of Carthage as the leading western Mediterranean power: conflicts with the Greeks in the western Mediterranean, extension of Carthaginian power into Spain and the clash with Rome in the Punic Wars resulting in the destruction of Carthage (146 Bc)

          c. Roman penetration into North Africa: the native kingdoms of Numidia and Mauretania and their eventual incorporation into the Roman Empire


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with early peoples and civilizations of Southwest Asia

and Egypt, the Aegean, and North Africa


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Anatolia, Cyprus. and Harran Paphlagonia     Himyar

the Aegean:     Hittite  Perga   Kindah

Aegean civilizations    Karatepe          Phocaea           Nabataean

Ahhiyawa        Kaska  Phrygia            Saba'

Alaca Hilyilk   Kizzuwadna    Pisidia Salit,

Alisar Hi:1)/W(           Knossos           Sakcagoz         TanUkh

Amathus          Ktiltepe           Salamis            Thamild

Anatolia          Luwian            Sardis  Egypt..

Arzawa            Lycaonia         Soli      Abu Jirab

Aspendus        Lycia   Tarsus  Abu Ruwaysh

Bithynia          Lydia   Troas   Abu Simbel

Bogazkoy        Milid   Troy     Amarna, Tell el-

Catalhilytik     Minoan            Xanthus           Amratian culture

Chalcedon       civilization       Yazilikaya       Badarian culture

Cilicia  Musasir            Zincirli HOytik           Beni Hasan

Citium Mysia  Arabia:            Canopus

Gordi um         Pamphylia       Arabia Felix   

Dahshar           Babylon           Parthia Dibon

Dayr al-Bahri  Babylonia        Pasargadae      Ebla

Dayr al-Madinah         Birak, Tall       Persepolis        Edom

Elephantine     Borsippa          Persis   Far`ah, Tall al-

Gerzean culture           Calah   Satrap  Färi`ah, Tall al-

Giza, Pyramids of       Chaldea           Shahr-e Sokhta            Galilee

Hermopolis Magna      Ctesiphon        Shuruppak       Gath

Hierakonpolis  Cunaxa, Battle of        Sippar  Gezer

Hyksos            Dur Sharrukin Sumer  Ghassulian culture

Kadesh, Battle of        Elam    Susa     Gibeon

Kahun Erech   Teishebaini      Gilead

Karnak            Eridu   Ten Thousand Halal, Tall

Kawa   Eshnunna        Immortals        Hasi, Tel

Kings, Valley  Fertile Crescent           Tepe Gawra     Hebrew

of the   Gaugamela,     Tepe Yahya     Hierapolis

Lahan, al-        Battle of          Toprakkale      Jericho

Luxor  Granicus, Battle          `Ubayd, Tall al-           Jezreel

Ma'adi, al-       of the   Ur        Judaea

Madinat Habu Guti     Urartu  Judah

Maydum          Hammurabi,    North ,-)Irica:  Kadesh

Memphis         Code of           Capsian industry         Kadesh, Battle of

Naukratis         Hasanlu           Carthage          Karkar

nome   Hassuna           Cyrenaica        Katna

Oxyrhynchus   Hatra   Fezzan Kiriath-sepher

Palermo Stone Hirah, al-         Gaetulia           Mari

Pelusium          Hurrian            Hadrumetum   Megiddo

Per Ramessu    Isin      Hippo  Nora

pharaoh           Jazirah, al-       Lambessa        Palestine

Ramesseum     Kassite            Leptis  Palmyra

Sais      Khwarezm       Mauretania      Philistine

Saqqdrah         Kish     Numidia          Phoenicia

Sarapeum        kudurru           Ptolemais         Samaria

Tanis    Lagash Sabratha          Shubat Enlil

Tasian culture  Larsa   Thugga            Ugarit

Thebes Lullubi Tripolitania      other:

Turin Papyrus  Mannai            Utica   Aksum

Mesopotamia and        Media  Volubilis          Meroe

Iran:     Mesene            Palestine and Syria:     Mycenae

Adab   Mesopotamia   Ai        Napata

Akhlame          Mitanni            `Ajjul, Tall al-  Nubia

Akkad Nineveh           Alalakh            Ophir

Amorite           Nippur Aleppo            Pelasgi

Anbar  Nisa     Bashan            Punt

Anshan            Nuzu   Beth Yerah      Sea People

Ashur  Osroene           Canaan            tell

Assyria            Parni    Carchemish    

Biographies     Snefru Ashurnarsipal II          Cambyses II


Akhenaton      Thutmose I      Esarhaddon     Cyrus II

Amenhotep III            Thutmose III   Hammurabi     Darius II

Ankhesenamen            Thutmose IV   Merodach-Baladan II Khosrow I

Hatshepsut      Tutankhamen  Nebuchadrezzar II      Khosrow II

Mentuhotep II Israel:  Sargon Sasanian dynasty

Merneptah       Abraham         Sargon II         Shapiir II

Ramses II        David  Sennacherib     Xerxes I

Ramses III      Moses  Tiglath-pileser III        other:

Ramses IV      Solomon          Persia (Iran):    Hannibal

Saite dynasty  Mesopotamia   Achaemenian  Suppiluliumas I

Sesostris I        (Akkad, Assyria,         dynasty           Tigranes II the

Sesostris III     Babylonia):      Arsacid dynasty          Great

Seti I   Ashurbanipal   Artaxerxes II  


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 912.         Peoples of Ancient Europe and the Classical Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean World to AD 395


A. Non-Classical ancient Europe

     1. The geography and ethnography of Europe, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems

     2. Europe before the Iron Age

          a. Spread of Neolithic farming communities throughout all of Europe by c. 2000 BC

          b. Spread of Bronze Age industry throughout Europe by c. 1500 BC: population movements into southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia in the 2nd millennium BC, the Indo-Europeans

     3. Non-Classical Europe in the Iron Age (c. 650 BC–C. AD 100)

          a. The Etruscans and other Italic peoples, the non-Greek peoples of the Balkan Peninsula

            i. Conjectured Etruscan origins; Etruscan language and writing; cities; government and society; art and religion; maritime expansion; foreign relations with the Greeks, Carthaginians, and other Italic peoples; decline after c. 500 BC and eventual Roman conquest in the mid-3rd century

            ii. Other Italic peoples: the Umbro-Sabellians, Oscans, Apulians, Latins, Siculi, Ligurians, Veneti, and Piceni; their cultures; their relations with the Greeks, Etruscans, and Carthaginians; eventual absorption by Rome

            iii. Non-Greek peoples of the Balkan Peninsula; e.g., Illyrians, Thracians: their culture and relationship to Classical civilizations

          b. Trans-Alpine Europe and the Iberian Peninsula

            i. The Celts: the Hallstatt Period (7th-6th centuries BC); Celtic occupation of Europe from the Danube to the Iberian Peninsula and the British Isles by c. 500 BC; Celtic penetration of Italy, the Balkan Peninsula, and Anatolia during the La Têne period (after c. 500 BC); subjugation in Gaul by Rome by 50 BC and later by the Germans by the 5th century AD; Celtic art, religion, and social and political organization

            ii. The Germans: their acquisition of Iron Age culture, migration into the Elbe–Rhine region by c. 500 BC, pressure on the Celts and Rome, inundation of the western half of the Roman Empire by the 5th century AD, Germanic social and political organization, religion and mythology

          c. Ancient peoples of the European steppe

            i. The Cimmerians: conjectured origins; southward migration, under Scythian pressure, from north of the Caucasus into Southwest Asia in the 8th and 7th centuries BC

            ii. The Scythians (Sakas): westward migration from the 8th century BC and eventual establishment in India and southern Russia after c. 600 BC; the Kingdom of the Royal Scyths in southern Russia from c. 600 tic to c. AD 100; relations with the Greeks and with Achaemenid Persia; government, society, and military tactics; art and religion

            iii. The Sarmatian migration into southern Russia in the 4th century BC and gradual displacement of the Scythians by c. AD 100; conflict with Rome; conquest by the Goths and Huns in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD; society, art, and religion


B. Archaic Greece and the development of Classical Greek civilization (c. 1200-323 BC)

     1. The Early Archaic and Archaic periods (c. 1200–c. 500 BC)

          a. The Dorian invasions, the Greek migrations to Anatolia, and their results (Proto-Geometric Period, c. 1100–c. 900 Be)

          b. The Geometric Period (c. 900–c. 750 BC): the world of Homer and Hesiod, the beginning of writing and of the polis, mythology and religious developments, the panhellenic centres (e.g., Olympia, Delphi), social and political organization

          c. The Archaic Period (c. 750–c. 500 BC)

            i. General trends in the poleis: displacement of monarchy by aristocracy, development of a money economy, socioeconomic crises and the rise and fall of tyranny, the colonization movement, relations among the poleis (e.g., leagues, wars)

            ii. The poleis of mainland Greece: the emergence of Spartan dominance over the Peloponnese and of a military-oriented polity and repression; aristocracy and tyranny at Athens, the reforms of Solon. and the institution of democracy under Cleisthenes; tyranny. aristocracy, and economic expansion at Corinth; the other poleis of the Peloponnese, the Isthmus, Euboea, and Boeotia

            iii. The Greeks in Asia Minor (Anatolia): Dorian and Aeolian cities; Miletus, Ephesus. and other Ionian cities; their commercial and cultural efflorescence

            iv. The Greek islands: the Cyclades, Sporades, Crete, Cyprus. and the Ionian Islands

            v. The Greek colonies and emporia in the West and Africa: southern Italy and Sicily (e.g., Cumae, Syracuse), Gaul and the Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Massilia), Cyrene and Naukratis

            vi. The Greeks in the North: Chalcidice, Thrace, Propontis (e.g., Byzantium, Abydos. Lampsacus), and Pontus (e.g., Black Sea region, Sinope, and Trapezus)

           vii. The arts in the Archaic Period: rationalism and irrationalism and the beginnings of philosophy and science, Orphism and the cult of Dionysus

            viii. The Greco-Persian Wars: the Persian (Achaemenid) conquest of Asia Minor and Thrace and the Ionian revolt (499 Bc), Darius' (490 Bc) and Xerxes' (480 Bc) invasions of Greece and eventual Greek victory, the Greek offensive (479 Bc). results of the wars. Herodotus' account of the conflict

     2. The Classical period (c. 500-323 Bc)

          a. Athens in the age of Pericles

            i. The Delian League and the Athenian Empire

            ii. Temporary retardation and final development of the democracy, society and economy

            iii. Cultural efflorescence; e.g., the rebuilding of the Acropolis, drama, the pre-Socratic philosophers

          b. The Peloponnesian League and the other Greek states in the 5th century Bc: relations among the Greek states from 479 to 431 Bc

          c. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 Bc): the war to the Peace of Nicias (421), renewal of the war and the defeat of Athens, intellectual and political changes at Athens (e.g., oligarchic revolution, the Sophists and Socrates), Thucydides' account of the war

          d. The era of the Spartan and Theban hegemonies in Greece: Spartan policies toward the Greek states, relations with Persia, Athens and Thebes against Sparta, the Second Athenian League and the restoration of democracy, Theban expansion and containment, peace and the balance of power in Greece

          e. The northern kingdoms: Epirus, the rise of Macedonia and the conquest of Greece under Philip II

          f. The western Greeks: conflict with Carthage, the rise of Syracuse under Dionysius the Elder

          g. Greek culture in the 4th century Bc: developments in philosophy and the arts

          h. The empire of Alexander III the Great: relations with the Greeks: the conquest of the Persian Empire (334-330 Bc), Bactria, and the Indus Valley (330-323 Bc); the ideals and governing practices of Alexander and the diversity of his empire


C. The Hellenistic Age (323-27 Bc)

     1. Establishment of the Hellenistic kingdoms and monarchies

          a. The regency and warfare among rival generals after Alexander's death (323-276 Bc)

          b. Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (323-30 Bc)

            i. The Ptolemaic dynasty: dynastic strife and the end of the dynasty with the death of Cleopatra (30 BO

            ii. Government and civilization of Hellenistic Egypt

          c. The Seleucid Kingdom in Asia: the dynasty, government, society, culture, and economy in its diverse regions; Jewish resistance; territorial losses in the 3rd century

          d. Greek rule in Bactria and India

          e. The Attalid kingdom of Pergamum and the native states in Asia Minor: Bithynia, Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia. and Rhodes

          f. The Antigonid kingdom of Macedonia: government and foreign policy

          g. Greece: social and political changes in the poliy, the Achaean and Aetolian leagues, Athens and the other Greek states

          h. The western Greeks, Epirus, Sicily under Agathocles (317-289 BC) and Hieron II (c. 270216/215 BC) until its absorption by Rome

     2. Relations among the Hellenistic states and other peoples from c. 275 to 27 BC

          a. Expansionist policies of the Ptolemies in the Aegean and Asia Minor and Syria and their conflicts with the Seleucids

          b. Conflicts between the Greek leagues and the Antigonids in the 3rd century BC

          c. The Celtic migrations: expansion into the Iberian Peninsula, the British Isles, and Rome and southern Italy; later expansion into central Europe, the Carpathians. and the Balkans

          d. The vigorous policies of Antiochus III and Philip V; the breakup of the Seleucid Empire: the entrance of Rome into the affairs of the Hellenistic states, resulting in their eventual incorporation into the Roman Empire

     3. Hellenistic political, social, economic, and cultural institutions

          a. Hellenistic monarchy and royal administration

          b. Cultural developments: developments in philosophy. science, the arts, education, and religion


D. The rise of Rome

     1. The character and achievements of the Romans, the archaeological and documentary historical sources (e.g., Pompeii and Herculaneum), historiographic problems

     2. Early (regal) Rome to the 6th century BC

          a. Myths of origins and the early monarchy

          b. The Etruscan hegemony and formative influence over Rome

          c. Development of Roman social, religious, political, and military institutions; Roman virtues

     3. The early Roman Republic (6th century-264 BC)

          a. Overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of the republic and its institutions: the magistracies, judicial institutions. the Senate. plebeian institutions

          b. Expansion of Rome in Italy: Rome and its Latin neighbours. the Gallic invasion and further conquests. Roman mastery of Italy

     4. The middle republic: the emergence of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power (264-133 Bc)

          a. The First and Second Punic Wars

            i. The First Punic War (264-241 Bc) and its aftermath: the emergence of Roman naval power and acquisition of Sicily (241 BC), later annexation of Corsica and Sardinia (238 Bc)

            ii. Roman expansion into Cisalpine Gaul and entry into Greek affairs

            iii. The Second Punic War (218-201 BC): Hannibal's invasion of Italy. his initial victories, and the war of attrition in Italy; Roman defeat of the Carthaginians at the Battle of the Metaurus (207 Bc); the First Macedonian War (214-205 BC) and the conflict in Spain; Roman counteroffensive and victory in Africa (202 Bc): Roman pacification of conquered territories

          b. Establishment of Roman hegemony in the Hellenistic world

            i. Establishment of a Roman protectorate over Greece after the Second Macedonian War (200-196 BO. the conquest of Macedonia and Illyricum (168 Bc). the reduction of Rhodes, Roman exclusion of Seleucid power from the Aegean

            ii. The Third Punic War (149-146 BC): the destruction of Carthage. subjugation of Macedonia and Greece

            iii. Beginning of Roman provincial administration, abuses. Romanization of the empire

          c. Roman government and economy in the middle republic: consuls, the Senate. and popular assemblies; development of large business interests. grazing estates, and urban immigration

          d. Roman culture in the middle republic: Hellenizing influences

     5. The late Roman Republic (133-31 BC)

          a. Social and economic ills in Italy and the reform movement of the Gracchi (133-121 BC) and its results: the rise of middle-class equites

          b. Roman wars against the Celts and the conquest of Gallia Narbonensis (121 Bc), wars against Jugurtha of Numidia (112-105 Bc) and the Germans (105-101 BC), Marius' career and military reforms

          c. Events in Asia and the first war with Mithradates VI Eupator (88-85 Bc): Italian allies (socii) against Rome in the Social War (90-89 Bc) and their subsequent enfranchisement, the dictatorship and constitution of Sulla (82-80 Bc)

          d. The Roman state in the two decades after Sulla

            i. Pompey's early career, revolts against Roman rule, Pompey's alliance with Crassus and repeal of the Sullan system, his extraordinary commands

            ii. Growing political suspicion and the outbreak of violence in the mid-lst century Bc: the conspiracies of Catiline, Cicero's decline, the rise of Caesar and Pompey

          e. The alliance of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus (59-44 BC): Caesar's conquest of Gaul; political maneuvers and the outbreak of the Civil War; Caesar's triumph, dictatorship, and assassination

          f. The initial cooperation of Octavian and Mark Antony in the Triumvirate and Octavian's

achievement of sole power (43-31 Bc): the annexation of Egypt and its administration

          g. Roman law during the late republic: the development of new procedures, the role of magistrates, the law of succession

          h. Culture in the late republic: oratory and philosophy, the arts


E. The Roman Empire (31 BC-AD 395)

     1. Consolidation of the empire under the Julio-Claudians (31 BC-AD 68)

          a. Augustus' establishment of the principate (27 BC-AD 14): the role of the princeps, the imperial administration, fiscal and military reforms, and the founding of new colonies; social and religious legislation; economic growth

          b. The Roman Empire at the time of Augustus: provincial administration, the imperial frontiers, the western provinces, the eastern provinces, the economic unification of the Mediterranean

          c. Foreign policy: Roman relations with Parthia and the other states in the East; the southern, western, and northern frontiers

          d. The culture of the Augustan Age: contributions of Livy, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid; religion; the visual arts

          e. The empire under Tiberius (AD 14-37), Caligula (AD 37-41), Claudius I (AD 41-54), and Nero (AD 54-68): internal and frontier policies, the annexation of Britain, Tacitus' accounts, civil war and revolt in "the year of the four Emperors" (AD 69)

     2. Growth of the empire under the Flavians and Antonines (AD 69-192)

          a. The Flavian emperors (AD 69-96): Vespasian's fiscal and provincial reorganization, military and frontier policies, Titus and the suppression of the Jewish revolt, Domitian's despotism, military development and frontiers

          b. The Antonine emperors (AD 96-192): the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Commodus; the beginning of imperial decline after AD 180

     3. The zenith of the Roman Empire in the late 1st and 2nd centuries AD

          a. The city of Rome and the empire: methods of Roman imperialism; the cities, culture, society, politics, and economy of the western and eastern provinces; the legions and frontier defenses

          b. Greco-Roman culture of the late 1st and 2nd centuries AD: developments in philosophy, religion, technology, and the arts

     4. Changes and crises in the Roman Empire in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD

          a. Civil wars, conflict with Parthia, the growth of bureaucracy, and militarization of government under the Severan dynasty (AD 193-235)

          b. Religious and cultural life: the public religions under the empire, the rise and spread of Christianity and other Eastern religions, official persecution of Christianity

          c. The transformation of Greco-Roman culture in late antiquity (3rd and 4th centuries AD), Greek revival and growth of Christian theology

          d. Military anarchy and disintegration of the Roman Empire (AD 235-270): the Gordians, the beginning of Germanic invasions, loss of eastern provinces, economic and social crisis

          e. The recovery of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the dominate (AD 270-337): the recovery measures of Aurelian and his immediate successors

            i. Diocletian's (284-305) fundamental political and economic measures: persecution of Christians, struggle for power

            ii. Constantine the Great (307-337) and his conversion to Christianity, administration, and founding of Constantinople

          f. The Roman Empire under the 4th-century successors of Constantine to Theodosius I (AD 379-395)

            i. The rule of Constantine's sons (337-361): renewed wars with Sasanid Persia and increased penetration of the empire by the Germans

            ii. Julian's reign (361-363): the attempt to restore the old empire

            iii. Establishment of Christianity as the sole state religion; social, economic, and urban decline; remnants of pagan culture

          g. The provinces under the later empire and the eclipse of the empire in the West: Germanic hegemony and the invasions by other peoples

Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:


MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with peoples of ancient Europe and

the Classical civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean world to AD 395


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Arevaci            Lavinium         Galatia

ancient Europe—                               

Balkans:          Boii     Ligurian           Hierapolis

Dacia   Carnuntum      Lucania           Isauria

Getae   Chatti  Mamertini        Pontus

Illyria   Cimbri Marsi   Sarmatian

Paeonia            Gepidae           Paeligni           Scythian

Triballi Hallstatt          Piceni  Side

ancient Europe—        Heuneburg      Populonia        Steppe, The

Britain:            Lingones         Praeneste         Greece—Archaic

Caledonia        Marcomanni    Sabine period:

Creswell Crags            Reinheim         Samnite           Acarnania

Kent's Cavern ancient Europe            Segesta            Achaean

Pict      Iberia:  Siculi   Aetolia

Silures Arevaci            Stabiae            agora

Skara Brae       Celtiberia         Umbri  amphictyony

ancient Europe—        Iberian Veii     Amphipolis

Gaul:   Lusitani           Veneti Apamea Cibotus

Aedui  Numantia        Villanovan culture       apella

Arausio,           ancient Europe            Volsci  Archaic period

Battle of          Italy:    Volsinii            archon

Belgae Alba Fucens    Vulci   Areopagus

Gaul    Ardea  ancient western Asia:  Assus

Helvetii           Ateste  Alani   Boeotian League

La Têne           Aurunci           Anazarbus       Bosporus, kingdom

Morini Boii     Antioch           of the

Senones           Caere   Bactria boule

Sequani           Este     Cappadocia     Calydon

Veneti Etruscan          Caria    Caulonia

ancient Europe—        Felsina Cimmerian       Chersonese, Tauric

Germany:        Hernici            Commagene    Chersonese,

Agri Decumates          Hirpini Dura-Europus  Thracian

Alemanni         Latium             Clazomenae

Cnidus Theseum          Five Good       delator

Colchis            Thespiae          Emperors         dictator

Colophon        Tiryns  foedus eques

Corinth            Trojan War      Hadrian's Wall            fasti

Cumae trophy  Herculaneum   gladiator

Cyrene tyrant   indiction          imperium

Cyzicus           Greece—Classical       itinerarium       interrex

deme   period: labarum           Italy

Dorian Anabasis          Monumentum  latifundium

Ecclesia           Aornos, Siege of         Ancyranum     Latin League

Eleusis Artemis,          Mursa, Battle of          legate

Elis      Temple of        Notitia Dignitatum      lictor

ephebus           Chalcidian League      Ostia    limes

Ephesus           cleruchy           Pompeii           Macedonian

ephor   Corinth, League of      princeps           Wars

Eretria Delian League procurator        Munda, Battle of

Erythrae          Gaugamela,     Thugga            municipium

eupatrid           Battle of          tribune Optimates and

ge6moroi         Granicus, Battle          Tusculum         Populares

Gortyn of the   Roman provinces:       pater patriae

Greco-Persian  Hydaspes, Battle         Africa  patrician

Wars    of the   Alps     Pharsalus, Battle of

Halicarnassus  Leuctra, Battle of        Arabia plebeian

helot    Macedonia      Asia     Pollentia

Himera            paideia Belgica            praetor

hoplite Peloponnesian Dacia   Praetorian Guard

Ionia    War     Gallia Comata prefect

Lampsacus      Philippi            Illyria   proconsul

Lelantine War tetrarch            Lugdunensis    proscription

Leontini           Hellenistic Age:          Mauretania      province

Magna Graecia            Achaean League         Moesia publican

Magnesia ad    Aetolian League          Narbonensis    Punic War, First

Maeandrum     Antioch           Numidia          Punic War, Second

Mantineia        Bastarnae        Pannonia         Punic War, Third

Marathon,        Cynoscephalae            Paphlagonia     Pydna, Battle of

Battle of          Hellenistic Age           Raetia  quaestor

metic   Ipsus, Battle of           Transalpine Gaul         Roman Republic

Miletus            Issus, Battle of            Roman Republic:        and Empire

Olynthus         Lamian War    Acta    Rubicon

Orchomenus    Macedonia      Actium, Battle of        Secular Games

Paestum           Petra    aedile   Senate

Parian Chronicle          Seleucia on the            aerarium          Social War

Parthenon        Tigris   angaria Thapsus, Battle of

Pella    Seleucid kingdom       Cagliari            tribe

Pergamum       Syrian Wars     Cannae, Battle of        triumph

Phaestus          Roman Empire:           Capua  triumvirate

phyle   Adrianople,     censor  other:

Plataea Battle of          civitas  Beaker folk

polis     Aelia Capitolina          clientship         Celt

Priene  AntinoOpolis  colony Lake Dwellings

prytaneum       Antonine Wall comitia            shell mound

Selinus Capernaum      consul  Urnfield culture

Sicyon Carrhae, Battle of       curia   

sortition           dominus          Decapolis       

strategus          emperor           decemviri       

Tegea   fasces  decurio           

Thermopylae   fiscus              

Biographies     Cimon Epaminondas  Pericles

Greece and                             

Macedonia:     Cleisthenes of Lycurgus         Philip II

Agesilaus II     Athens Miltiades the   Philip V

Alcibiades       Demosthenes   Younger          Pyrrhus

Argead dynasty          Dionysius the Elder    Peisistratus      Solon

Themistocles   Ptolemy V       Claudius          Pilate, Pontius

Theramenes     Epiphanes        Claudius Caecus,        Pompey the Great

Hellenistic states..       Ptolemy VI     Appius Romulus and

Antigonus I     Philometor       Constantine I  Remus

Monophthalmus          Ptolemy IX     Diocletian        Seneca, Lucius

Antigonus II   Soter II            Domitian         Annaeus

Gonatas           Ptolemy XII    Gallienus, Publius       Severus, Septimius

Antiochus I Soter        Auletes            Licinius Egnatius        Severus Alexander

Antiochus III  Ptolemy XIII  Germanicus Caesar     Scipio Africanus

Antiochus IV  Theos Philopator         Gracchus, Gaius          the Elder

Epiphanes        Seleucus I Nicator       Sempronius     Scipio Africanus

Arsinoe II        Rome:  Gracchus, Tiberius      the Younger

Cleopatra VII  Agrippa, Marcus         Sempronius     Sulla, Lucius

Thea Philopator           Vipsanius        Hadrian           Cornelius

Mithradates VI           Antony, Mark Herod  Theodosius I

Eupator           Aurelian          Herod Agrippa I         Tiberius

Ptolemy I Soter           Caesar, Julius  Herod Antipas            Trajan

Ptolemy II       Caligula           Julian   Valentinian I

Philadelphus    Caracalla         Maecenas, Gaius         Vespasian

Ptolemy III     Cato, Marcus   Marcus Aurelius         

Euergetes        Porci us           Marius, Gaius 

Ptolemy IV     Cicero, Marcus            Nero   

Philopator        Tullius            

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division II.          Peoples and Civilizations of Medieval Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia


[For Part Nine headnote see page 343.]

The outlines in the four sections of Division II deal with the civilizations directly descendant from those of the ancient Near East and of Classical antiquity, which are treated in the two sections of Division I. The general period covered in Division II is the Middle Ages, beginning with the death of Theodosius

I in AD 395, conventionally taken as marking the permanent division of the Roman Empire into East and West, and extending to c. 1500, conventionally taken as the starting point of modern history.

The sectional organization of this division and the outlines in its four sections reflect significant cultural and political interaction between the Eastern Christian, Western Christian, and Islamic spheres, and also involve some breaking points in the history of each sphere.


Section 921. Western Europe, the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and Eastern Europe from AD 395 to c. 1050 356

Section 922. The Formative Period in Islamic History, from AD 622 to c. 1055 361

Section 923. Western Christendom in the High and Later Middle Ages (c. 1050—c. 1500) 363

Section 924. The Crusading Movement, the Islamic States of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe, and the States of Eastern Christendom from c. 1050 to c. 1480 372


Section 921.         Western Europe, the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and Eastern Europe from AD 395 to c. 1050


A. The study of medieval and Byzantine history: the historical sources, historiographic problems, chronological outline


B. The eclipse of the Roman Empire in the West and the development and Christianization of Germanic successor states (AD 395—c. 750)

     1. The end of the Western Roman Empire and the Germanic VOlkerwanderung (AD 395—c. 500)

          a. The general decline of government, economy, society, and culture

          b. Establishment of the Germanic hegemony: the invasions of Vandals; the invasions of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Britain); the Visigothic invasions in the 5th century and settlement in Provence and Spain; the Frankish conquest of Gaul (c. 481/482-511) and the Burgundian flight to the south; the Huns; abolition of the Western Empire and Ostrogothic rule in Italy (493-553); other Germanic tribes—the issue of Arianism versus Catholic Christianity; Germanic law and society

     2. The Germanic successor states and the remnants of the Roman Empire in the West from c. 500 to 750; the origins of early feudalism

          a. Byzantine conquests and later diminution of Byzantium's western possessions (540-751), the Exarchate of Ravenna, Lombard conquests in Italy, beginning of the political role of the Roman papacy

          b. Early development of the Germanic kingdoms

            i. The Visigothic kingdom to 711

            ii. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England and the Celtic kingdoms in Ireland

            iii. The Franks under the Merovingians and early Carolingians: the successors of Clovis, rise and establishment of the Carolingians under Charles Martel and Pepin III the Short (714-768), Carolingian relations with the papacy and entry into Italian affairs; origins of the Papal States

          c. Effects of the rise of Islam on western Europe

     3. Religion, the arts, and society in the early Middle Ages: the amalgamation of late Classical and Germanic cultures and Christianity

          a. Conversion of the Celts, the Picts, and the Germans to Catholic Christianity: religious and cultural functions of monasticism and the Western Church

          b. The arts, intellectual life, and education in the early Middle Ages

          c. Social and economic life in the early Middle Ages


C. The early Byzantine Empire (AD 395-717)

     1. Origins of Byzantium in the late Roman Empire: the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine

     2. Persistence of Greco-Roman society in the East in the 5th century: the empire from the death of Theodosius Ito the accession of Heraclius (610)

          a. Economic and social policies: agriculture, coinage, relations with the barbarians (e.g., Huns, Goths, Isaurians, Avars, Slays)

          b. Ecclesiastical controversies, Syrian and Egyptian disaffection, and the beginning of conflict with the Western Church

          c. The empire at the end of the 5th century: internal tensions, political and economic policies under Anastasius I

          d. The reigns of Justin I (518-527) and Justinian I (527-565): realignment with the Roman Church, Code of Justinian, military campaigns in the West, effects of the plague, later campaigns

          e. Early Byzantine culture: Christianity, the arts, and intellectual life

          f. Justinian's successors (565-610): relations with the barbarians and with the Persians, revolt of the army

     3. Rehabilitation of the empire under the dynasty of Heraclius (610-711)

          a. Heraclius' reorganization of the empire along military lines: wars with Persia; the loss of Syria, Palestine, Armenia, and Egypt to the Arabs and continued Arab pressures; recognition of Byzantine overlordship in the Balkans

          b. Decline of the dynasty (685-711): renewed wars with the Slays; settlement with the Arabs; fiscal, agricultural, and defensive policies; military anarchy (711-717)


D. Western Christendom and Scandinavia from the Carolingian era to the general European revival (c. 750-c. 1050)

     1. The Carolingian Empire and its later dissolution (c. 750-887), France in the 10th century

          a. The reign of Charlemagne (king, 768-814; emperor from 800): further military expansion of the Frankish kingdom; legislation, administration, and defense; ecclesiastical policies; patronage of arts and learning

          b. Decline and dissolution of the Carolingian Empire under the successors of Charlemagne: the society, government, and culture of the Frankish world

            i. Louis the Pious; partitioning of the empire by the Treaty of Verdun (843) between Louis's sons (Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German); Muslim, Norman, and Magyar invasions and the debilitation of central authority

            ii. The Frankish world: society, institutions, economic life, the church (triumph and reform of Benedictine monasticism, birth of the Cluniac order), literature (Carolingian renaissance) and the arts

          c. The East Frankish kingdom (Germany): the last Carolingians (to 911), the emergence of the four stem duchies (Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, and Bavaria)

          d. The West Frankish kingdom (France): dynastic rivalry between Carolingians and Robertians (to 987) and the ascendancy of the feudal magnates

          e. The Middle Frankish kingdom (Lotharingia): Burgundy, Provence, and Italy

     2. The British Isles and Scandinavia (c. 800-1066)

          a. England: the decline of Mercia and the rise of Wessex; the 9th-century Danish invasions; King Alfred's legal, administrative, and ecclesiastical policies and patronage of the arts; Anglo-Saxon political unification and monastic revival in the 10th century; the conquest of the Danes and their rule over the Anglo-Danish state; the reign of Edward the Confessor and the Norman Conquest

          b. Development of the Kingdom of Scotland, the Welsh, Ireland during the Norse invasions

            i. Roman penetration in Scotland: Christianity, Norse influence

            ii. Early Christianity in Wales: relations with the Anglo-Saxons, Welsh society

            iii. Ireland: conversion to Christianity, monasticism, the Norse invasions

          c. The Viking Age in Scandinavia: the Vikings and Varangians, widespread raids and conquests (c. 800-c. 1050), social and political organization, arts, paganism and conversion to Christianity from c. 850

     3. Germany, Burgundy, and Italy: development of the Holy Roman (German) Empire (911-1056)

          a. Revival of central authority in Germany and intervention in Italy by the Saxon dynasty: Conrad (911-918), rise of the nobility, early opposition from Arnulf of Bavaria, drive against Magyars and Slays, Germanic kingship

          b. Promotion of the German church under Otto I (936-973): his conquest of Italy and establishment of the Holy Roman Empire (962), early Salian kings (1024-56)

          c. Development of medieval Italy: political, economic, and social developments on the peninsula and in Sicily

            i. Growth in power of the papacy; early years of the commercial cities of Venice in the north and Gaeta, Naples, Sorrento, and Amalfi in Campania; the Arabs in Sicily

            ii. Cities and countryside: persistence of an urban tradition despite the exodus to rural areas, the role of bishops in urban life, economy and society

     4. The Kingdom of France under the early Capetians (987-1180): the relative weakness of the monarchy vis-à-vis the great feudatories, establishment of an Anglo-French domination in western France under the Plantagenets (Normandy, Anjou, Aquitaine), Capetian attempts to expand the royal domain

     5. Growth of the Christian states in northern Spain (Asturias-Leon-Castile, Navarre, Aragon-Catalonia): their relations with one another and with the Muslims in Spain, the first phase of the Reconquista to the fall of Toledo (1085)

     6. The sociopolitical and economic structure of early medieval Europe: origins, development, and spread of feudalism; its elements and structure; the manorial economy and mainly localized commerce to c. 1050


E. Peoples and states of eastern Europe to c. 1050: early empires and later development of Christianized states

     1. The Slavic peoples: origins, early society and culture, movement into Pannonia and south Russia, plundering expeditions and eventual settlement in the Balkans

     2. The eastern European states and peoples within the Byzantine orbit

          a. The Bulgarian domains to 1018: origins, migration into the Balkans (c. AD 650) and mixture with the local Slavic populations, early contacts and wars with Byzantium, adoption of Christianity (870), the First Bulgarian Empire (893-1014) and subsequent conquest by Byzantium

          b. The Balkans: the migration of the Croats and Serbs into the Balkans and their subsequent relations with the Bulgars and Byzantium to c. 1050

          c. Exploration and the rise of the Rus raids on Constantinople, development of trade routes, Khazar state north of the Black Sea

          d. The princes of Novgorod (end of the 9th century)

          e. The state of Kievan Rus (c. 980-1054): Slavic-Varangian (Scandinavian) origins, economic decline, social and political institutions

     3. Eastern European states within the orbit of Western Christendom

          a. Developments in Moravia and Bohemia to 1055: the Celtic and Germanic tribes supplanted by Slavic peoples in the 6th century, Czech dominance in the 8th century, unification under the Ptemysl rulers

            i. Unification of Greater Moravia under Mojmir (814): religious conflicts with Frankish clergy and temporary adherence to the Eastern rite, political expansion

            ii. The early Premysl rulers of Bohemia: capital at Prague, ties with Bavaria and the Saxon dynasty, Boleslav I (929-967), Boleslav 11 (967-999), annexation of Moravia under Bi-etislav (1034-55)

          b. The Avar Empire and the early Magyar (Hungarian) kingdom to c. 1050: alliance with the Carolingian ruler Arnulf, establishment of the Arpad dynasty, settlement of the central plain, conversion to Christianity, reign of Stephen I (997-1038)

          c. Development of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century and Polish conversion to Western Christianity under the dynasty of the Piasts, civil strife and later restoration under Casimir 1 (1039-58)


F. The zenith and incipient decline of the Byzantine Empire (717-1081), the growth of Venice

     1. The age of Iconoclasm (717-867): the reforms of Leo III the Isaurian, repulse of the Arabs, Bulgar incursions and continued religious dissension under Leo's successors

     2. The Macedonian era (867-1025): territorial expansion, foreign relations, continued strength and prosperity under its rulers until 1025

          a. Military revival, relations with Slays and Bulgars, estrangement from the West

          b. Culture and administration: legal reforms under Basil I and Leo VI

          c. Social and economic change: reforms of Basil II

     3. Byzantine decline and subjection to Western influences: llth-century weakness, arrival of new enemies, the schism with Rome (1054)

     4. Venice: the development of its institutions, commerce, and naval power in the early Middle Ages


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with Western Europe, the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and eastern Europe from AD 395 to c. 1050

Austria            France Ireland Steppe, The

Balkan States  Germany         Istanbul           History of the

Baltic States    Greek and Roman       Italy     Eurasian

Belarus            Civilizations,   Kiev    Transcaucasia

Byzantine Empire,      Ancient           Poland Ukraine

The History of the       Holy Roman    Rome   United Kingdom

Charlemagne   Empire, The     Russia  Venice

European History        History of the  Spain  

and Culture     Hungary                     


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Suebi   Justinian, Code of       early medieval society

barbarian invaders                              

and successor  Vandal            logothete         and culture.

kingdoms:       Visigoth          Manzikert,       feudal land tenure

Alani   Byzantine and Battle of          feudalism

Alemanni         VI-ester/1 Roman       Mardalte          fief

Angle  empires:           Mons Lactarius,          Germanic law

A ntae Byzantine Empire       Battle of          homage and fealty

A var   Carthage,         Myra    knight

Frank   Exarchate of    Nicaea, empire of        knight service

Goth    Ecloga pronoia system            liege

Hun     Epanagoge      Ravenna          manorialism

Jute      eparch  Rhodian Sea Law       Middle Ages

Lombard         Farmer's Law  Taginae, Battle of       serfdom

Ostrogoth        Ghassan           theme  serjeanty

Pecheneg         Iconoclastic                 vassal

Saxon  Controversy               

wardship and  Connaught      eastern European         Holy Roman

marriage          Cornwall         states:  Empire

Merovingian and         Dalriada          boyar   Papal States

Carolingian era:           Danegeld         druzhina          Provence

Aquitaine        Danelaw          Khazar Saxony

Austrasia         Deira   Lusatia            Swabia

Frank   East Anglia     Mazovia          Thuringia

Gêvaudan        Essex   Moravia           national

Lorraine           frankpledge     Piast dynasty   development

missi dominici Hadrian's Wall            Pomerania       Iberia:

Neustria           Kent    Rus      Aragon

Pepin, Donation of      Leinster           Ukraine           Asturias

Poitiers, Battle of        Lindsey           national           Castile

Septimania      Lothian            development   Catalonia

Toulouse          Mercia France:            Covandonga

Valois  Middle Anglia Anjou  Leon

Verdun, Treaty of       Munster           Aquitaine        Liber Judiciorum

national           Northumbria    Brittany           Mozarab

development   Ossory Gascony          Navarre

British Isles:    Pict      Normandy       Reconquista

Alba    Scot     national           national

Angle  Strathclyde      development   development

Anglo-Saxon   Sussex Germany,        Scandinavia:

Anglo-Saxon   Wessex            Burgundy, and            Birka

Chronicle         Whitby, Synod of       Italy:    Danewirk

Anglo-Saxon law        witan   Bavaria            Hedeby

Bernicia           national           Burgundy        housecarl

ceorl    development   Franconia        Norman

Biographies     Baldwin I        Martian            Charles Martel

barbarian invaders                              

and successor  (Constantinople)         Maurice           Childerich I

kingdoms:       Baldwin II      Michael IV      Chilperic I

Aistulf (Constantinople)         Michael VIII   Chlotar I

Alaric  Basil I  Palaeologus     Chlotar II

Alaric II          Basil 11           Nepos, Julius   Clovis I

Alboin Belisarius         Nicephorus I   Dagobert I

Amalasuntha   Constans II     Nicephorus II  Eboin

Arpdcl Constantine VII          Phocas Fredegund

Ataulphus        Porphyrogenitus          Orestes            Germanus of Paris,

Athanaric        Constantine IX           Phocas Saint

Attila   Monomachus   Romanus III    Louis I (France)

Ermanaric        Eudocia           Romulus          Merovech

Gaiseric           Macrembolitissa          Augustulus      Merovingian

Krum   Henry  Stilicho            dynasty

Leovigild         (Constantinople)         Theodora (d. 548)       Pepin I

Liutprand        Heraclius         Theodora (d. 1056)     (Aquitaine)

Odoacer          Honorius         Theodore I      Pepin II

Ricimer            Irene (d. 803)  (Nicaea)           (Aquitaine)

Rothari            Irene (d. 1120)            Theodosius I   Pepin I

Simeon I          John I Comnenus        Theodosius II  (Carolingian

Theodoric (Italy)         John III Ducas            Tiberius II       dynasty)

Totila   Vatatzes          Valentinian III            Pepin II

Ulfilas John V Zeno    (Carolingian

Witigis Palaeologus     Zoe      dynasty)

Byzantine and Justin I            Merovingian and         Pepin III

Western Roman          Justin II           Carolingian era:           (Carolingian

empires:           Justinian I        Alcuin dynasty)

Aetius, Flavius            Justinian II      Arnulf of Metz,           Pepin (Italy)

Alexius            Leo I   Saint    Sigebert I

Comnenus       Leo III            Brunhild          Theodoric I

Anastasius I    Leo VI            Carolingian      (Merovingian

Andronicus I   Manuel I          dynasty           dynasty)

Comnenus       Comnenus       Charlemagne   Wala, Saint

national development—British Isles:

Aethelberht I




Athelstan Augustine of Canterbury, Saint Bede the

Venerable, Saint Boudicca Brian


Conn Cetchathach Dunstan of Canterbury, Saint Edgar

Edmund I Edmund II Edward (the Confessor) Edward (the Elder) Edward (the Martyr)



Godwine Hardecanute Harold I

Harold II Kenneth I Kenneth II Kenneth III Macbeth

Malcolm II Malcolm III Offa

Olaf Guthfrithson Olaf Sihtricson Oswald, Saint Patrick, Saint Sweyn

Theodore of Canterbury, Saint

national development—eastern European states:


Boleslav I Boleslav II Boleslaw I

Boris I (Bulgaria) Bratislav I Mieszko I Mieszko II Oleg


Rurik dynasty Samuel (Bulgaria) Stephen I (Bulgaria) Stephen I (Hungary) Svyatoslav I Vladimir I Yaroslav I

national development—France:

Adalbero of


Charles II (France/ Holy Roman Empire)

Charles III (France) Eudes

Geoffrey II


Henry I (France) Hugh Capet

Hugh the Great Lothair (France) Louis III (France) Louis IV (France) Louis V (France) Richard I

(Normandy) Richard II (Normandy) Robert I (France) Robert II (France)

Robert I (Normandy) Robert the Strong Rollo

Rudolf (France) William I

(Normandy) national

development—German v,


and Italy:


Arnulf I

Berengar (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Berengar II (Italy) Boso

Charles III (Germany/Holy Roman Empire)

Charles (Provence) Conrad I (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Conrad II (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Henry I

(Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Henry II

(Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Henry III (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Leo IX (pope) Louis III (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Otto I (Germany/ Holy Roman Empire)

Otto II (Germany/ Holy Roman Empire)

Otto III (Germany/Holy Roman Empire) Rudolf (Germany/ Holy Roman Empire)

Sylvester II (pope) national


`Abd ar-Ratiman I

`Abd ar-Rahman II `Abd

ar-Rahman III Alfonso I (Asturias/Leon) Ferdinand I (Castile)

Mansur, Abu `Amir al-


Sancho III (Navarre)

Tariq ibn Ziyad

national development—Scandinavia: Canute

Erik I (Norway) Erik the Red Haakon I

Harald I (Denmark) Harald I (Norway) Harald II (Norway) Harald III (Norway) Hardecanute Leif Eriksson Olaf I (Norway) Olaf II (Norway) Ragnar Lothbrok Rollo

Sweyn I (Denmark) Sweyn II (Denmark)

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 922.         The Formative Period in Islamic History, from AD 622 to c. 1055


A. The study of Islamic history: the historical sources historiographic problems


B. The rise and spread of Islam and the Arab Empire to the end of the Umayyad dynasty (AD 622750)

     1. Islam and Arab expansion in the 7th century

          a. Arabia before Muhammad

          b. The life and career of Muhammad and the rise of Islam, the doctrine of the jihad (holy war)

          c. Muslim expansion outside Arabia under the four Patriarchal Caliphs (632-661)

            i. Abu Bakr (632-634) and `Umar 1 (634-644): the tribe of Quraysh; divisions among the followers of Muhammad; the conquest of Iraq and the Sasanid (Persian) Empire and the Byzantine territories of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Egypt

            ii. `Uthman (644-656) and 'All (656-661): expeditions into North Africa, Armenia, and Persia; social and religious grievances; civil unrest; the origins of Shi` ism

     2. The Umayyad caliphate (661-750)

          a. The consolidation of the caliphate (661-684) under Mu`awiyah I and his successors: westward orientation of the caliphate and its capital at Damascus, growing opposition to the Umayyads

          b. The zenith of Umayyad power with the advent of the Marwanids: `Abd al-Malik (685-705) and al-Walid (705-715), suppression of revolts, new conquests

          c. The later Umayyads (715-750): conciliation of state policies with religion, peace and prosperity under Hisham (724-743), disintegration of the empire under his successors and the 'Abbasid revolt

          d. Umayyad government and society

            i. Administration of the Arab lands: utilization of local officials, the position and functions of the caliph, Islamization and Arabization, social classes

            ii. Cultural life under the Umayyads: spread of the Arabic language, literary revival, fragmentation into religious sects, accomplishment in the arts


C. The 'Abbasid Empire and its successor states (750-c. 1055)

     1. The 'Abbasid caliphate from 750 to 945

          a. Establishment of the new dynasty and its advance under Abu al `Abbas as-Saffah (749-754), al-Mansur (754-775), and al-Mandi (775-785); the `Abbasids at their zenith (786-861)

          b. Decline of the caliphate after the death of al-Mutawakkil (861): growth of provincial autonomy

          c. Economic and social life under the `Abbasids: manufactures and trade

          d. Cultural life under the 'Abbasid caliphate

            i. Religion: theology and philosophy, Islamic mysticism

            ii. The arts and sciences: Greek and Persian influences, the aniconic principle in the arts

     2. Eclipse of the `Abbasids and the growth of provincial dynasties from c. 755 to 1055

          a. The Umayyad emirate and caliphate in Spain (756-1031) and its capital at Cordoba

            i. Conquest of southern and central Spain by Täriq ibn Ziyad (711); defeat of the Muslims near Poitiers by the Frank Charles Martel (732); foundation of the independent emirate by `Abd ar-Rahman I (756-788); political and cultural splendour in the reign of `Abd ar-Rahman II, defeat of the muwallads

            ii. The Umayyad caliphate under `Abd ar-Rahman an-Nasir III: relations with Arabs, Berbers, and the Christian states in Spain; conquest of Morocco by his successors; the Iddas and internal disorders

            iii. Social and economic life in Muslim Spain: the culture of Muslim Spain, developments in literature and the sciences

          b. The Fatimid state of North Africa and Syria from 909 to c. 1055: the foundation of the Fatimid caliphate in Tunisia and Algeria, its conquest of Morocco (926) and Egypt (969), and expansion into Syria

          c. Other dynasties in North Africa and Syria: the Shiite Idrisids of Morocco (789-926); the Rustamid kingdom in the central Maghrib (787-911); the Aghlabid state in Tunisia, Algeria, and Sicily (800-909); minor dynasties

          d. The Samänid dynasty of Khorasan (875-999) and its role in the Islamization of the Turkic peoples: patronage of art and learning

          e. The BUyid dynasty in Iran and Iraq (932-1055): Shrism and the Iranian revival, Isfahan

          f. Other eastern states: the Qarmatians in eastern Arabia (c. 900-1078), the Turkish Qarakhanid dynasty of Ma Wara 'an-Nahr (Transoxania) and eastern Turkistan (922-

          c. 1050), the Turkish Ghaznavids of Afghanistan and northwestern India (998-1050), minor states and dynasties


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the Empire of the Caliphate and its successor states to

          c. AD 1055

Arabia Egypt  Islamic North Africa

Baghdad         Iran      World, The      Spain

Damascus        Iraq      Mecca and Medina     Syria


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 923.         Western Christendom in the High and Later Middle Ages (c. 1050–c. 1500)


A. The medieval western European revival and the economy, society, and culture of Western Christendom in the High Middle Ages

     1. Society, economy, and culture

          a. Western European society in the High Middle Ages: the three social orders (priests and monks; warriors; peasants and labourers); the feudal nobility; the bourgeoisie; the status of women

          b. Growth of agricultural productivity and population: revival of a money economy, manufacturing, and the commercial effects of the Crusades; revival of towns and population movements

          c. Technological inventions and improvements

          d. The church in medieval society: growth of papal hegemony, reform movements (eremitism, Cistercians, mendicant orders), ecumenical councils, emergence of the laity, struggle against heretics (Inquisition from 1233), role of religion in medieval society

          e. The culture of the High Middle Ages

            i. Establishment of schools and universities

            ii. The intellectual revival of the 11th and 12th centuries, Scholasticism, developments in philosophy and theology

            iii. The arts: Latin and vernacular literature, Romanesque and Gothic visual arts, music, theatre, the decorative arts

          f. The status of Jews in medieval society and their economic role, persecutions, and migrations

          g. Political institutions and ideas

            i. The two major powers, the Empire and the papacy; the relations between temporal and spiritual power

            ii. Kingship as the ideal Christian form of government: its relationship to sacrality and to the growing bureacracy; the three main forms of government inherited from antiquity: monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny

            iii. The city-state (Italy)

     2. The Holy Roman Empire, the papacy, and Italy from c. 1050 to c. 1300

          a. The empire, the papacy, and Italy in the era of the Investiture Controversy

            i. Church reform in the 10th and 1 1 th centuries and the clash between the papacy and the emperors over lay investiture (at its height between the emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII): the resulting incipient decline of German monarchical authority under the Salian emperors

            ii. The Norman conquest of southern Italy and Sicily and establishment of a strong monarchy: relations with the papacy, Venice, and the Byzantine Empire

            iii. The growth of communes in northern Italy, the status of German imperial power, the political role of the papacy in Italy, the commercial expansion of Italian cities (e.g., Genoa, Pisa), continued growth of Venetian maritime power

          b. The empire under the Hohenstaufen dynasty and after its extinction to c. 1300, the papacy and Italy

            i. Steady inroads of the German princes into German monarchical authority: colonization of Slavic territory, development of commercial centres (e.g., Lubeck), the reign of Frederick I Barbarossa and Frederick II, extinction of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and the Great Interregnum (1250-73), the election and reign of Rudolf of Habsburg

            ii. The Kingdom of Sicily: centralized government, ethnic mixture, Palermo, control by the Hohenstaufens (1194-1266), the Angevin conquest and expulsion (1282), the advent of Aragonese control

            iii. The decline of German imperial control in northern Italy and the continued development of the communes (e.g., Milan, Pisa, Florence, Siena): their internal and external conflicts

            iv. Continued commercial expansion of Italian cities: Venetian expansion in the Levant and aid to the Normans in the conquest of Byzantium (1204), commercial inroads into the Levantine trade by Genoa and Pisa

     3. The growth of the Kingdom of France under the later Capetian dynasty (1180-1328), the Low Countries

          a. Growth of the power of the French kings and extension of the territory under their control

           i. Philip II Augustus (1180-1223): acquisition of territory and consolidation of the realm, royal administration, feudal policies

            ii. Louis VIII (1223-26) and Louis IX (1226-70): institution of the granting of appanages to younger sons of kings, the Albigensian Crusade, rise of bureaucracy, attitudes toward the clergy and the lay nobility; Louis's efforts for peace, justice, and morality; his canonization in 1297

            iii. The later Capetians: Philip IV the Fair (1285-1314), claims of the monarchy, beginnings of the States General, conflict with Boniface VIII, suppression of the Templars

           iv. Foreign relations: conflict with the Holy Roman Empire under Philip II, the religious crusades of Louis IX, the wars of Philip IV

            v. Economy, society, and culture in the 13th century: increase in population, growth of towns and urban prosperity, rural life, religion, culture and learning

          b. The Low Countries: development of the territorial principalities and the rise of towns; e.g., Ghent, Bruges

            i. Secular and spiritual principalities

            ii. Struggle for independence, French and British influence

            iii. Social and economic structure

     4. The Spanish Christian kingdoms of Castile and Leon, Aragon (including Barcelona and

. Catalonia), Portugal, and Navarre (1035–c. 1260): their expansion into Muslim territory, their mutual rivalries, their ethnic-cultural mixtures, and their internal political development; the role of the church

          a. The medieval empire (1035-1157): the division of the kingdoms and the emergence of Portugal as an independent state

          b. The rise of Castile and Aragon and the expulsion of the Muslims, led especially by the rulers of Aragon (James I, 1213-76) and Castile (Ferdinand III, 1217-52)

          c. Society, economy, and culture: administration of the Spanish kingdoms; development of feudalism, growth of towns, and appearance of trade and industry; establishment of the Cortes; foundation of the universities of Valencia and Salamanca

     5. The Kingdom of England and its continental dependencies from the Norman Conquest to the death of Edward I; Scotland, Wales, and Ireland (1066-1307)

          a. The Norman Conquest: introduction of feudalism and the development of royal administration under William I the Conqueror (1066-87) and his immediate successors

            i. Church-state relations and the place of the clergy in the feudal structure, the Domesday survey

            ii. Strengthening of central government under William's successors: relations with the church in their reigns

            iii. The period of the Anarchy (1135-54): Matilda and Stephen, civil war

          b. The early Plantagenets

            i. The reign of Henry II ( 1 1 54-89): military and administrative reforms, Henry's conflict with the church and the struggle with Becket, the rebellions of Henry's sons

            ii. Richard I (1189-99): administration in Richard's absence, the Saladin Tithe, attempts to establish a standing army

            iii. The reign of John (1199-1216): loss of French possessions, John's conflict with Innocent III, the revolt of the barons and Magna Carta

            iv. Henry III (1216-72) and Edward I (1272-1307): Simon de Montfort and the Barons' War; Edward's restoration of royal power and his legal, administrative, and military policies; the growth of Parliament, development of Oxford and Cambridge universities

          c. Scotland, Wales, and Ireland: relations between the Kingdom of Scotland and the English crown, the extent of English control in Wales and Ireland

            i. The unification of Scotland and the development of the monarchy

            ii. Norman infiltration in Wales, the three kingdoms, internal conflicts and the Edwardian settlement

            iii. Ireland: the Anglo-Norman invasion and its effects, establishment of the Irish Parliament

     6. Scandinavia (c. 1050-c. 1300): establishment of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden

          a. The trend toward unity and strong monarchy: political developments in the three kingdoms

          b. Expansion into Finland, Iceland, and Greenland: introduction of feudalism, economic developments and influence of the Hanseatic League, society

     7. The Slavic and Magyar states of Western Christendom (c. 1050-c. 1300)

          a. Poland: the reigns of Boleslaw II (1058-79) and Boleslaw III (1102-38), the division of Poland between Boleslaw III's sons, the seniority system, territorial losses, the early role of the Teutonic Order in eastern Europe, internal developments

          b. Bohemia under the later Piemysl rulers (1055-1306): struggles within the ruling family, privileges secured from the Holy Roman emperor, territorial expansion, losses to Rudolf of Habsburg

            i. German interference in Bohemia: attacks upon the position of the Prague princes by Frederick I Barbarossa, the Golden Bull of Sicily (1212)

            ii. Political and economic growth: German immigration, founding of urban communities, expansion under Otakar II (1253-78) into Austria, silver mining and coinage

          c. Hungary: the early kings, expansion into Transylvania and Dalmatia, the nobility, Golden Bull (1222), Mongol invasion (1241), extinction of the Arpdcl dynasty in 1301


B. The decline of medieval European political institutions, economy, and culture and the incipient transition to the modern age (c. 1300-c. 1500)

     1. The culture of the late Middle Ages in western Europe

          a. The early Renaissance in Italy: historiographic problems, the contribution of the city-states, developments in literature and the fine arts

            i. Revival of Greek studies and the formation of Classical libraries in Italy: Humanism, relationship of Humanism to Christianity

            ii. New concepts and techniques in painting, sculpture, and architecture: patronage of the arts by the papacy

          b. The late Gothic style in northern Europe

          c. Late medieval intellectual developments: political theory, law, and the decline of ideals of imperial unity and papal supremacy; the rising power of national monarchies; decline of Scholasticism; science; witchcraft

     2. Late medieval society and economy

          a. The exaggeration of chivalry and declining importance of the feudal nobility in the face of changing military technology and organization: growing influence of the bourgeoisie, growth of royal government

          b. Gradual inflation and continued development of capitalism: peasant revolts; economic. social, and political effects of the Black Death (1347-50) and subsequent epidemics of the plague; development of a great maritime trade between the North Sea and the Mediterranean; progress of enclosures; recovery of the population and economy after the middle of the 15th century

     3. The church in the later Middle Ages: papal monarchy and taxation, the Avignon papacy (1309-77) and the Great Schism (1378-1417), the conciliar movement and other reform movements with regard to the church, mysticism

     4. Germany, Bohemia, and the Swiss Confederation (c. 1300–c. 1500)

          a. Limitations on the imperial office and the continued ascendancy of the princes in Germany: internal strife between the cities and the princes, the Habsburg and Luxemburg emperors, the division of the Habsburg lands and the enhancement of Habsburg power and influence in Europe by 1500

            i. Development of the individual states

            ii. Society, economy, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries

          b. Bohemia in the later Middle Ages: political and religious developments

            i. The Luxemburg dynasty (1310-1437): territorial expansion under Charles I, growth of the city of Prague, Wenceslas IV

            ii. Beginning of the religious reform movement (c. 1360): the Chapel Bethlehem's preachers, the activities of Jan Hus and his execution at the Council of Constance (1415)

            iii. The struggle between Sigismund and the Hussites: the Four Articles of Prague, 2iika's leadership of the Hussites, the Hussite preponderance (1437-71), George of Podebrady

            iv. The Jagiellon kings (1471-1526): the decline of royal authority, growth of power of the first two estates

          c. Early Swiss history, development of the Swiss Confederation after 1291, struggle against the Habsburgs, the French invasion and the Peace of Constance (1446)

     5. Italy in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance

          a. Social and political developments in the period 1300-1400: withdrawal of imperial and papal authority, Italian society, the crises of the 14th century (e.g., the Black Death, economic decline, urban unrest)

          b. The Italian states in the 14th century: forms of rule, use of mercenaries, cultural developments

            i. Milan: the Visconti family, rule at home, expansion in northern Italy, Visconti attitudes toward the state

            ii. Florence: republicanism, the cloth industry, banking, movement into the city from the countryside, plots against the republic

            iii. Venice: republican institutions, economic prosperity and commercial empire

            iv. The Papal States: their locations and proprietors, breakdown of papal control during the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism (1378-1417)

            v. Naples, Sicily, and the other Italian states (e.g., Angevin rule in Naples until its union with Sicily in 1442 under Alfonso V of Aragon); Savoy; Genoa; Verona

          c. The Italian states in the 15th century: expansion of the major Italian powers, Italy as a political system, cultural developments

            i. The crisis of Florentine republicanism: the threat from Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan and his successors, Florentine historiography, rule by the Medici

            ii. The Papal States: papal policy to strengthen its position, reliance of the popes on their relatives to control the domains

            iii. Despotisms: Alfonso I (Alfonso V of Aragon) in Naples and Sicily and division of the territory on his death in 1458, the Sforza in Milan

            iv. Venice: the stability of Venetian life, increased interests in activities on the Italian peninsula

     6. France and the Low Countries (c. 1300-c. 1500)

          a. The period of the Hundred Years' War: the stages of the war, the role of the French kings in the conflict, the war's significance

            i. Remote and proximate causes of the war: the problem of English lands in France, the problem of the French succession, the Flemish revolt

            ii. From the outbreak of the war (1337) to the Treaty of Brêtigny (1360): the reign of Philip VI (1328-50), the Crecy campaign and its aftermath (1346-54), negotiations during John II the Good's captivity (1356-60), burgeoning power of the estates and revolt of the peasants; the Parisian revolt and the bourgeois leader Etienne Marcel (1358)

            iii. From the Treaty of Brêtigny (1360) to the accession of Henry V of England (1413): Charles V (1364-80), the dispute over Flanders, temporary peace, Charles VI (13801422), struggle between Burgundians and Armagnacs

            iv. From the accession of Henry V (1413) to the siege of Orleans (1428-29): Charles VII (1422-61); France divided between the dauphin Charles. Philip the Good of Burgundy, and Henry V of England

            v. Recovery and reunification (1429-83) and the expulsion of the English: Joan of Arc and the stirring of French national feeling, reconquest of Maine and Normandy, conquest of Guyenne (1453), final settlement at Picquigny (1475)

          b. Administrative and military reforms and the strengthening of royal power vis-a-vis the nobility and towns under Charles VII (1422-61) and Louis XI (1461-83): foreign, fiscal, and ecclesiastical policies; social and cultural developments: the States General (1484) and the failure of representative monarchy

          c. The Low Countries: continued growth of towns, industry, and commerce, with attendant class conflicts and interference by the French monarchy; unification under the House of Burgundy; Burgundian administration

     7. England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland (c. 1307-c. 1500)

          a. Royal decline under the later Plantagenets and the struggle for the crown between the Lancastrians and Yorkists

            i. Royal decline under Edward II (1307-27) and its restoration under Edward III (132777): the Hundred Years' War, domestic achievements, the crises of Edward III's later reign

            ii. Richard II (1377-99): the Peasants' Revolt (1381), the influence of John Wycliffe, later political struggles and Richard's deposition

            iii. Henry IV (1399-1413), Henry V (1413-22), and Henry VI (1422-61 and 1470-71): rebellions under Henry IV and his relations with Parliament, domestic rivalries and the loss of France under Henry VI, Cade's rebellion and the Wars of the Roses

            iv. The reigns of Edward IV (1461-70 and 1471-83) and Richard III (1483-85): England in the late Middle Ages

          b. Scotland: the wars of independence, relations with the English crown, Bruces and Stewarts. Scotland in the 15th century

          c. Establishment of English suzerainty over Wales, fluctuating English influence in Ireland and the rise to power of the earls of Kildare

     8. Spain and Portugal (c. 1300-c. 1500)

          a. Castile and Leon: continued pressure on the Muslims under Alfonso XI (1312-50). increasing power of the Cortes, development of the woolen industry, literary achievements

          b. The Aragon Confederation (Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia): acquisition of Sicily (1282) and growth of Aragon as a Mediterranean power; the Cortes, law, and administration; acquisition of the Kingdom of Naples (1442) under Alfonso V (1416-58)

          c. Creation of a united Spain and expansion of Spanish dominance in the early Age of Discovery

            i. The union of Aragon and Castile-Leon under Ferdinand and Isabella: strengthening of their positions vis-à-vis the nobility, the Inquisition and the treatment of Jews, conquest of Granada (1492) and acquisition of Naples (1503)

            ii. Spanish explorations and territorial acquisitions: colonial policy in the New World, the Atlantic trade

          d. Portugal: development of the monarchy under the House of Avis (1383-1580); alliance with England; consolidation of the monarchy and establishment of its overseas empire under John I (1385-1433), Prince Henry the Navigator, and Manuel I (1495-1521)

     9. The Scandinavian kingdoms (c. 1300-c. 1500)

          a. Developments in the 14th century leading to the formation of the Kalmar Union (13971523), Scandinavia under the union

          b. Developments in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during the union: decline of Norway and rise of Sweden

10. Hungary, Poland-Lithuania, and the Teutonic Order

          a. Hungary under foreign kings: foreign affairs, economy, and society under the Angevins and Sigismund; the reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458-90)

          b. Poland-Lithuania, the Teutonic Order, and the Baltic peoples

            i. The Mongol invasions (1241-42) and reestablishment of the Kingdom of Poland (1253-1382): Wladyslaw I and the struggle with the Teutonic Order; Casimir III and Louis I of Hungary; social classes, the church, and policies toward the Jews

            ii. The Jagiellon dynasty (1382-1492): the union of Poland and Lithuania (1385-86), extension of the empire, growth of parliamentarianism dominated by the nobility


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with western Christendom in the High and later Middle

Ages (c. 1050-c. 1500)                                   

Amsterdam     Finland            Ireland Poland

Antwerp          Florence          Italy     Portugal

Austria            France Lisbon Prague

Baltic States    Germany         London           Rome

Belgium           Habsburg, The Luxembourg    Spain

Crusades, The House of         Madrid            Sweden

Czech and Slovak       Holy Roman    Milan   Switzerland

Republics        Empire, The     Naples United Kingdom

Denmark         History of the  Netherlands, The         Venice

European History        Hungary          Norway           Vienna

and Culture     Iceland            Paris   


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

European politics and Hundred          Teutonic Order            Barnet, Battle of

polity:  Years' War      Western Schism          Barons' War

Agincourt,       Inquisition       Worms.            Bosworth Field,

Battle of          Investiture       Concordat of   Battle of

Avignon papacy          Controversy    national affairs—        Clarendon,

Bouvines, Battle of     Norman           Britain and Angevin   Assize of

Castillon, Battle of      Orleans, Siege of         empire:            Clarendon,

Crecy, Battle of          Poitiers,           Angevin empire           Constitutions of

crusade            Battle of          Bannockburn,  Domesday Book

Holy Roman    Templar           Battle of         


Dupplin Moor,            Normandy       Medina del      Danewirk

Battle of          Praguerie         Campo, Treaty of        Kalmar Union

Hastings, Battle of      Provence         Morisco           Lithuania, grand

Lollard            national affairs            Mudejar           duchy of

Magna Carta   Germany and Low      Navarre           Livonia

Norman Conquest       Countries:        Navas de Tolosa,         Norman

Northampton,  Bavaria            Battle of Las   national affairs

Assize of         Brabant           Reconquista    Switzerland:

Ordainer          Brandenburg   Tordesillas,      Everlasting

Oxford,           Burgundy        Treaty of         League

Provisions of   elector Valencia          Morat, Battle of

Paston Letters Flanders          national affairs            Morgarten,

Peasants' Revolt          Golden Bull    Italy:    Battle of

Roses, Wars of the      of Emperor      Ciompi, Revolt            Nafels, Battle of

tanistry            Charles IV       of the   Sempach,

Tewkesbury,    Hainaut           Eight Saints, War        Battle of

Battle of          Hanseatic League        of the   Stans, Diet of

Towton, Battle of       Holland           Guelf and        Toggenburg

Westminster,   Holy Roman    Ghibelline        Succession

Statutes of       Empire Lodi, Peace of society and

(1275-90)        imperial city    Lombard League         commerce:

national affairs—east  Limburg          Naples,            Black Death

central Europe:            Namur kingdom of     commune

Cuman Saxony            papacy craft guild

Golden Bull of            Swabia            Papal States     feudal land

1222    national affairs—        Sicilian Vespers           tenure

Koszyce, Pact of         Merian peninsula:        Two Sicilies,    feudalism

Mazovia          Alarcos, Battle of        Kingdom of the          Hanseatic League

Moravia           Almohads        Venetia            knight

national affairs            Almoravids     national affairs            manorial court

France:            Andalusia        Scandinavia and          manorialism

Albigenses       Aragon            Baltic states:    merchant guild

Aquitaine        Castile Birka   Middle Ages

Brittany           Catalonia         Birkarlar          Renaissance

Burgundy        converso          Brothers of the            serfdom

Hundred          Granada          Sword, Order  vassal

Years' War      Leon    of the  

Jacquerie                     Courland        


British Isles and          Edward (the    Gloucester       James II (Scotland)

Angevin Empire:         Confessor;       Plantagenet,    James III

Alexander I     England)         Humphrey,      (Scotland)

(Scotland)       Edward I         Duke of           James IV

Alexander II   (England)        Gloucester,      (Scotland)

(Scotland)       Edward II       Thomas of       John (England)

Alexander III  (England)        Woodstock,     John (Scotland)

(Scotland)       Edward III      Duke of           John of Gaunt

Beaufort, Henry          (England)        Henry I (England)       Lancaster,

Becket, Saint   Edward IV      Henry II (England)     House of

Thomas            (England)        Henry III         Lanfranc

Bruce family   Edward V       (England)        Langton, Stephen

Clarence, George        (England)        Henry IV         Llywelyn ap

Plantagenet,    Edward the Black       (England)        Gruffudd

duke of            Prince  Henry V (England)     Llywelyn ap

David I (Scotland)      Eleanor of       Henry VI         Iowerth

David II (Scotland)    Aquitaine        (England)        Malcolm III

David ap Llywelyn     Fortescue, Sir John      Henry VII       Canmore

Despenser,       Gaveston, Piers           (England)        Margaret

Hugh Le; and  Glendower, Owen      Henry the Young        (Scotland)

Despenser,                   King    Margaret

Hugh Le                      Hubert Walter of Anjou

                        James I (Scotland)      Matilda

Meath, Hugh de          Arpad dynasty            Charles (Burgundy)    Artevelde,

Lacy, 1st Lord of        Bela III (Hungary)      Charles IV       Jacob van

Montfort         Bela IV (Hungary)      (France)           Charles IV

family  Boleslaw II     Charles V (France)      (emperor)

Montfort,        (Poland)          Charles VI       Conrad III

Simon de         Boleslaw III    (France)           (German king)

Normandy,      (Poland)          Charles VII     Conrad IV

House of         Bi-etislav I      (France)           (German king)

Northumberland,         (Bohemia)       Charles VIII    Frederick I

Henry Percy, 1st         Casimir I (Poland)       (France)           (Brandenburg)

Earl of Casimir II (Poland)     Coeur, Jacques            Frederick I

Oldcastle,        Casimir III      Gondi family   (emperor)

Sir John           (Poland)          Guesclin,         Frederick II

Owain Gwynedd        Casimir IV      Bertrand du     (emperor)

Pembroke,       (Poland)          Henry I (France)         Guy (Flanders)

Richard           Charles I          Joan of Arc, Saint       Habsburg,

FitzGilbert       (Hungary)        John (IV)         House of

2nd Earl of      Daniel  (Brittany)        Henry II

Pembroke,       Romanovich    John IV (or V)            Jasomirgott

William Marshal,         George (Bohemia)       (Brittany)        (Austria)

I st Earl of       Hunyadi, Janos           John (Burgundy)         Henry X

Percy family    Jadwiga           John II (France)          (Bavaria)

Percy, Sir Henry          Jagiellon dynasty        La Tremoille,   Henry III

Plantagenet,    John (Bohemia)           Georges de      (emperor)

House of         John I Albert   Louis VII (France)      Henry IV

Richard I         (Poland)          Louis VIII       (emperor)

(England)        Ladislas I        (France)           Henry V (emperor)

Richard II       (Hungary)        Louis IX (France)       Henry VI

(England)        Ladislas IV     Louis X (France)         (emperor)

Richard III      (Hungary)        Louis XI (France)       Henry VII

(England)        Ladislas V       Lusignan family          (emperor)

Robert II         (Hungary)        Marcel, Etienne           Henry (VII)

(Normandy)    Louis I (Hungary)       Montfort family          (German king)

Robert I (Scotland)     Matthias I        Philip II           Henry III

Robert II         (Hungary)        (Burgundy)     (Saxony)

(Scotland)       Olegnicki,        Philip III         Henry Raspe

Robert III        Zbigniew         (Burgundy)     Hermann von

(Scotland)       Otakar I           Philip I (France)          Salza

Roderic O'Connor       (Bohemia)       Philip II (France)         Hohenstaufen

Stephen           Otakar II         Philip III (France)       dynasty

Tudor, House of          (Bohemia)       Philip IV (France)       Jacoba of Bavaria

Tyler, Wat       Piast dynasty   Philip V (France)         Lothair II (or III)

Wallace, Sir     Stanislaus of    Philip VI (France)       (emperor)

William            Krakow, Saint Rais, Gilles de Louis II

Warwick, Richard       Stephen V       Rene I (Anjou)            (Flanders)

Neville,            (Hungary)        Richemont,      Louis IV

1st Earl of       Vladislas II     Arthur,            (emperor)

William I         (Bohemia)       Constable de   Otto IV

(England)        Wenceslas I     Suger   (emperor)

William II        (Bohemia)       Valois dynasty            Philip (German

(England)        Wladyslaw I    Germany and the        king)

William I         (Poland)          Low Countries:           Rudolf I

(Scotland)       Wladyslaw II  Adalbert (Bremen)      (German king)

William the      Jagiello (Poland)         Adolf (German           Rupert (German

Aetheling        Wladyslaw III king)    king)

Wycliffe, John            Warnericzyk    Albert I           Sigismund

York, House of           (Poland)          (Brandenburg) (emperor)

York, Richard,            France:            Albert III Achilles      Welf dynasty

3rd duke of     Berry, Jean de (Brandenburg) Wenceslas

east central Europe:     France, due de            Albert I (German        (German king)

Andrew II       Blanche of Castile       king)    Wettin dynasty

(Hungary)        Caboche, Simon          Albert II (German       Wittelsbach,

            Capetian dynasty        king)    House of

Iberian peninsula: Afonso I (Portugal)

Afonso II (Portugal)

Afonso V (Portugal)

Alfonso I


Alfonso II (Aragon)

Alfonso III (Aragon)

Alfonso IV (Aragon)

Alfonso V (Aragon)

Alfonso VI (Castile/Leon) Alfonso VII (Castile/Leon) Alfonso IX (Castile/Leon) Alfonso X (Castile/Leon) Alfonso XI (Castile/Leon) Charles II (Navarre)

Cid, the

Edward (Portugal) Ferdinand II (Aragon) Ferdinand I (Castile/Leon) Ferdinand II (Castile/Leon) Ferdinand III (Castile/Leon) Ferdinand IV (Castile/Leon) Garcia V (Navarre) Henry II (Castile/ Leon)

Henry III (Castile/ Leon)

Henry IV (Castile/ Leon)

Isabella I

James I (Aragon) James II (Aragon) John I (Aragon) John II (Aragon) John II (Castile/ Leon)

John I (Portugal) John II (Portugal) Muhammad XI (Granada)

Peter II (Aragon) Peter III (Aragon) Peter IV (Aragon)

Peter I (Castile/ Leon)

Ramon Berenguer I Ramon Berenguer II Ramon Berenguer III Ramon Berenguer IV Sancho III Garces (Navarre)


Italy and the papacy: Adorno family Alberti family Alexander III (pope) Amadeus VI (Savoy) Amadeus VII (Savoy) Amadeus VIII (Savoy) Bardi family Bentivoglio family Boccanegra family Bonacolsi family Boniface VIII (pope) Borgia family Carrara family Castracani, Castruccio

Charles I (Naples) Charles II (Naples) Charles III (Naples) Charles I (Sicily) Cola di Rienzo Colonna family Contarini family Corsini family Dandolo, Enrico Dandolo, Vincenzo Dandolo family della Scala family Drogo de Hauteville

Este, House of Ezzelino III da Romano

Fieschi family Gherardesca family Gonzaga dynasty Gregory VII (pope) Gregory IX (pope) Gregory X (pope) Grimaldi family Innocent III (pope) Joan I (Naples) Joan II (Naples)

Ladislas (Naples) Lauria,

Ruggiero di

Leo IX (pope) Louis (Naples) Malaspina family Malatesta family Martin I (Sicily) Medici, Cosimo de' Medici,

Lorenzo de' Medici, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici family Mocenigo family Montefeltro family Morosini family Ordelaffi family Orsini family Paschal II (pope) Pepoli family Peruzzi family Piccinino, Niccole) Piccolomini family Polenta family Polo, Marco Robert (Apulia) Robert (Naples) Roger (Apulia) Roger I (Sicily) Roger II (Sicily) Sambuccio d'Alando Savonarola, Girolamo

Sforza, Francesco Sforza, Ludovico Sforza family Spinola family Uguccione della Fagginola

Urban II (pope) Visconti family Visconti, Gian Galeazzo

Visconti, Matteo I William I (Sicily) William II (Sicily) William de Hauteville

Scandinavia and the Baltic States: Absalon


Canute VI (Denmark) Christian I (Denmark) Christopher I (Denmark)

Christopher III (Denmark) Erik V

(Denmark) Erik VI

(Denmark) Erik VII (Denmark) Erik XIII

(Sweden) Eskil

Gediminas Haakon I

Haakon IV Haakon V Haakon VI Inge I

John (Denmark) Kestutis

Magnus I (Norway) Magnus III (Norway) Magnus IV (Norway) Magnus V (Norway) Magnus VI (Norway) Magnus I (Sweden) Magnus II (Sweden) Margaret I (Denmark) Mindaugas

Olaf II (Norway) Olaf III (Norway) Olaf (Sweden) Sigurd I

Sverrir Sigurdsson Sweyn II (Denmark) Valdemar II (Denmark) Valdemar IV (Denmark) Valdemar

(Sweden) Vytautas

the Great Wiadyslaw II Jagiello

Switzerland: Brun, Rudolf Bubenberg, Adrian von Nicholas of Flue, Saint

Stiissi, Rudolf Waldman, Hans

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 924.         The Crusading Movement, the Islamic States of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe, and the States of Eastern Christendom from c. 1050 to c. 1480


A. The expansion of western Europe in the crusading movement and the Muslim response, the states of Eastern Christendom and the crusader states from c. 1050 to c. 1480

     1. The crusading era and the states of Eastern Christendom (c. 1050-c. 1480)

          a. The First Crusade (1096-99) and the establishment of the Latin states

            i. Background of the First Crusade: overcrowding in Christian Latin Europe and the wish of the church to divert the violence between Christians to an attack on the infidels, religious renewal in Europe, disruption of the pilgrimage routes by the Muslims, role of papal leadership at the Council of Clermont (1095), preparations for the Crusade and its participants

            ii. The sieges of Antioch (1097-98) and Jerusalem (1099): establishment of the crusader states

          b. The Second (1147-48) and Third (1188-92) crusades: Christian colonization in the East and export of feudalism, the crusader states to 1187, the institutions of the First Kingdom, the magnates of the Third Crusade

          c. The Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1204, policies aimed at revival implemented by Comnenus dynasty

            i. Alexius I Comnenus and the First Crusade: pressures from the Seljuqs and Pechenegs

            ii. The later Comneni and fluctuating relations with the Venetians, Normans, and crusaders

            iii. The Fourth Crusade (1202-04) and the establishment of the Latin empire

          d. The later crusades: decline of the crusading movement and of the Latin enclaves, results of the crusades

            i. The Latin East after the Third Crusade: the Fifth (1218-21) and Sixth (1227-29) crusades; oriental politics of Emperor Frederick II

            ii. The crusades of Louis IX of France (1248-50, 1270), final loss of the crusader states, Kingdom of Cyprus; survival of the spirit of the crusades among Latin Christians

          e. Russia (1054-1300): the lands of Rus and the rise of new centres (e.g., Novgorod, Vladimir, Galicia), the Mongol invasion (1223) and Tatar rule

          f. The Second Bulgarian Empire under the Asenid dynasty from c. 1185, decline after 1241

     2. The Slavic states of Eastern Christendom from c. 1300 to c. 1500

          a. Russia: the rise of the Muscovite state under the suzerainty of the Golden Horde and its later successful revolt (1380), expansion and establishment of Moscow as the leading Russian power under Tsar Ivan III (1462-1505), foreign policy

          b. The Balkans: growing strength of Serbia vis-a-vis the Byzantine and Bulgarian empires; subjugation of Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria under Stefan Dugan in the 14th century; Romania; subjection to the Ottoman Turks by 1453

     3. Restoration of the Byzantine Empire under the Palaeologus dynasty (1261), efforts to restore Byzantine power in the Balkans, foreign relations, cultural life

          a. Michael VIII (1261-82) and attempts to revive the empire, threats from the West, relations with the papacy

          b. The successors of Michael VIII: cultural revival, civil wars

          c. Turkish expansion, limited recovery by the Byzantine Empire before the final Turkish assault, the fall of Constantinople (1453)


B. The Islamic states of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe (c. 1050-c. 1480): Turkish and Kurdish dynasties, the Mongol invasions, and the rise of the Ottoman Empire

     1. Southwest Asia before the Mongol invasions

          a. The Great Seljuq Empire in Syria, Iraq, and Iran (c. 1050-c. 1190)

            i. Origins and conversion of the Seljuqs to Islam and their establishment in Khorasan

(c. 1000) under Mahmud of Ghazna, the foundation of the Seljuq state under Toghril Beg (1038-63), his conquest of Iran and Iraq and establishment of a protectorate over the 'Abbasid caliphate

            ii. Extension of Seljuq hegemony into Syria and Palestine and victory over the Byzantines, partition and partial breakup of the empire after 1092, Seljuq restoration of Sunni supremacy and patronage of the Iranian cultural revival

          b. Great Seljuq successor states (c. 1100-c. 1250): the Zangid atabegs in Syria and northern Iraq, the Ismaili Assassins in Iran and Syria (c. 1090-c. 1250), the Khwarezm shahs of Iran and Central Asia (1097-1234), other dynasties

          c. The foundation of the independent sultanate of Rum from territory conquered from

Byzantium in Anatolia (from 1071), commercial prosperity and territorial expansion in the

13th century, the Turkish Danishmendid state in northern Anatolia (c. 1071-1177) and its

absorption by the Seljuqs

     2. The Mongolian invasions of eastern Europe and Southwest Asia in the 13th century

     3. Southwest Asia and eastern Europe after the Mongolian invasions

          a. Mongol successor states (c. 1250-c. 1480)

            i. The Mongolian II Khans in Iraq and Iran (c. 1250-1353): trade, administration, and eventual conversion to Islam: the Timurids and other Il Khan successor states

            ii. The khanate of the Golden Horde in eastern Europe (from 1240): adoption of Islam, gradual absorption of the Mongols into the Turkish alas to form the Tatar people, the zenith of the empire in the early 14th century, Timur's invasion (1395) and its later partition

          b. Turkish Anatolia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire to 1481

            i. Origins and expansion of the Ottoman state (c. 1300-1402): its expansion in Anatolia and conquest of Serbia and Bulgaria in the 14th century, defeat by Timur (1402), restoration of the empire and beginning of the Ottoman challenge to the European states by the invasion of Hungary (1434), conquest of Constantinople (1453) and conquest of Anatolia

            ii. Development of Ottoman administrative and military institutions

     4. North Africa and Muslim Spain (c. 1050-c. 1490)

          a. The decline of the Fatimids (c. 1050-1171) in the face of Seljuq and crusader invasions

          b. The Ayyubids and Mamlaks in Egypt and Syria (1171-c. 1500)

            i. Establishment of the AyvObid dynasty in Egypt and expansion of its control over Muslim Syria under Saladin ( 1171-93): conflict with the crusader states, pacific policies of his successors

            ii. Displacement of the AyyUbids by the Turkish MamlUks in 1250, the Bahri Mamluks' resistance to the Mongols and extension of European power in Syria under Qutuz and Baybars 1 (1260-77), their displacement by the Burji Mamlaks in 1382, Mamlak administration and military institutions, the continued maintenance of Sunni orthodoxy

          c. The Berber Almoravid and Almohad empires in northwest Africa and Spain (1056-1269)

            i. Almoravid origins as a religious reform federation in the western Sudan, conquest of Morocco and western Algeria under Abu Bakr and Yasuf ibn Tashufin (1062-92), the latter's intervention in Spain against the expanding Christian states, Almoravid conquest of Muslim Spain (1090-91), weakness and decline in the face of the renewal of the Reconquista and the Almohad revolt in North Africa (c. 1123)

            ii. The Almohad religious reform movement under the Berber Muhammad ibn Taman

(d. 1130) and the extension of Almohad control over Muslim Spain (capital at Seville) and the Maghrib (1145-72), initial containment of the Reconquista and later disintegration of the empire in Spain after 1212, subsequent eclipse in the Maghrib, Almohad patronage of philosophy and the arts

          d. The east medieval dynasties of North Africa (13th-15th century): political and cultural developments

            i. The Flafsids in Tunisia, the `Abd al-Wadid kingdom of Tilimsan, the Marinids in eastern Morocco and their problems with the Arabs, political life, the Nasrid kingdom of Granada

            ii. Religious, intellectual, and artistic life: Sufism, literary and artistic influences from Muslim Spain


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the crusading movement, the Islamic states of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe, and the states of Eastern Christendom from c. 1050 to c. 1480

Balkan States  Crusades, The Jerusalem         Syria

Byzantine Empire,      Egypt  North Africa   Transcaucasia

The History     Islamic Russia  Turkey and

of the   World, The      Spain   Ancient Anatolia


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Balkans:          Kipchak           Moor   Middle East—other:

Bogomil          Kulikovo, Battle of     Morisco           Ak Koyunlu

Epirus, Moscow, Grand          Mozarab          Anatolia

Despotate of   Principality of Navas de Tolosa,         Ankara, Battle of

Kosovo, Battle of       Neva, Battle of the     Battle of Las   Assassin

(1389)  Novgorod,       Reconquista    bashi-bazouk

Kosovo, Battle of       Treaty of         Valencia          Jalayirid

(1448)  Pechenegs       Middle East    Kara Koyunlu

Maritsa River, Rus      Crusades:        Little Armenia

Battle of the    Ryazan            Antioch           Mamluk

Moldavia         Suzdal Arsaf, Battle of           Myriocephalon,

Morea, Tver     Children's        Battle of

Despotate of   Ugra, Battle of the      Crusade           Nicaea, empire of

Serbia  veche   crusade            Seljuq

Thrace Volhynia         Hatt1n, Battle of         other:

Vlach   Iberia and        Holy Lance     Bari, Siege of

Walachia         northwestern Africa:   Jerusalem,        pronoia system

Zara, Siege of  Almohads        Assizes of       

eastern Europe:           Almoravids     Jerusalem,       

Crimea, khanate          Barghawatah   Kingdom of   

of the   Granada          Nicopolis, Battle of    

Golden Horde             Saracen           



Christians—Balkans   Manuel I          Muslims—Iberia and  Mehmed II

and Russia:      Comnenus       northwestern Africa:   Murad I

Alexander Nevsky,     Manuel II        `Abd al-Mu'min          Murad II

Saint    Palaeologus     Hafsid dynasty           Nizam al-Mulk

Ivan III           Metochites,     Hammadid      Saladin

Ivan Asen I     Theodore         dynasty           Salghurid dynasty

Ivan Asen II    Michael VIII   Hadid dynasty            Sanjar

Kotromanie     Palaeologus     Zirid dynasty  Toghfil Beg

dynasty           Christians—Crusader  Muslims—Middle       Zangid dynasty

Rurik dynasty states:  East:   

Stefan Dusan  Bohemond I    Alp-Arslan     

Vasily I           John     Artuqid dynasty         

Christians        (Constantinople)         Baybars I        

Byzantine Empire:      Lusignan family          Danishmend   

Alexius I         Meziêres,         dynasty          

Comnenus       Philippe de      Eldegazid dynasty     

Isaac II Angelus          Raymond        Ghazan,          

John III Ducas            (Antioch)         Khwarezm-Shah        

Vatatzes          Reginald of     dynasty          


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division III.         Peoples and Traditional Civilizations of East, Central, South, and Southeast Asia


[For Part Nine headnote sec page 341]

For each nation or group of peoples covered in this division, the outline treats first of the geography and ethnography and then moves into the chronology of the respective civilization:


Sections 931 and 932 outline the Chinese dynasties from the Ch'in through the late Ch'ing (mid-19th century).

Section 933 deals with the peoples of inner Asia and the steppe and covers the early histories of Manchuria, Turkistan, and Afghanistan; of the Mongol Empire and its successor states; and of Tibet and Nepal.

Section 934 outlines the character and achievements of the Japanese and Korean civilizations from their beginnings until the Meiji Restoration of 1868 and the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910.

Sections 935 and 936 treat of the civilizations of the Indian subcontinent, of the early political units of India and Ceylon, the period of Muslim hegemony, the Mughal and Maratha empires, and, for Ceylon, the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505.

Section 937 deals with the peoples and civilizations of Southeast Asia, including the histories of Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaya, as well as the islands of the Indonesian Archipelago, until c. 1600.


Section 932. China from the Late T'ang (AD 755) to the Late Ch'ing (c. 1839) 377

Section 933. Inner (Central and Northeast) Asia to c. 1750 379

Section 934. Japan to the Meiji Restoration (1868). and Korea to 1910 381

Section 935. The Indian Subcontinent and Ceylon to c. AD 1200 383

Section 936. The Indian Subcontinent from c. 1200 to 1761, and Ceylon from c. 1200 to 1505 385

Section 937. The Peoples and Civilizations of Southeast Asia to c. 1600 387


Section 931.         China to the Beginning of the Late T'ang (AD 755)


A. The character and achievements of Chinese civilization, the geography and ethnography of China, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. The emergence of traditional Chinese civilization

     1. The prehistoric period

          a. The Paleolithic and Mesolithic stages in North China: industries in the Ordos region, microlithic tools

          b. The Neolithic stage: pebble tools and domesticated animals, "Mongolian Neolithic"

          c. The Yang-shao Painted Pottery culture

            i. Stratigraphy: villages of Hsi-yin-ts'un and Yang-shao-ts'un, pottery styles

            ii. Painted pottery styles, sites in Kansu, ornamental designs, stone implements

          d. The Lung-shan Black Pottery complex and western limits of Black Pottery culture, the Late Neolithic Period in South China and the Early Bronze Age in North China, bronze objects in the Ordos region

     2. The beginnings of the Chinese civilization: the early dynasties

          a. Origins of the Chinese people and culture: legends and cultural centres, the Hsia dynasty (c. 2205-c. 1766 Bc)

          b. The Shang, or Yin, period (c. 1766-c. 1122 Bc): Chengchow site as early capital and cultural centre at Am/zing, social system, early calendar, warfare, industry and commerce, script

          c. The Western (early) Chou (1122-771 Bc): the conquest of Shang under Wen Wang and Wu Wang (1111 Bc), Chou feudal system

          d. The Eastern (later) Chou (771-481 Bc), also called the Chun Ch'iu period; internal chaos; period of the Warring States (481-221 Bc)

            i. Breakdown of the Chou feudal system: capital at Loyang, rivalry among Chou states, various Chou successor states in the Warring States period (481-221 BC)

            ii. Social, political, and cultural changes: decline of feudalism, urbanization and assimilation, rise of monarchy under Wen Kung, economic development

          e. The Classical period of Chinese literature and philosophy: Chinese religion and cosmology, Confucianism and Taoism, the "hundred schools" (the Naturalists, the Dialecticians, Mo-tzu, Meng-tzu [Mencius], Chuang-tzu, the Legalists)


C. The unification of China under the Ch'in and Han dynasties (221 BC-AD 220)

     1. Establishment of the Ch'in empire (221-206 BC): development of central government, fall of the dynasty after death of Shih Huang Ti

          a. Early successes of the Ch'in under Mu Kung, reforms of Hsiao Kung and Shang Yang

          b. Ch'in strategy, unification of China by the Ch'in (221 BC), abolition of feudal system, highway building and construction of the Great Wall in the reign of Shih Huang Ti, the minister Li Ssu, political repression

     2. The Han dynasty

          a. Western (Former or Earlier) Han (206 BC-AD 8) and the Wang Mang usurpation (AD 9-23)

            i. Establishment of the dynasty by Liu Pang (Han Kao Tsu): the capital at Ch'ang-an, reign of Liu Heng (Han Wen Ti) from 179 to 157 Etc, consolidation of Imperial power

            ii. Expansion under Han Wu Ti (140-87 BC) into southern China and Central Asia. dynastic crisis (91-87 BC), ascendancy of the Wang family and Wang Mang's usurpation of throne (AD 9-23)

          b. The Eastern (Later) Han: restoration of the dynasty by Liu Hsiu (Han Kuang Wu Ti) (AD 25-57), capital at Loyang, domestic and foreign policy, decline of government after AD 125

          c. Political developments, foreign relations, and cultural attainments in the Han period

            i. The Han political system: the structure and the practice of government

            ii. Relations with other peoples: the Hsiung-nu of Central Asia, Pan Ch'ao's campaigns in Central Asia

            iii. Han cultural life: educational developments, invention of paper, prose writing, developments in music and the visual arts, introduction of Buddhism


D. The breakdown and revival of the empire

     1. The Six Dynasties period (AD 220-589)

          a. The division of the empire into the Three Kingdoms of Wei (North China), Shu Han (Szechwan), and Wu (South China): era of barbarian invasions and rule, the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms (304-589)

          b. Intellectual and religious trends: decline in Confucianism, Taoist resurgence, spread of Buddhism

     2. The reunification of China under the Sui and early T'ang dynasties

          a. The Sui (581-618): Sui founder Yang Chien (Sui Wen Ti), institutional reforms

          b. The reign of Yang Ti (605-618): integration of the South, foreign affairs, military reverses and collapse of the dynasty

          c. The early T'ang (618-624) and the period of T'ang power (626-755)

            i. Li Yfian's (618-626) establishment of the dynasty: resistance to T'ang conquest, administration of the state, fiscal and legal system

            ii. The era of good government in the reign of T'ai Tsung (626-649): educational and administrative reforms, conquest of eastern Turks, Kao Tsung (649-683) and influence of Empress Wu, conquest of Oxus Valley and later military reverses

            iii. Prosperity and progress in the reign of Hsiian Tsung (712-756): internal reforms, military reorganization


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with China to the beginning of the late T'ang (AD 755)





MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Ch'in tomb      Hsiung-nu       Sha-ch'ing

ancient cultures and                           

historic sites:   Great Wall of  Lung-shan culture       dynastic capitals:

Ch'i-chia culture          China   Pan-p'o-ts'un   An-yang

Hsien-yang      Chou dynasty  Spring and       Chinese civil

Lo-yang           Ch'u     Autumn Period           service

Nanking          Han dynasty    Sui dynasty     equal-field system

Sian     Hsia dynasty   T'ang dynasty  Five Pecks of Rice

Ta-t'ung           Lu        Three Kingdoms         fu-ping

Yang-chou      Nangnang        Warring States            Hanlin Academy

dynasties, periods,      Shang dynasty            Wei dynasty    well-field system

and states:       Six Dynasties  government and         

Ch'i      Southern          society:           

Chin dynasty   Dynasties        Bamboo Annals         

Ch'in dynasty              censor 

Biographies     Shang Yang    rulers.. T'ai-tsung (T'ang)

officials and military                          

leaders:            Ts'ao Ts'ao       Hsiao-wen ti    Wang Mang

Chao Kao        philosophers:   HsiIan Tsung   Wen-ti (Sui)

Hsiang Yu       Chuang-tzu     (T'ang) Wu Hou

Li Ssu  Confucius        Kao-tsu (Han) Wu-ti (Chin)

Lu Pu-wei       Lao-tzu            Kao-tsu (T'ang)           Wu-ti (Han)

Pan Ch'ao        Mencius           Kuang-wu ti    Yang Ti

            Mo-tzu            Shih huang-ti  

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 932.         China from the Late T'ang (AD 755) to the Late Ch'ing (c. 1839)


A. The late T'ang dynasty, the Ten Kingdoms, the Five Dynasties, and the Sung dynasty

     1. The late T'ang and the Northern Sung

          a. The late T'ang (755-907): the rebellion of An Lu-shan (755-757) and its effects, provincial

separatism, attempts to restore central authority, growth in power of provincial warlords

          b. T'ang cultural life: the growing influences of Buddhism, developments in music and the visual arts

          c. Social and economic developments: the decline of the aristocracy and social mobility, agricultural advances and expansion of trade

          d. The period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms (907-960)

            i. The short-lived Five Dynasties in North China: the Liang dynasty, advance of talented bureaucrats in government posts

            ii. The more permanent Ten Kingdoms: the Tanguts; the Khitan, or Liao, empire; the kingdoms of Wu, the Southern T'ang, the Southern P'ing, the Ch'u, the Earlier and Later Shu, the Min, the Southern Han, and the Wu-yiieh

          e. The Northern Sung (960-1126): foundation of the dynasty and its expansion under T'ai-tsu and T'ai-tsung and their successors

            i. Unification and centralization of the empire: development of the Imperial civil service in T'ai-tsu's reign (960-976), further consolidation under Chen Tsung (998-1022)

            ii. Reforms in the reign of Shen Tsung (1068-85): leadership of Wang An-shih, criticism of the reforms leading to the decline and fall of the dynasty

     2. The Southern Sung (1127-1279): survival and consolidation, defeat by the Juchens and removal of the Sung to South China under Kao-tsung

     3. Sung cultural and economic developments; e.g., resurgence of Neo-Confucianism, visual arts and music, scholarship, historiography, invention of printing, manufacturing advances


B. Mongol-Chinese rule under the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)

     1. The Mongol conquest of China: imposition of Mongol government and policies

          a. Genghis Khan's conquest of the Chin (1211-34), invasion of the Sung and the establishment of the Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan

          b. Mongol government and administration: transfer of the capital to Ta-tu (Peking), nonassimilation with the Chinese, expansion of trade

     2. Religious and intellectual life, relations with the West, decline of Mongol rule

          a. Religious toleration and patronage of Buddhism, the status of the Confucian scholar, developments in the arts

          b. Yuan China and the West: commercial and cultural contacts, arrival of Catholic missionaries


C. The Ming and Ch'ing dynasties to c. 1839: the tribute system, relative stability, ethnocentrism, and emphasis on cultural unity

     1. The Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

          a. Foundation of the Ming and its political and social structure

            i. Peasant uprisings and the foundation of the dynasty (1368) by Chu Yuan-chang (Hung-wu): pattern of dynastic succession, gradual degeneration of Ming government

            ii. Government and administration: local and central government, later innovations to coordinate central government and regional administration

          b. Developments in foreign relations and economic policy

          c. Cultural life in the Ming period: philosophy and religion, developments in the visual arts, music, literature, and scholarship

     2. The Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty to c. 1839

          a. The Manchu rise to power (1644): preservation of the Ming administration under joint Manchu–Chinese supervision

            i. Manchu entrance in Peking and territorial conquest ending with the seizure of Taiwan (1683): early Ch'ing institutions

            ii. Early foreign relations in Asia, contacts with the West

          b. Mid-Ch'ing social and economic developments: the role of religious associations, expansion of industry, social unrest, intellectual and cultural advances

            i. Advances in agriculture through increased rice cultivation and introduction of new crops, expansion of crafts and industries, commerce and finance

            ii. Population growth and immigration, religious associations, the White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)

            iii. Cultural developments; e.g., government interference in scholarship; introduction of Western sciences; advances in music, literature, and the visual arts

          c. Dynastic degeneration and widespread governmental corruption beginning in the 1760s; economic decline, famine, and social unrest in the early 1800s


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with China from the late T'ang (AD 755) to the late Ch'ing (c. 1839)

Asia     Genghis Khan

Canton            Nanking         

China   Peking




emperors:         T'ai-tsu (Sung) Cheng  Wu San-kuei

Cheng-te         T'ai-tsung (Sung)         Ch'eng-kung    Yfieh Fei

Chia-ch'ing      Yung-cheng    Cheng Ho        Westerners:

Ch'ien-lung      (Ch'ing)           Dorgon            Polo, Marco

(Ch'ing)           Yung-lo (Ming)           Hsu Kuang-ch'i           Ricci, Matteo

Hung-wu         statesmen and Huang Tsung-hsi        

K'ang-hsi (Ch'ing)       military leaders:           Nurhachi        

Kublai Khan    An Lu-shan     Ou-yang Hsiu 

Shen Tsung (Sung)                  Wang An-shih

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 933.         Inner (Central and Northeast) Asia to c. 1750


A. The peoples of the steppes, their cultures, and their interactions with neighbouring civilizations; the geography and ethnography of Inner Asia; archaeological and documentary historical sources; historiographic problems


B. The peoples and states of Inner Asia to c. AD 1200

     1. The Hsiung-nu tribal confederation dominating Mongolia, southern Siberia, and eastern Turkistan from c. 400 Bc to c. AD 50; pressure on it and its destruction by Han China

     2. The Manchurian tribes: attempts at unification, fluctuating relations with the Chinese until the advent of the Mongols

          a. The Tung-hu tribes and Chinese presence in Manchuria to the 3rd century ac, ascendancy of the Hsien-pei and establishment of the Yin kingdom by Mu-jung Hui (AD 352), the Parhae (P'o-hai) kingdom (AD 712)

          b. The Khitan and Juchen empires: penetration into China, Korea, and Mongolia; Juchen conquest of Chinese Sung territory; capital at Yen-ching (Peking); conquest by Mongols in 1234

     3. Development of West and East Turkistan to c. 1750

          a. West Turkistan: the early empires, Muslim rule, the Chagatai khans and Timurids, the Uzbek and Kazakh khanates

          b. East Turkistan (Kashgaria): Kyrgyz, Uighur tribes, Qarakhanid rule in the 10th century, Mongol conquest and rule in the 13th century, conquest by Manchus (1758-59)

     4. The Mongolian and Tungusic states from the 10th to the 13th century: the Liao (Khitan) empire and the later Chin (Juchen) state in North China and Manchuria (947-1125), the Western Liao (Kara khitai) of Turkistan (1124-1211)

     5. The development of Afghanistan to c. 1700: rule by Achaemenians and Greeks to c. 1st century AD, various nomadic rulers, advent of Muslim control in the 7th century, Mongol conquest (1221), later rule by Timurids and Mughals


C. The Mongol Empire and its successor states

     1. The establishment of a united Mongol Empire in Central, eastern, and western Asia by Genghis Khan and his successors (1206-60)

          a. The rise of Genghis Khan and his military and political organization, tactics, and conquests

          b. The division of his empire among his sons: further expansion under QgOdei Khan, Mangu (M6ngke) Khan's friendly relations with Western Christendom

The Mongol successor states

          a. The completion of the conquest of China (1260-79) and the foundation of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan

          b. The Chagatai khanate (ulus) of Turkistan in the 13th and 14th centuries

          c. Timur's (Tamerlane's) establishment of the Timurid dynasty (1370-1506): his capital at Samarkand; his conquests; Turkistan, Afghanistan, and Transoxania under his successors

          d. The Iranian II Khans (1258-1335): the Golden Horde (later Kipchak empire) in eastern Europe and its successor states (1240-1783)

          e. Mongolia from the 13th to the 18th century: internecine strife, the revival of Buddhism, subjection to Yuan China and later autonomy and disunity until the ascendancy of the Manchus (Ch'ing China) in the 18th century


D. Tibet and Nepal to c. 1750

     1. Tibet to c. 1750

          a. The legendary origins of the Tibetan people, consolidation of Tibet under Gnam-ri srong-btsan (c. AD 570-619), later rulers to the 9th century, introduction of Buddhism, cultural developments

          b. Tibetan disunity from the 9th to the 14th century: eclipse and resurgence of Buddhism, conquest by Mongols, developments in literature and the visual arts

          c. Rule by the Dge-lugs-pa (Yellow Hat) monastic order, unification of Tibet (1642), Tibet under Chinese overlordship (1720)

     2. Nepal to c. 1750: rule by Indian princely families, influence of Hinduism, relations with China and Tibet


E. The waning of nomad power from the 16th to the 18th century: the Manchu conquest of China and parts of Inner Asia, the Afghans as the last nomad power in Inner Asia, Russian expansion into Siberia and western Turkistan


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with inner (Central and Northeast) Asia to c. 1750


Central Asia


Genghis Khan



Steppe, The History of the Eurasian


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

dynasties and  Uzbek dynasty            Oyrat   Samarkand

empires:           Yuan dynasty  Yfieh-chih       Sogdiana

Chin dynasty   peoples:           other:   Turkistan

(Juchen)           Chahar Karakorum     

Golden Horde Hsiung-nu       Parhae

Gtsang dynasty           Juan-juan         Qarluq

Liao dynasty   Mongol            confederation 


Abahai Mongke           Phag-mo-gru   Timur

Batu    Mozaffarid dynasty    family  Tim urid dynasty

II-Khanid dynasty      Nurhachi         Qarakhanid     Willem van

Kublai Khan    OgOdei           dynasty           Ruysbroeck

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 934.         Japan to the Meiji Restoration (1868), and Korea to 1910


A. Introduction: the character and achievements of Japanese and Korean civilizations, the geography and ethnography of Japan and Korea, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. Early Japan

     1. Prehistoric cultures: nonceramic cultures in the Paleolithic Period, Thmon (5th or 4th millennium to c. 250 sc) and Yayoi (c. 250 sc–AD 250) Neolithic pottery cultures, agriculture and the influx of Chinese culture

     2. The ancient period: unification of Japan under the Yamato court and subsequent governments (c. 250-710)

          a. The rise and fall of the Yamato court: relations with Korea, internal power struggles, introduction of Buddhism

          b. The governmental reforms of ShOtoku Taishi of the Soga family: theories of ideal government, the 12 court rank and the "Seventeen Article Constitution," relations with China, spread of Buddhism

          c. The Taika reforms (645), elimination of the Soga family, land reform, intervention in Korea, the ritsu-ry6 system of social and land reform

     3. The Imperial state from 710 to 1185

          a. Government-directed religious and cultural developments in the Nara period (710-784): flowering of Buddhism; Chinese and Indian influences on literature, music, and the visual arts

          b. The Heian period (794-1185): changes in the ritsu-ryi system, ascendancy of the Fujiwara family and growing importance of the aristocracy

            i. Failure of Taika land reforms, power struggles among the nobility, growth of Fujiwara control over government, rise of Japanese literature and rejection of Chinese culture

            ii. Government by "cloistered" emperors: decline of Fujiwara power and rise of the samurai class, the Högen (1156) and Heiji (1159) uprisings, introduction of feudalism


C. Feudal Japan

     1. The Kamakura period (1192-1333)

          a. Minamoto Yoritomo and the founding of the bakufu (shogunate) at Kamakura (1192), the samurai shugo as feudal lords

          b. The rise of the FlejO family from 1199: the JOky5 Disturbance (1221), HOjä Yasutoki's (1224-42) administrative reforms, the Mei law code

          c. Resistance to the Mongol invasions of Japan (1274 and 1281), the Kamakura bakufu and feudal administration of farming regions

          d. Buddhist culture during the Kamakura period (e.g., growth of Zen) and Neo-Confucianism; literature, philosophy, and the visual arts

          e. Decline of Kamakura society: economic problems leading to the rise of daimyo (domain lord) class and decline of bakufu

The second feudal era: the Muromachi, or Ashikaga, period (1338-1573)

          a. The Kemmu Restoration (1333) and return to direct Imperial rule: the emperor Go-Daigo, the Kemmu legal code, Ashikaga Takauji and the dual dynasties (1336-92)

          b. Yoshimitsu's establishment of the Muromachi bakufu (1378) and unification of the dual dynasties (1392): taxation and strong military governors, feudal warfare after 1428

          c. Increased trade with China: piracy, the Onin War (1467-77), provincial self-government and growing influence of farmers

     3. The period of the "warring country" and the beginning of unification under the Oda regime

          a. Unification under sengoku (civil war) daimyo league leaders: development of commerce and guilds

          b. Arrival of the Portuguese (1543) and Spanish (1549): opening of trade, Catholic Jesuit missionary activity (1549)

          c. Cultural development in the 15th and 16th centuries: the influence of Zen Buddhism on philosophy, drama, literature, and the visual arts

          d. The Azuchi-Momoyama period (1574-1600): unification under Oda Nobunaga (1549-82) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1582-98)

     4. The Tokugawa period (1603-1867): military-bureaucratic rule

          a. Establishment (1603) and consolidation of the Tokugawa (Edo) shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu: Japanese policy of national seclusion (1630s) from Christian missionaries and most European traders

          b. The Tokugawa postfeudal military-bureaucratic system: class structure and bakuhan system

          c. Industrial and commercial developments, advances in literature and the visual arts

          d. The weakening of the bakuhan system and its eventual collapse

            i. Economic crises: impoverishment of small farmers and commercial problems, political reform, opening of Japan to Western influences (1840s)

            ii. Cultural developments in the 18th and 19th centuries: Confucianism and the Shinto revival, Buddhism, literature and the visual arts

            iii. The Tempo reforms and downfall of the bakuhan: economic and administrative measures, pressure from Europe and the U.S.


D. Korea to 1910

     1. The prehistoric origins of the Korean people, the use of ironware and emergence of tribal states in the Bronze Age

     2. The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Kogury6, Paekche, and Si11a) and their interactions (c. 57 BC-AD 668), introduction of Buddhism, literature and the visual arts

     3. The unification of Korea under Silla control (668-935): adoption of Chinese governmental organization and land tenure system, emergence of provincial magnates, cultural developments

     4. The Koryo dynasty (935-1392): social and cultural developments, military rule, land reform and social change after the Mongol invasions (1231-c. 1261)

     5. The Yi (ChosOn) dynasty (1392-1910)

          a. The establishment of a Confucian state: royal bureaucratic government, decline of Buddhism and emergence of Confucian culture, introduction of printing

          b. Invasions by Japan (1592-98) and the Manchu (c. 1619-1636): Korea as a Ch'ing (Manchu) vassal, Silhak scholarship and cultural development, introduction of Roman Catholicism

          c. Relations with foreign countries: growth of Japanese influence, the Tonghak Revolt (1894) and government reform, Japanese supremacy in Korea (1910)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Japan to the Meiji Restoration (1868), and Korea to 1910


Japan Korea Kyoto

Osaka-Kobe Metropolitan Area

Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Japan—government    han      shugo   Hogen Disturbance

and society:     kabane tennO  Jinshin-no-ran

be        kampaku          uji        Onin War

BushidO          Kebiishi           wakO  Sekigahara,

chonin rangaku           za         Battle of

daimyo            rOnin   Japan—historic           Shimabara

DajOkan          samurai            events: Rebellion

equal-field system       shogunate        Gempei War   

Japan—historic           Nara period     Taihb code      yangban

periods.           Tokugawa period        Taika era reforms        Yi dynasty

Asuka period   Turn ulus period          Korea—government   Korea—states:

Azuchi-Momoyama    Yayoi culture  and society:     Kaya

period  Japan—laws and         Hwarangdo     KoguryO

Bunka-Bunsei treaties.            kolp'um           Nangnang

period  Harris Treaty   Kory6 dynasty            Paekche

Genroku period           Kanagawa,      Silhak  Parhae

Heian period   Treaty of         S6hak  Silla

JOmon culture Kansei reforms            sOwOn           

Kamakura period        Seventeen Article        Unified Silla   

Muromachi period       Constitution    dynasty          

Biographies     Tokugawa       Ii Naosuke       Japan—other:


Antoku            Hidetada         Kusunoki         DOky6

Daigo, Go-      Tokugawa Iemitsu      Masashige       Honda Toshiaki

Himiko            Tokugawa leyasu        Maeda family  Nichiren

Kamm u          Tokugawa       Matsudaira      Tokugawa

Sanjo, Go-       Yoshimune      Sadanobu        Mitsukuni

Shirakawa       Japan—warriors and   Minamoto        Yamaga SokO

Shirakawa, Go-           statesmen:       Yoshitsune      Korea:

ShOmu            Abe Masahiro  Mori family     Chajang Yulsa

Tenji    Arai Hakuseki Nitta Yoshisada          Ch'oe Che-u

Toba, Go-        Fujiwara family           Oda Nobunaga            Ch'oe Si-hyOng

Uda     Fujiwara          Sakuma ZOzan           Han Yong-an

Japan—shoguns:         Kamatari         Shimazu family           Kojong

Ashikaga         Fujiwara          Shimazu Nariaki          Sejong

Tadayoshi        Michinaga       ShOtoku, Taishi          Son PyOng-hi

Ashikaga Takauji        Fujiwara Tokihira        Soga Umaku   other:

Ashikaga         Hayashi Shihei            Taira family     Harris, Townsend

Yoshi masa      MO family      Taira Kiyomori            Perry, Matthew C.

Ashikaga         HOjO Tokimasa          Takasugi Shinsaku      Valignano,

Yoshimitsu      HOK) Tokimune         Tanuma Okitsugu        Alessandro

Minamoto        HOje Yasutoki            Toyotomi         Xavier, Saint

Yoritomo         HOjO Yoshitoki         Hideyoshi        Francis

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 935.         The Indian Subcontinent and Ceylon to c. AD 1200


A. The character and achievements of traditional Indian civilizations and their influence on Ceylonese and Southeast Asian civilizations, the geography and ethnography of the Indian subcontinent and Ceylon, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. India from the prehistoric period to AD 300: the emergence of civilization in the Indus River Valley, the growth of kingdoms and the great empires

     1. Late Stone Age hunters and Neolithic settlement in Baluchistan and the Indus Valley, first settlements east of the Indus

     2. Indus civilization (c. 2300–c. 1750 Bc): social, economic, and cultural developments

          a. Development of urban centres; e.g., Mohenjo-daro, Harappd, Kalibangan, Lothal

          b. Developments in agriculture, animal husbandry, metalwork and pottery, transportation, and trade

          c. Developments in languages, religion, and the visual arts

     3. The development of the Indo-Aryan states (c. 1500-600 Bc): urbanization at KaSi (Varanasi) and elsewhere in the Ganges Valley, other cultures in the Indian subcontinent

          a. Early Ganges cultures to c. 1200 Bc: social organization and religious development

          b. Later Ganges cultures to c. 600 BC: development of the caste system and emergence of Brahman, Ksatriya, Vaisya, and Sadra castes

     4. Pre-Mauryan states (c. 600-150 Bc): development of political and economic systems, Taxila as a cultural centre

          a. The early development of Buddhism and Jainism, beginning of Magadha ascendancy

          b. Invasion by Alexander the Great (327 Bc) and establishment of Greek settlements

     5. Development of the Mauryan empire (c. 321-185 BC): the capital at Pataliputra (Patna)

          a. Establishment of the empire by Candra Gupta (c. 321-c. 297 Bc) and consolidation by Moka (c. 265-238 Bc)

          b. Mauryan economic, social, and administrative developments, evolution of the concept of the state

     6. The rise of small kingdoms in the north (150 Bc-AD 300): Indo-Greek and Asian rulers, various local republics and kingdoms (Suliga, Kalinga)

     7. South Indian civilizations to AD 300

          a. Development of guilds, banking systems, and extensive maritime trade with the West

          b. Cultural and religious development; e.g., patronage of religious art and literature, growth of sects in Hinduism and Jainism, assimilation of foreigners into caste society


C. North India, the Deccan, and South India (AD 300-750)

     1. The Guptas of North India (AD 320-540): expansion and administration of territory, invasions by the Winas (c. mid-5th century), successor states to the Guptas

     2. Various kingdoms of the Deccan: the Vakataka dynasty, the Calukyas, and the Rastrakiitas

     3. The Pallavas in South India: developments in religious art and architecture, literature, and science


D. North India (750-1200), the Deccan, and South India (750-c. 1330): new dynasties and centres of power

     1. The tripartite struggle in North India, the R-ajpfit kingdoms, Turkish control in Ghazna from 998

     2. The decline of the Calukyas in the Deccan and the rise of the Colas in the 10th century, later Hoysalas and Pdndyas control, relations with the south

     3. Social, economic, and cultural developments; e.g., feudalism and economic decentralization, partial social mobility, growth of Tantrism, literature and the visual arts


E. Ceylon from the prehistoric period to the end of the Classical Age (AD 1200)

     1. Prehistoric settlements in Ceylon, colonization by Indo-Aryan tribes in the 5th century BC, conversion to Buddhism (c. 3rd century BC)

     2. Ceylon in the Classical Age (c. 200 BC-AD 1200): the Polonnaruva dynasties, growth of Sinhalese political institutions, social and agricultural developments


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the Indian subcontinent and Ceylon to c. AD 1200




Sri Lanka


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Gedrosia          Patna   kingdoms and states:

historic regions and                            

sites:    Halebid           Sravasti           Anuradhapura

Bharhut           Kalibangan      Taxila  Avanti

Brahmarsi-dega           Kalifiga           Vagäli  Kosala

Gandhara        Mälwa Valabhi            Magadha

Galicia Nalanda           Varanasi          Mauryan empire

peoples and society:    Indus   Räjput other:

Brahman          civilization       Sfidra  Dipavamsa

Chandela         Kulinism          Vaisya Rajatarafigini

Hephthalite     Licchavi          Varna  Serendib

            Mallas  Yavana            Taraori, Battles of



A&aka Gafiga dynasty           Mahendra        Sai§unaga dynasty

Buddha           Gurjara-Pratihara         Maitraka dynasty        Saka satrap

Calukya dynasty         dynasty           Menader          Samudra Gupta

Candra Gupta Harsa   Nanda dynasty            Satavahana

Candra Gupta I           Hoysala dynasty         Pala dynasty    dynasty

Candra Gupta II         Hanavarman    Pallava dynasty           Sena dynasty

Cola dynasty   Kalacuri dynasty         Pandya dynasty          Sunga dynasty

Dutthagamani Kaniska           Parakramabahu I         Vakataka dynasty

Gahaclavala     Kautilya          Rastrakata       Yadava dynasty

dynasty           Kushan            dynasty          

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 936.         The Indian Subcontinent from c. 1200 to 1761, and Ceylon from c. 1200 to 1505


A. North India under Muslim hegemony (c. 1200-1526)

     1. The completion of the Ghfirid conquest; the Delhi sultanate (1206-1526): the military and administrative policies of the five dynasties

          a. The consolidation of the conquest of North India by the Slave dynasty (1206-90)

          b. The revival of efficient administration by the Khalji dynasty (1290-1320)

          c. The Tughluq dynasty (1320-1413): administrative reforms by Muhammad ibn Tughluq (1325-51), Mughal invasion (1398) and decline of Tughluq control

          d. Tenuous control by the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), expansion and decline of Lodi dynasty (1451-1526)

          e. Cultural and religious developments during the Delhi sultanate; e.g., Islamic and Hindu movements and education

     2. The 14th-century rise of regional kingdoms in the north: Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Jaunpur, and Kashmir


B. The Deccan (c. 1320-1627) and South India (1336-1646)

     1. The Deccan (c. 1320-1627): the Bahmani dynasty and the five Deccan sultanates

          a. The Bahmani dynasty (1347-c. 1527): introduction of Muslims into the Deccan and their relations with the Hindus

          b. The rise (c. 1500) of the five sultanates of Ahmadnagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapur, and Golconda; Muslim-Hindu relations: Mughal conquests in the Deccan in the 16th century

     2. The Hindu Vijayanagar empire (1336-1646) in South India

          a. Foundation of the state (1336) and its expansion in South India: conflicts with Muslim dynasties in the Deccan, decentralization and decline of state

          b. Administrative and social organization of the empire, cultural and religious development


C. The beginning of the political and administrative unification of the subcontinent under the Mughal Empire (1526-1761)

     1. The origins of the Mughals: the conquest of North India under Babur, the Mughals' use of firearms

     2. Extension and consolidation of empire by Akbar (1556-1605)

          a. Subjection of neighbouring territories: the conquest and annexation of Bihar, Bengal, Afghanistan, and Kashmir

          b. Akbar's administrative, fiscal, military, judicial, and religious policies

     3. The empire under Jahangir (1605-27), Shah Jahan (1628-58), and Aurangzeb (1659-1707): developments in the arts and agriculture

     4. Mughal decline in the 18th century: dynastic disputes and weakness after 1707 culminating in foreign invasions (1731-61)


D. The emergence of the Maratha empire in Maharashtra: rise to power and decline after 1761

     1. The foundation (1674-80) of the dynasty by Sivaji: his challenge to Mughal authority in the Deccan, the Maratha war of independence

     2. The Marathas as the major power in India in the early 18th century: the contribution of the peshwas (chief ministers) to Maratha success, struggle with the Portuguese, establishment of the Maratha confederacy


E. Ceylon from c. 1200 to the arrival of the Portuguese (1505)

     1. Political and economic changes in the Sinhalese state: collapse of central authority, foreign invasions, growth of foreign trade

     2. Developments in culture and the Buddhist religion


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the Indian subcontinent from c. 1200 to 1761, and Ceylon from c. 1200 to 1505



Mughal emperors..      Gafiga dynasty           Hyder Ali        Prithvi Narayan

Akbar  Hoysala dynasty         Iltutmish          Shah

Aurangzeb       Khalji dynasty Muhammad ibn           Sher Shah of Sur

Babur  Lodi dynasty   Tughluq           Siraj-ud-Dawlah

Humaynn        Mughal dynasty          Mu'izz-ud-Din Sivaji

Jahangir           Slave dynasty  Muhammad ibn          

Shah Jahän      others: Sam    

ruling families:            Gobind Singh  Qutb-ud-Din  

`Adil Shah' dynasty    Husayan Shah Aybak

Aravidu dynasty         'Ala' ad-Din                


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 937.         The Peoples and Civilizations of Southeast Asia to c. 1600


A. The character and achievements of traditional Southeast Asian civilizations, South and East Asian influences, the geography and ethnography of Southeast Asia, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. Mainland Southeast Asia to c. 1600

     1. Myanmar (Burma) from the Anyathian culture (c. 5000 BC-AD 1600)

          a. Origins of civilization in Myanmar: the Anyathian Stone Age culture, the Mons of southern Myanmar (c. 3rd century ac-1 1 th century AD), Indian trade and cultural influences

          b. The Tibeto-Burmese invasions of the Upper Irrawaddy Valley and the establishment of the Pyu state of northern Myanmar (c. 100 BC-AD 800)

          c. The city kingdom of Pagan (849-1287): the influence of Theravada Buddhism, Pagan as a cultural centre, destruction by the Mongols (1287)

          d. Myanmar from c. 1300 to c. 1600: reunification and expansion

     2. The Tai people and the kingdom of Siam to c. 1500

          a. The origins and settlement of the Tais: the kingdom of Nanchao in Yunnan (8th century AD)

          b. Establishment of Tai power at Sukhothai (c. 1220): social and cultural developments

          c. Establishment of the Tai state of Ayutthaya (1350): organization of administrative, social, and legal systems; wars with Lan Na during the reign of King Trailok (1448-88)

          d. Laos to c. 1600: the Lao as a branch of the Tai people, establishment of the Lan Xang kingdom by Fa Ngum (1353-73), later rulers to 1571, successful Burmese invasion (1574)

     3. Cambodia from the prehistoric period to c. 1500

          a. Prehistoric peoples in Cambodia, mythological origins of kingdom of Funan (c. AD 100) and the influence of Indian culture

          b. Emergence of the state of Chenla and the decline of Funan in the 6th century

          c. Establishment of the Khmer state of Angkor (c. 800), religion and the concept of kingship, social and administrative structures, the reign of Suryavarman II (1113-c. 1150), period of instability

          d. Jayavarman VII (1181-c. 1218) and the reestablishment and extension of Khmer authority

          e. Decline of the Angkor kingdom after 1220, introduction of Theravada Buddhism, Tai invasions (1369 and 1389) and fall of city of Angkor (1431)

     4. Vietnam from the prehistoric period to c. 1516

          a. The legendary and historical origins of the Vietnamese people, the influence of Chinese rule (from 111 BC) on Vietnamese society

          b. The states of Funan (c. lst-6th century AD) and Champa (AD 192-1471) in southern Vietnam

          c. Chinese political and cultural domination of Nam Viet from 111 BC to AD 939; independence under Ly, Tran, and Le dynasties; political unification of Nam Viet and Champa (1471); government and society in precolonial Vietnam

     5. Malaya to the 16th century AD

          a. Rise of Indianized states and their role in the formation of Malaya: the advent of Islam and the rise of the sultanate of Malacca (c. 1400-1511)

          b. Early European intrusions: the Portuguese conquest of Malacca (1511), social and political developments in the 16th century


C. Islands of the Indonesian Archipelago to c. 1600

     1. The settlement of the Indonesian Archipelago: the introduction of Hinduism by Indian Brahmins

     2. The Malay kingdom of Srivijaya in southeast Java: the influence of Buddhism, the importance of the maritime trade with China from the 7th to the 12th century

     3. Central Java in the 8th and 9th centuries: cultural, religious, and economic development during the Shailendra dynasty

     4. Eastern Java and the rest of the archipelago from 1019 to 1292: political and cultural developments, the Singhasari empire of Kertanagara and the royal cult

     5. The Majapahit empire in eastern Java (1319-89): religious and cultural developments

     6. The spread of Islam in Indonesia: the rise of Muslim states in Sumatra and Java (c. late 13th century), conflicts between Islam and older Indonesian cultures


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaylia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the peoples and civilizations of Southeast Asia to c. 1600


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division IV.        Peoples and Civilizations of Sub-Saharan Africa to 1885


[For Part Nine headnote sec page 343.]

The history of North Africa, because of its early involvement with Europe and Islam, is dealt with up to c. 1480 in Sections 911 and 924: and it is carried to the 19th century in Section 962. The history of Nilotic Sudan to c. AD 550 and of Ethiopia to c. AD 650 is dealt with in Section 911.

With those exceptions, the five sections of Division IV deal first with the geography and ethnology and then with the histories of the peoples and civilizations of the African continent to c. 1885.


Section 941. West Africa to c. 1885

Section 942. The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia from c. AD 550 to 1885

Section 943. East Africa and Madagascar to c. 1885

Section 944. Central Africa to c. 1885

Section 945. Southern Africa to c. 1885


Section 941.         West Africa to c. 1885


A. The geography and ethnography of West Africa, definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in West Africa


B. West Africa until the advent of the Europeans (c. AD 1500)

     1. Development of the West African monarchies of Ghana and Kanem to c. AD 1000

     2. Development of the western Sudan empires

          a. Emergence of the Keita dynasty of the Mali empire (c. 1235): Timbuktu as the cultural and commercial centre of Mali, fall of the Mali empire (c. late 15th century) and rise of the Songhai empire of Gao

          b. The migrations of the Fulani people, migrations and military conquests of the Mande-speaking peoples, development of trade routes by the Dyula


C. The precolonial period of European activity (c. 1400–c. 1885): exploration, development of the slave trade, and eventual collapse of indigenous states

     1. Portuguese trade with the Guinea states from c. 1460

     2. The rise and expansion of the Atlantic slave trade (c. 1600–c. 1860): the pattern and development of European slave trade routes, the African slave merchant class

     3. The Islamic revolutions in the western Sudan: spiritual and military leadership of Sidi Mukhtar (d. 1811) and Usman dan Fodio (d. 1817), the Fulani and Hausa jihdds (holy wars) and conquests

     4. West Africa from 1800 to c. 1885

          a. The Guinea coastlands and the European antislavery movements

          b. British colonial settlements from c. 1800: the colonies of Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, Lagos, and Ashanti

          c. 19th-century British and French exploration of the West African interior, establishment of colonies, and exploitation of trade


Suggested reading in the EncyclopEdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with West Africa to c. 1885


Western Africa


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

Akan states     British West Africa     Hausa states    Songhai empire

Akwamu         Dahomey         Kanem-Bornu Tukulor empire

Ashanti empire            Djenne Kumbi Wolof empire

Audaghost      Fanti confederacy       Mali

Bambara states            French West Africa     Mossi states

Benin   Fulani empire  Oyo empire Bono


Agaja   Musa   Sonni 'Ali

Beecroft, John Osei Tutu        Sumanguru

Faidherbe, Louis         Park, Mungo   Sundiata

Muhammad I  Rabifi az-Zubayr         `Umar Tal

Askia   Samory            Usman dan Fodio

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 942.         The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia from c. AD 550 to 1885


A. The Nilotic Sudan from c. 550 to 1885

     1. The medieval Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Maqurrah, and `Alwah; the Beja people

     2. The spread of Muslim domination from c. 639: Mamlak attacks in the 13th and 14th centuries, invasion of nomadic Arabs in the 15th century and intermarriage with Nubians, kingdom of `Alwah as the last Christian barrier until its conquest (c. 1500)

     3. The rise of the Funj (c. 1500), the spread of Islam

     4. The Egyptian occupation from 1820 to 1885: the administration of Muhammad 'Ali and his successors, Ismail Pasha and the growth of British influence


B. Ethiopia and Eritrea from c. AD 650 to 1855

     1. The decline of the Christian Aksum empire (c. 600-c. 976): cordial relations with Islamic states to the 8th century, conflicts with neighbouring peoples in the 9th century

     2. The Zagwe dynasty (c. 12th-13th century), the Solomonid restoration (1270), the influence of the Coptic Church on culture and religion

     3. Contacts with the Portuguese (1520-c. 1632), Muslim invasion under Ahmad Grail (1531-43) and establishment of Turkish garrisons in the 16th century, brief conciliation with the Roman Catholic Church (early 17th century)

     4. Gonder Ethiopia (1632-1855): alliance with Egyptian Coptic Church, friendly relations with Muslims, rivalry between the Oromo and Tigrayans


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia from c. AD 550 to c. 1885


Eastern Africa Sudan, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                      Kordofan        Sahle Selassie

Adal                Sudan, The      Yohannes IV

Aksum             Ethiopia           Zagwe dynasty          

Darfur Funj dynasty   Mandi, al        

Biographies     Ifat      Mikael Sehul  

Ahmad Grail   Ewostatewos              

Amda Tseyon Gordon, Charles                     

Covilha, Pero da         George                       

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 943.         East Africa and Madagascar to c. 1885


A. The geography and ethnography of East Africa and Madagascar: definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in East Africa


B. East Africa to c. 1856 and Madagascar to c. 1810

     1. The development of the coastal regions and of Madagascar and other offshore islands

          a. Medieval commercial contacts of Azania with Arabia, India, and the Mediterranean: the development of coastal trading cities

          b. The Shirazi dynasty (c. late 12th-15th century): the spread of Islam and growth of towns

          c. The Portuguese invasions and occupation from 1502: gradual expulsion of the Portuguese (1631-98), the Omani influence (c. 1700-1856)

          d. Madagascar from c. AD 1000 to 1810: early Indonesian settlement, later Muslim and African influx, kingdoms of Sakalava and Merina (1500-1810)

     2. The peoples and states of the East African interior to c. 1800

          a. The Stone Age origins of the East African interior peoples in the Rift Valley (now Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda)

          b. The Iron Age settlements in the Rift Valley, the Bantu migrations and the Chwezi peoples

          c. The Somali and Galla invasions (c. 10th-15th century), migrations of Nilotic and Kushitic peoples (c. 16th— 18th century)


C. East Africa from 1856 to c. 1900 and Madagascar from 1810 to 1896

     1. Internal developments in East Africa

          a. Development of political institutions and military kingships as defenses against Ngoni raids and Masai raiders: expansion of Rwanda and Buganda

          b. The rise of Zanzibar as the leading East African coastal power: the slave trade

          c. European exploratory and missionary activities

     2. Formation of the Kingdom of Madagascar (1810-61), English and French influences in the late 19th century


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with East Africa and Madagascar to c. 1885


INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 944.         Central Africa to c. 1885


A. The geography and ethnography of Central Africa, definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in Central Africa


B. Central Africa to c. 1885

     1. The origins of Central African cultures in the Stone Age, emergence and expansion of the Bantu-speaking peoples

     2. The development of the Bantu states from c. AD 1400: the Kongo kingdom, the Luba and Lunda kingdoms, the Mongo people

     3. Development of Portuguese hegemony over Central Africa from the 1470s: trade and missionary activity, military support of the Kongo kingdom, control of the slave trade, influence on Central African unity


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Central Africa to c. 1885



Afonso I          Livingstone, David

Brazza, Pierre- Msiri

Paul-Francois- Stanley, Sir Henry

Camille            Morton

Savorgnan de  Tippu Tib

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 945.         Southern Africa to c. 1885


A. The geography and ethnography of southern Africa: definition of the region, the archaeological and documentary historical sources and historiographic problems, the character and achievements of civilizations in southern Africa


B. Southern Africa before c. 1500

     1. Origins of mankind and development of culture in the Stone Age and Iron Age, the migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples in southern Africa from c. AD 200-400

     2. The southeast coast trade in the Late Iron Age and interior trade routes to Mapungubwe (northeastern South Africa), Great Zimbabwe (southeastern Zimbabwe), and Ingombe Ilede (Zambia)


C. Southern Africa from c. 1500 to c. 1885

     1. Portuguese expansion (1530s) into the Zambezi valley and defeat of the Mwene Mutapa's empire in 1629: Portuguese defeats (1690s) by the Rozwi empire

     2. The Portuguese in west central Africa: conquests over the Kongo kingdom (1665) and the Ndongo kingdom (1671), control of the slave trade

     3. The Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope from 1652: expansion toward the Orange River and subjugation of the Khoisans

     4. Early 19th-century African migrations and rise of the Zulu Empire (1816) under Shaka, later black migrations into Rhodesia

     5. The slave and ivory trade north of the Zambezi in the 19th century: decline of the slave trade in some areas and increased commerce in ivory, Yao migration into present-day Malawi, influence of missionaries

     6. The Cape eastern frontier: Boer and Xhosa resistance to the British, the Boer Great Trek (1835-54) into the interior, continued friction with the British

          a. Relations between Boers and the black population in the Transvaal

          b. Establishment of the Orange Free State, the British colonies of Natal and Cape Colony

     7. The era of mineral discoveries and confederation: diamonds and gold, Transvaal–Pedi and Zulu wars

     8. Portuguese loss of control in Angola and Mozambique in the mid-19th century, Portuguese reemergence of control in the early 20th century, German annexation of South West Africa (1884)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Southern Africa to C. 1885



Brand, Sir        Gungunhana    Mswati            Rhodes, Cecil

Johannes          Joubert, Petrus            Mzilikazi         Robinson, Sir

Henricus          Jacobus            Philip, John     Hercules

Burgers, Thomas         Kruger, Paul    Potgieter, Hendrik      Sebetwane

Francois           Livingstone, David     Pretorius, Andries       Shaka

Cetshwayo      Lobengula       Pretorius,         Shepstone, Sir

D'Urban, Sir    Mackenzie, John         Marthinus Wessel        Theophilus

Benjamin         Mshweshwe    Retief, Piet      Sobhuza I

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above


Division V.         Peoples and Civilizations of Pre-Columbian America


[For Part Nine headnote sec page 343]

The subject in Section 951 is Andean civilization to c. 1540. The outline begins with the character and achievements of Andean civilization. with the ethnography and geography of the Andean region, and with archaeological and documentary historical sources. It goes on to the history of the pre-Inca cultures and states in the Andean region, It then deals with the empire of the Incas to the time of the Spanish conquest (1532-40).

The subject in Section 952 is Meso-American civilization to c. 1540. The outline begins with the geography and ethnography of Meso-America and with the character and achievements of MesoAmerican civilization. It goes on to the history of Meso-American civilizations until their conquest and destruction by the Spanish.


Section 951. Andean Civilization to c. AD 1540 394

Section 952. Meso-Amcrican Civilization to c. AD 1540 395


Section 951.         Andean Civilization to c. .0 1540


A. The character and achievements of Andean civilization, the geography and ethnography of the Andean region. archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. Pre-Inca cultures and states

     1. Late Preceramic (c. 3500-.i 1800 tic) cultures: development of agriculture

     2. Initial W. I800-c, 1000 uc) and Early Horizon. or Chavin and Paracas (c. 1000-c. 200 BC), cultures in Peru: development of textiles, pottery. and ceremonial architecture

     3. Early Intermediate (Florescent. or Classic) Period (c. 200 BC—C. AD 600): metallurgy, pottery, and textile production in the Nazca and Moche cultures

     4. Middle Horizon Period (c. AD 600-c. 10001: the Huari and Tiahuanaco cultures, urban settlements. cultural decline after c. .4D 800

     5. Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 1000—C. 1400): pottery and the introduction of bronze, the Chimu Empire (c. 1300-c. 1460) located at Chan Chan. spread of urban settlements


C. The empire of the Incas (c. I400-c. 1540)

I. The origins and development of the Inca Empire

          a. The autochthonic mythical origins of the Inca dy_nasty. establishment of the Cuzco Valley settlement (c. 1400)

          b. The reigns of Capac Yupanqui. Inca Roca. Yahuar Huacac. and Viracocha Inca: Inca expansion into the Uruhamba Valley and Titicaca Basin, the Chancas invasion (1438)

          c. Inca victory over the Chancas ( 1438). Incan civil war between Cuzco and Calca factions, Cuzco victory and reign of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-c. 1471), renewed battles with Chancas (c. 1445). further conquest of Titicaca Basin region, victory over Chimu Empire

          d. Inca conquests during the reign of Topa Inca Yupanqui (c. 1471-c. 1493): annexation of highland Bolivia, northern Chile. northwestern Argentina, and southern Peru

          e. Reign of Huayna Capac (c. I403-c. 1525): conquest of northeastern Peru and northern Ecuador. Atahualipa's victory ( 1532) over Huascar in civil war

          f. The Spanish conquest of the Incas (1532-40): Pizarro's execution of Atahuallpa and support of Topa Huallpa (15331. later support of Manco Inca (1533-35); Manco's rebellion and defeat (1536), Spanish consolidation of power

     2. Incan government. society. and culture

          a. Divine monarchy and the royal corporations, administrative hierarchy, taxation, the census and the quipu system of numerical records

          b. The settlement of people loyal to the Incas in newly conquered territories, the spy system, religious practices, military policy and organization. technology, agriculture, transportation system, calendar, oral narratives


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Andean civilization to c. AD 1540

Argentina        Latin America, The History of

Bolivia Lima

Chile    Peru

Colombia         Pre-Columbian Civilizations Ecuador


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Andean civilization     Chavin Inca     Pachacamac

Araucanian      Chimia Machu Picchu Paracas

Atacama          El Paraiso        Moche Quechua

Chan Chan      Huari   Nazca  Tiahuanaco


Almagro, Diego de     Huascar           Pizarro, Gonzalo        

Atahualpa        Pizarro, Francisco                   

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 952.         Meso-American Civilization to c. AD 1540


A. The character and achievements of Meso-American civilization, the geography and ethnography of Meso-America, archaeological and documentary historical sources, historiographic problems


B. Meso-America in the Pre-Classic and Classic periods

I. The development of Meso-American civilization in the Pre-Classic periods

          a. Late Pleistocene and Early Hunter (c. 21,000-c. 6500 Bc) peoples of Meso-America, development of agriculture (c. 6500-c. 1500 Bc)

          b. Early Formative Period (c. 1500-c. 900 Bc): the OcOs and Caudros settlements, the Olmec civilization at San Lorenzo (c. 1150-c. 900 Bc) and development of its stone monuments

          c. Middle Formative Period (c. 900-c. 300 Bc): the Olmecs at La Venta (c. 800-c. 400 Bc); ceremonial architecture, pottery, and writing system; colonization and trade; pre-Maya villages in Guatemala

          d. Late Formative Period (c. 300 Bc-c. AD 100): regionalism and cultural integration, the Cuicuilco-Tilcoman cultures in the Valley of Mexico, the Zapotecs of Oaxaca, the Izapan civilization, Mayas of the Chicanel in northern Pe-ten

     2. Maya and non-Maya Meso-America in the Classic Period (c. AD 100-c. 900)

          a. Early Classic Period (c. AD 100-c. 600)

            i. Teotihuacan cultural and urban development, ceremonial architecture and pottery, the Zapotecs at Monte Alban

            ii. The Cotzumalhuapo culture in the Maya highlands, Tzakol and Tepeu cultures in lowland Maya civilization (c. AD 300-c. 900)

          b. Late Classic non-Maya Meso-America (c. AD 600-c. 900): decline of Teotihuacan political and cultural influence, rise of Xochicalco culture, the Mixtecs of northern Oaxaca

          c. Late Classic lowland Maya culture (c. AD 600-c. 900)

            i. Urban settlements, temple-pyramids and palaces, Maya art, the calendar and writing system

            ii. Maya religion, social and political life, the collapse of the Maya civilization (c. AD 900)


C. Post-Classic Period in the Valley of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula (c. 900-c. 1519)

     1. The rise and decline of the Toltec state in southern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula (c. 900c. 1200): secular and religious institutions, art and architecture, the legend of Quetzalcoatl, Toltec-Maya culture of Tollan (Tula) and Chichen-Itza

     2. The development of the Aztec state and extension of Aztec rule over the Valley of Mexico (c. 1325-1519): military campaigns of Itzcoatl, Montezuma I, and Ahuitzotl; administrative techniques under Montezuma II (1502-20)

     3. Aztec culture and society up to the time of the Spanish conquest; e.g., agriculture and technology, political organization, governmental structure, militarism, economy, religion, art and architecture


D. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec state and the Yucatan Peninsula (1519-c. 1540): destruction of Aztec government and culture, imposition of Spanish colonial policies and religion


Suggested reading in the Encyclopmtlia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Meso-American civilization to c. AD 1540

Latin America, The History of Mexico

Mexico City

Pre-Columbian Civilizations

entries of reference information

Palenque Teotihuacan Texcoco Tikal


Uxmal Xochicalco

peoples: Chichimec Chol Lacanclein Maya Olmec Toltec

Yucatec Maya Zapotec


Aztec calendar Mayan calendar QuetzalcOatl


MICROPAEDIA: Selected General subjects

cultural centres: Chapultepec Chichen Itzd Dos Pilas

Kaminaljuy6 Mayapan


Monte Alban


Alvarado, Pedro de Cortes, Hernân, marques del Valle de Oaxaca

Cuauhtemoc Griljalba, Juan Marina

Montezuma II

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division VI.        The Modern World to 1920


[For Part Nine headnote see page 343.]

The theme of western expansion, imperialism, and colonialism pervades Division VI. The separation of the history of the modern world (c. 1500-c. 1920) into eleven sections reflects conventional regional analyses of modern history, and, within each of those sections, conventional judgments regarding turning-point dates of the regional histories.


Section 961. Western Europe from c. 1500 to c. 1789 397

Section 962. Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa from c. 1480 to c. 1800 406

Section 963. Europe from 1789 to c. 1920 408

Section 964. European Colonies in the Americas from 1492 to c. 1790 420

Section 965. Development of the United States and Canada from 1763 to 1920 422

Section 966. Development of the Latin-American and Caribbean nations to c. 1920 428

Section 967. Australia and Oceania to c. 1920 433

Section 968. South Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism from c. 1500 to c. 1920 434

Section 969. Southeast Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism to c. 1920 436

Section 96/10. China from 1839 Until the Onset of Revolution (to c. 1911), and Japan from the Meiji Restoration to c. 1910 438

Section 96/11. Southwest Asia and North Africa (c. 1800-1920), and Sub-Saharan Africa (1885-c. 1920) Under the Influence of European Imperialism: the Early Colonial Period 440


Section 961.         Western Europe from c. 1500 to c. 1789


A. The effects of religious and cultural change: the emergence of the nation-state system, the predominance and decline of Habsburg power centred in Spain (c. 1500-1648)

     1. The later Renaissance in Italy and northern Europe

          a. The influence of Italian statecraft and political theory: Machiavelli and the principle of raison d'etat

          b. Cultural and intellectual life in the later Renaissance

     2. The Scientific Revolution: the emergence of modern science and technology in the 16th and 17th centuries

     3. The emergence of a religiously divided Europe in the 16th century

          a. The Protestant Reformation and its political and social consequences

          b. The Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation

     4. International diplomacy and warfare (1494-1648)

          a. The Italian Wars (1494-1516) and the concept of balance of power: French and Austro-Spanish expansionism in Italy

          b. French and Austrian struggles for supremacy in Europe (1515-59): French anti-Habsburg alliances with England, German Lutheran princes, and the Turks

          c. Conflicts between Catholic and Protestant powers after c. 1555: religious wars in France and the Low Countries, conflict with the Ottoman Empire

          d. The Thirty Years' War (1618-48) and the Peace of Westphalia: the end of religious struggles and resecularization of international affairs

     5. National and dynastic states (c. 1500-1648)

          a. Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries: political, economic, social, and cultural developments

            i. The French invasion (1494) and conquests of Naples (1495) and Milan (1499), the influence of Savonarola, the anti-French League of Venice and the Spanish defeat of France (1525)

            ii. Italy under Spanish domination: Catholic religious reforms; Spanish Habsburg rule in Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Milan

            iii. Relations between Spain and the independent states of Italy: Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany, Venice, and the Papal States

          b. Spain from 1516 to 1665

            i. Establishment of the Habsburg dynasty (1516) by Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V), Spanish hegemony in Europe and the Americas, domestic and foreign policies of Philip II (1556-98), the Armada (1588), cultural developments in Spain's Golden Age

            ii. Political and economic decline during the reigns of Philip III (1598-1621) and Philip IV (1621-65): expulsion of the Moriscos (1609), Olivares' administration, loss of Portugal (1640)

          c. Portugal from c. 1500 to 1640: domination of East Indian trade, union with Spain (1580), independence under House of Braganca (1640)

          d. The British Isles (c. 1485-1649)

            i. Henry 1711 (1485-1509): dynastic unity in England after the Wars of the Roses; political, judicial, social, and economic developments

            ii. Henry VIII (1509-47): foreign and domestic policies; the divorce question, the English Reformation, and the establishment of the Church of England; Edward VI (1547-53) and Mary I (1553-58)

            iii. Elizabeth I (1558-1603): social and cultural developments; domestic policies; dynastic challenge of Mary, Queen of Scots; struggle with Spain

            iv. James I (1603-25) of England (James VI of Scotland) and establishment of the Stuart dynasty: developments in religious doctrine, foreign relations, economic policy, and the arts; conflicts between crown and Parliament

            v. Charles I (1625-49) and the English Civil War (1642-51): economic and political disputes between crown and Parliament; royal personal rule (1629-40); persecution of Puritans; the Long Parliament, Oliver Cromwell, and the Civil War; execution of Charles I (1649)

            vi. Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries: reigns of James IV and James V; Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-67), and the Scottish Reformation; John Knox and Calvinism; James VI (1567-1625) of Scotland (James I of England, 1603-25) and personal union of the two crowns

            vii. Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries: subjugation of Ireland by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, the Irish revolt of 1641. Cromwell's invasion and anti-Catholic policies during the Commonwealth

          e. France from 1483 to 1643

            i. Development of a standing army and a professional bureaucracy in the reigns of Charles VIII (1483-98), Louis XII (1498-1515), Francis I (1515-47), and Henry II (1547-59)

            ii. The Protestant Reformation and the French Wars of Religion (1562-98): the reigns of Catherine de Mêdicis (1560-74) and Henry III (1574-89), religious compromise and restoration of strong monarchy under Henry IV of Bourbon (1589-1610)

            iii. The reign of Louis XIII (1610-43) and Cardinal de Richelieu: suppression of the Huguenots and the nobles, French success in the Thirty Years' War

          f. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from c. 1500 to 1648: the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Thirty Years' War

            i. Maximilian I (1493-1519), Martin Luther, and the origins of Lutheranism; Charles V and the Diet and Edict of Worms (1521); the Peasants' Revolt (1524-25); diets of Speyer (1526 and 1529) and Augsburg (1530); the Schmalkaldic League and ensuing wars; abdication of Charles V (1555) and Peace of Augsburg

            ii. Ferdinand I (1556-64) and Maximilian II (1564-76), internal disunity under their successors, the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), political and religious settlements of the Peace of Westphalia (1648)

          g. The Swiss Confederation from 1474 to 1648

            i. Swiss victory over Charles the Bold in the Burgundian War (1474-77), military prestige of the confederation, victory over Maximilian I (1499), the Italian campaigns (1499-1516)

            ii. The Swiss Reformation: Zwingli and Calvin, the Counter-Reformation and emergence of Catholic and Protestant cantons, neutrality in the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), European recognition by the Peace of Westphalia (1648)

          h. The Low Countries from 1494 to 1648

            i. Habsburg unification of the Low Countries (1494); further consolidation under the future emperor Charles V (1506-55); economic, cultural, and religious developments; revolt of the provinces (1567-79)

            ii. Establishment of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (the Dutch Republic) in 1579: leadership of the House of Orange, continued war against Spanish Habsburg power

            iii. Commercial supremacy of the Dutch Republic, intermittent wars with Spain (1621-48)

            iv. Cultural, social, religious, and economic developments in the Dutch Republic

            i. Scandinavia from 1523 to 1648: separation of Sweden from Denmark-Norway (1523) and Dano-Swedish conflicts; Christian III of Denmark (1534-59), Gustav I Vasa (1523-60), and Gustavus II Adolphus (1611-32) of Sweden; participation in Thirty Years' War (1618-48)


B. European overseas expansion and commercial development from c. 1400 to 1763

     1. The beginning of European imperialism: rapid expansion of European trade with and control over the non-European world after c. 1450

          a. Advances in geographical knowledge and technological improvements; e.g., ship design, navigational instruments, cartography

          b. Voyages of discovery and exploration: establishment of colonial empires

i. Discovery, exploration, and early settlement of the Americas

            ii. Discovery, exploration, and earl settlement of the coastal regions of Africa, Australia, India, and the East Indies

     2. The decline of the feudal system and growth of commercial activity

          a. The changing relationship between tenant and landlord, agricultural developments, evolving role of the guilds, decline of Hanseatic League. demographic movements

          b. The decline in Mediterranean trade and growth of Antwerp and Amsterdam as international trade centres, the growth of a landed merchant class

     3. Technological advances and pre-Industrial Revolution manufacturing systems: development of "putting-out" system and decline of guild power

     4. The impact of colonial expansion on Europe

          a. Economic effects

            i. Development of new business organizations to direct colonial exploitation: joint-stock and chartered companies

            ii. The "price revolution": the relationship between the influx of precious metals from the Americas to Europe and the price rise in the 16th century

            iii. Growth of mercantilism: theories and policies of economic nationalism developed by European powers, the concept of the balance of trade

            iv. Increase in volume of world trade: the growth of the luxury trade (silks, spices, precious metals), the agricultural trade (tobacco, sugar. and coffee), the raw materials trade

Development and importance of the slave trade

          b. Political effects: the relationship between Spain's status as an international power and its colonial possessions in the 16th century. colonial rivalries among European powers in the 17th and 18th centuries


C. France and Great Britain as the dominant powers in Europe, the emergence of Prussia and Austria as European powers

     1. International wars and diplomacy         1649-. 1 7 901

          a. The Age of Louis XIV (1661-1715): French successes in the War of Devolution (1667-68) and the Dutch War (1672-79). defeat in the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) and the War of the Spanish Succession ( 1701-14)

          b. Development of the alliance s^ stem: the balance of power

            i. The Quadruple Alliance: the emergence of' Prussia and Austria as European powers, the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48)

            ii. The Seven Years War ( 1 7 5 6-6 3 ) and France's defeat and loss of colonial territory in the Americas

            iii. French recovery and Franco-Spanish cooperation (1778-81) against Britain in the U.S. War of Independence, Russian-Prussian partition of Poland (1772)

The European states (c. 1648-c. 1790)

          a. Great Britain from 1649 to c. 1790

            i. Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth, and the Protectorate (1649-60); the Stuart Restoration (1660) under Charles II ( 1 660-8 5 ) and James II (1685-88); the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and end of crown rule without Parliament

            ii. Limited monarchy under William III (1689-1702) and Mary II ( 1689-94) and Anne (1702-14); growth of Whig and Tory political parties (1689-1714); the Hanoverian succession and emergence of the cabinet system under George I and George II; Whig supremacy and political stability to 1760; ministries of Walpole, Pelham, and Pitt

in. Early years of George Ill's reign (1760-1820) to c. 1790: eclipse of Whig power and political instability (1760-70), failure of colonial policies and U.S. War of Independence, beginning of parliamentary and reform movements

            iv. Economic, cultural, and social developments: agricultural innovations, population growth, origins of the Industrial Revolution and factory system, influence of Methodism

            v. Formal union of England and Scotland (1707), Edinburgh's status as an intellectual centre, Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and growth of Irish patriotism among the Anglo-Irish, Wales in the 18th century

          b. France from c. 1650 to c. 1790

            i. The Fronde, Louis XIV's minority (1643-61), and Mazarin's control of government to 1661

            ii. The Age of Louis XIV (1661-1715): development of the central government, the Versailles court, military policies, mercantilist policies of Colbert

            iii. Louis's religious and political policies: revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes and the Huguenot emigration, political influence of Jansenism, royal absolutism

            iv. French cultural development in the 17th century

            v. The ancien regime (1715-89): the close relationship between society and the state, the new urban class, the decline of the monarchy under Louis XV (1715-74) and Louis XVI (1774-92), power of the parlements, agricultural and industrial growth, domestic and colonial trade

            vi. The reform movement: the influences of nationalism and individualism; attacks on political, social, and economic policies of the ancien regime; conflict between the nobility and bourgeoisie; the financial crisis and attempts at reform by Necker and Turgot; the States General and the beginning of the Revolution (1789)

          c. The lands ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs (1648-1790)

            i. Austrian consolidation and expansion under Leopold I (1658-1705), Joseph I (170511), and Charles VI (1711-40): conquest of Hungary and penetration of the Balkans in the Austro-Turkish wars (1683-99 and 1716-18), War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) and acquisition of the Spanish Netherlands (1713)

            ii. The Pragmatic Sanction and the accession of Maria Theresa (1740); War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) and loss of Silesia to Prussia (1741); military, administrative, and educational reforms of Maria Theresa; acquisition of Polish Galicia (1772); failure of Joseph Il's (1765-90) foreign policies and his enlightened domestic reforms (1780-90)

          d. Germany and the rise of Prussia (c. 1640-c. 1790)

            i. Frederick William, the Great Elector (1640-88): strengthening of Hohenzollern power in Brandenburg and Prussia, end of Polish suzerainty over Prussia, War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), Austro-Prussian rivalry in the 18th century, Frederick 1 (170113) and Frederick William I (1713-40) of Prussia

            ii. Frederick II the Great (1740-86): War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), Seven Years' War (1756-63), partitions of Poland (1772-95), development of Idealism (Kant), enlightened reform and benevolent despotism

            iii. The influence of Pietism, the German cultural revival in the second half of the 18th century

          e. Spain and Portugal

            i. Spain from 1665 to c. 1790: continued decline under Charles 11 (1665-1700); War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) and establishment of the Bourbon dynasty; pro-French foreign policy under Philip V, Ferdinand VI, and Charles III; administrative and economic reforms of Charles III

            ii. Portugal from 1640 to c. 1777: increasing economic and diplomatic ties to England under John IV (1640-56), Afonso VI (1656-83), Pedro 11 (1683-1706), and John V (1706-50); economic, religious, and administrative reforms under Pombal and Joseph I (1750-77)

          f. Italy in the 18th century

            i. Government reforms and the rule of Joseph 11 ( 1 765-90) in Lombardy, reigns of Francis of Lorraine (1738-65) and Peter Leopold (1765-90) in Tuscany

            ii. The viceroyalty of Naples and the kingdom of Sicily: economic and social unrest, rule of Charles VI in Sicily, transfer of Naples and Sicily to Charles III in 1734, the Bourbon regime

          g. The United Provinces of the Netherlands from 1648 to 1789; economic and political stagnation; the first (1650-72) and second (1702-47) stadholderless periods; the patriotic movement; social, religious, and cultural development

          h. Scandinavia from c. 1648 to c. 1792

            i. Swedish wars of conquest against Poland and Denmark-Norway under Charles X Gustav (1654-60) and Charles XI (1672-97), war with Russia under Charles XII (1697-1718) and displacement of Sweden by Russia as the chief Baltic power after the Great Northern War (1700-21)

            ii. Social and economic conditions in the Scandinavian countries

            iii. Denmark–Norway losses in the First Northern War with Sweden (1655-60); economic stagnation (1720-66), "Enlightened" reforms under Christian VII (1766-1808), Struensee, and Bernstorff; revival of settlement in Greenland (1714)

            iv. Growth of parliamentary government in Sweden: Frederick I (1720-51) and Adolf Frederick (1751-71), the "Hats" and "Nightcaps" political parties, absolutism reestablished by Gustav III (1771-92)

            i. The Swiss Confederation (C. 1650-1790): Villmergen wars (1656-1712), the influence of the Enlightenment

     3. The age of the Enlightenment

          a. Origins in the 17th century: scientific achievements, developments in political and religious philosophies, developments in the arts

          b. Expansion in the 18th century: the spread of religious, political, economic, and scientific theories in western Europe; cultural developments


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with western Europe from c. 1500 to c. 1789

Amsterdam     Czech and Slovak       Geneva            Madrid

Antwerp          Republics        Germany         Malta

Arctic, The      Denmark         Greece Manchester

Athens Dublin Habsburg, The Marseille

Austria            Edinburgh       House of         Milan

Bacon, Francis            Elizabeth I of  Hamburg         Naples

Balkan States  England           Holy Roman    Netherlands, The

Barcelona        European History        Empire, The     Norway

Belgium           and Culture     History of the  Paris

Berlin  European Overseas     Hungary          Portugal

Bourbon. The  Exploration and          Iceland            Rome

House of         Empires, The   Ireland Spain

Brussels           History of        Italy     Sweden

Cologne           Finland            Lisbon Switzerland

Columbus        Florence          London           United Kingdom

Cromwell, Oliver        France Luther Venice

            Frederick the Great     Luxembourg    Vienna


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Bavarian          Medina del      Russo-Turkish

cultural and                            

economic:        Succession,      Campo, Treaty of        Wars

Baroque period           War of the       Mohacs, Battle of       Seven Years' War

bullionism        Belgrade, Treaty of     Neva, Battle of the     Silesian Wars

Classicism and            Blenheim, Battle of     Nordlingen,     Spanish

Neoclassicism  Breda, Treaty of          Battle of          Succession, War

Enlightenment Cambrai,          Northern War, of the

mercantilism    League of        First     Stolbovo, Treaty of

philosophe       Carlowitz,       Northern War, Thirty Years' War

physiocrat        Treaty of         Second            Utrecht, treaties of

Renaissance     Cateau-Cambresis,      Oudenaarde,   Vienna, Siege of

international    Peace of          Battle of          Westphalia,

relations:          Devolution,     Paris, Treaty of            Peace of

Abo, Treaty of            War of (1763)  Wittstock, Battle of

Aix-la-Chapelle,          Dutch War      Pavia, Battle of           national affairs

Treaty of         Fontenoy, Battle of     Poland,            Britain:

Altranstadt,     Grand Alliance,           Partition of      Armada

treaties of        War of the       Pragmatic Sanction     Bishops' Wars

Anglo-Dutch War       Lepanto, Battle of       of Charles VI  Boyne, Battle

Austrian          Lfitzen, Battle of        Pyrenees, Peace           of the

Succession, War          Madrid, Treaty of       of the   cabal

of the   Marignano,      Ramillies, Battle of     Clarendon Code

            Battle of          Rocroi, Battle of        

Cloth of Gold.            Short Parliament         FUrstenbund   national ullairs-

Field of           1688,   Galicia Spain and Portugal:

Culloden,        Revolution of  Holy Roman    Armada

Battle of          South Sea Bubble       Empire audiencia

Darnel's case   Star Chamber, Kreis    auto-da-fê

Declaratory Act          Court of          Palatinate        Inquisition

Dover, Treaty of         test act Prague,            Tavoras,

English Civil   Toleration Act Defenestration of        Conspiracy

Wars    Union, Act of  Protestant Union         of the

Fifth    (England-Scotland)     Prussia Troubles,

Monarchy Men            Whig and Tory            Saxony            Council of

Flodden.          national allairs-            Silesia  national affairs

Battle of          France:            Wehlau, Treaty of       Switzerland:

Glencoe,          appanage         Worms, Diet of           Kappel Wars

Massacre of     Armagnac        Wurttemberg   Stans, Diet of

Government.   Camisard         national qlfairs-           Toggenberg

Instrument of  capitation                    Succession

Great Fire of   Chiltelet          Holy League   overseas exploration

London           coutume          (Papal Italy)    and colonialism:

Great Plague of           Estates-General           Naples,            colonialism

London           Famille, Pacte dc         kingdom of     Dutch East India

Gunpowder Plot         Fronde. the      Papal States     Company

High Commission.      gabelle Tuscany           Dutch West India

Court of          gênèralite         Two Sicilies,    Company

Independent    Holy League   Kingdom of the          East India

Jacobite           (France)           national affairs—Lox  Company

Jenkins' Ear,    intendant         Countries:        exploration

War of iron mask, the  Austrian          French East India

Leveler            man in the       Netherlands     Company

Long Parliament          Nantes, Edict of          Dutch Republic           Hudson's Bay

Naseby, Battle of        noblesse de robe          Dutch War      Company

Navigation Acts          Poisons, Affair            Eighty Years' War       Indies, Casa

New Model Army       of the   Ghent, de las

Nonconformist            Pyrenees, Peace           Pacification of Indies, Council

Nonjuror          of the   pensionary       of the

Parliament.      Saint    Spanish            Indies, Laws

Admonition to            Bartholomew's            Netherlands     of the

Penal Laws      Day, Massacre of        stadholder       London

Pilgrimage of   taille    States General Company

Grace   Temple, Le      Troubles.         mercantilism

Popish Plot      Three Henrys, War      Council of       Muscovy

Protectorate     of the   Tulip Mania     Company

Puritanism       Unigenitus       national affairs            New Zealand

right, petition of          national affairs-           Scandinavia:    Company

Rights, Bill of Gerinany/Holy            Anjala League Northwest

(British)           Roman Empire:           Count's War    Passage

Roundhead     Bayern (Bavaria)         Dacke War      Plymouth

Rye House Plot           Brandenburg   Kalmar War     Company

Settlement, Act of      Catholic League          Stockholm      

ship money      Diet     Bloodbath      



Britain and Ireland:     Bacon, Francis,           Breadalbane and         Catherine Howard

Anne   viscount St.     Holland, John  Catherine of

Anne Boleyn   Albans Campbell, 1st  Aragon

Argyll, Archibald        Baring family  earl of  Cecil, William, 1st

Campbell, 1st  Blake, Robert  Buckingham,   Baron Burghley

marquess and 8th        Bolingbroke,   George Villiers,           Charles I

earl of  Henry Saint     1st Duke of     Charles II

Arlington, Henry         John. 1st viscount       Buckingham,   Clarendon,

Bennet. 1st earl of       Bothwell, James          George Villiers,           Edward Hyde,

Babington,      Hepburn, 4th   2nd Duke of    1st earl of

Anthony          earl of  Cabot, John    

Cleveland,       Hakluyt, Richard        Monmouth, James       Saye and Sele,

Barbara Villiers,          Hamilton, John            Scott, Duke of            William Fiennes,

Duchess of      Hamilton, 1st  Montagu, Ralph          1st Viscount

Clive, Robert, 1st        marquess of     Montagu, 1st   Schomberg,

Baron Clive of            Hampden, John           Duke of           Frederick

Plassey            Hastings, Warren        Moray, James  Herman, duke of

Conway, Henry           Hawkins, Sir John       Stewart, 1st     Seymour (of

Seymour          Henderson,      Earl of Sudeley), Thomas

Cook, James    Alexander       More, Sir Thomas        Seymour, Baron

Cotton, Sir      Henrietta Maria           Morton, James Shaftesbury,

Robert Bruce,  Henry VII       Douglas, 4th    Anthony Ashley

1st Baronet      Henry VIII      Earl of Cooper, 1st

Cranmer, Thomas        Howe, Richard            Newcastle       Earl of

Cromwell,       Howe, Earl      (-upon-Tyne),  Shrewsbury,

Oliver  Hudson, Henry           William            Charles Talbot,

Cromwell,       Huntly, George           Cavendish, 1st            duke and 12th

Richard           Gordon, 1st     Duke of           earl of

Cromwell,       Marquess and 6th        Norfolk, Thomas         Somerset, Edward

Thomas, earl    Earl of Howard, 3rd   Seymour, 1st

of Essex          Hutchinson,     Duke of           duke of

Darnley,          Thomas            Norfolk, Thomas         Stanhope, James

Henry Stewart,            James I (Britain)          Howard, 4th    Stanhope, 1st Earl

Lord    James II (Britain)        Duke of           Stirling, William

Davison,          James IV         Northampton,  Alexander, 1st

William            (Scotland)       Henry Howard,           Earl of

Digby, James V (Scotland)     Earl of Strafford, Thomas

Sir Kenelm      Jane Seymour  Northumberland,         Wentworth, 1st

Drake, Jeffreys (of Wem),      John Dudley,   earl of

Sir Francis       George Jeffreys,          Duke of           Stuart, House of

Edward VI      1st Baron         Oates, Titus     Sussex, Thomas

Eliot, Sir John Knox, John      O'Donnell, Manus       Radcliffe, 3rd

Elizabeth I       Lambert, John O'Neill, Owen Roe     earl of

Essex, Robert  Latimer, Hugh O'Neill, Shane Tudor, House of

Devereux, 2nd            Laud, William Ormonde, James         Tyrconnell, Rory

earl of  Leeds, Thomas            Butler, 12th earl          O'Donnell, 1st

Fairfax of        Osborne, 1st    and 1st duke of           Earl of

Cameron,         Duke of           Oxford, Robert           Tyrone, Conn

Thomas Fairfax,          Leicester, Robert         Harley, 1st       O'Neill,

3rd Baron        Dudley, earl of            Earl of 1st Earl of

Fawkes, Guy   Leven, Alexander       Pitt, William, the         Tyrone, Hugh

Fisher, Saint John        Leslie, 1st Earl of        Elder   O'Neill, 2nd

Flood, Henry   Lilburne, John Pole, Reginald Earl of

Fox, Charles James     Lovat, Simon  Pole, Richard de la      Vane, Sir Henry,

Gage, Thomas Fraser, 11th Lord        Portsmouth,     the Younger

Gardiner, Stephen       Maitland (of    Louise-Renee  Walpole, Robert,

George I          Lethington),    de Keroualle,   1st earl

George II        William            Duchess of      of Orford

George III       Marlborough, John      Prynne, William          Walsingham, Sir

Gilbert, Sir      Churchill, 1st   Pym, John       Francis

Humphrey       Duke of           Raleigh, Sir Walter      Wildman,

Godolphin, Sidney      Marlborough,  Riccio, David  Sir John

Godolphin,      Sarah Jennings,           Rupert, Prince Wilkes, John

1st Earl of       Duchess of      Sackville (of    William III

Gowrie, John   Mary (Queen of          Drayton), George        Winthrop,

Ruthven, 3rd   Scots)  Sackville-Germain,      John

earl of  Mary I 1st Viscount    Wolsey, Thomas,

Grafton, Augustus      Mary II            Saint John, Oliver       Cardinal

Henry Fitzroy, Masham, Abigail,        Salisbury, Robert        Wyat, Sir

3rd duke of     Baroness Masham       Cecil, 1st earl of          Thomas, the

Grattan, Henry            of Otes            Sandwich, Edward     Younger

Grenville, George        Monck, George,          Montagu, 1st   France:

Grey, Lady Jane          1st Duke of     Earl of Anne of

Gwyn, Nell     Albemarle                    Austria

Beaufort, Francois

de Vendome,

duc de

Bernis, Francois-Joachim de Pierre de

Bourbon, Charles III, 8e duc de Bourbon, House of Cartier, Jacques Catherine de Medicis Champlain, Samuel de Charles IX Chevreuse, Marie de RohanMontbazon, duchesse de Choiseul, Etienne-Francois de Choiseul, duc de Colbert,

Jean-Baptiste Coligny, Gaspard II de, seigneur

de Ch&Mon Conde, Louis I

de Bourbon, ler prince de Conde, Louis II

de Bourbon, 4e prince de Conti,


de Bourbon, prince de

Dubois, Guillaume Fleury,

Andre-Hercule de Francis I

Francis II Frontenac, Louis de Buade, comte de Palluau et de Guise, Claude de Lorraine, ler

duc de

Guise, Francois

de Lorraine, 2e duc de

Guise, Henri I

de Lorraine, 3e due de

Henry II Henry III Henry IV

La Rochefoucauld, Francois VI, Duke de

La Salle,


Cavelier, Sieur de

Le Tellier, Michel L'Hospital, Michel de Lionne, Hugues de Lorraine, Charles

de Lorraine, 2nd cardinal de Louis XII Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louvois, Francois-Michel

Le Tellier, marquis de Luxembourg, Francois-Henri de MontmorencyBouteville, duc de

Maintenon, Francoise d'Aubigne, marquise de Malesherbes, Chretien Guillaume de Lamoignon de Margaret of Angouleme Marie-Antoinette

Marie de Medicis Maupeou, Rene-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin de

Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal Montmorency,

Anne, Duke de Montpensier, Anne-Marie-Louise d'Orleans, Duchess de Mornay, Philippe

de, seigneur du Plessis-Marly

Necker, Jacques Orleans, Gaston,

duc d'

Orleans, Philippe

II, due d' Pigneau de Behaine, Pierre-Joseph-Georges Pompadour, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson,

marquise deRetz, Jean-Francois-Paul

de Gondi, cardinal de Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de

Saxe, Maurice,

comte de Schomberg, Frederick Herman, duke of Seguier, Pierre Sully, Maximilien

de Bethune, Duke de Terray,

Joseph-Marie Turenne, Henri

de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turgot,

Anne-Robert-Jacques, baron de l'Aulne Vauban, Sebastien

Le Prestre de Vergennes, Charles Gravier, comte de Villars,

Claude-Louis-Hector, duc de

Germany/Holy Roman Empire: Charles V (emperor) Charles VI (emperor) Charles Theodore (Palatinate) Charles William Ferdinand (Brunswick) Ernest Augustus (Hanover) Eugene of Savoy Ferdinand (Brunswick) Ferdinand I (emperor) Ferdinand II (emperor) Ferdinand III (emperor)

Francis I (emperor) Frederick I (Brandenburg) Frederick III (Palatinate) Frederick I (Prussia)

Frederick II (Prussia) Frederick William (Brandenburg) Frederick William

I (Prussia) Frederick William

II (Prussia) Habsburg, House of Hertzberg, Ewald Friedrich, Graf von Hohenzollern dynasty

Joseph I (emperor) Joseph II (emperor) Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton von Leopold I (Anhalt-Dessau) Leopold I (emperor) Leopold II (emperor) Matthias (emperor) Maximilian I (emperor) Maximilian II (emperor) Montecuccoli, Raimondo Piccolomini-Pieri, Ottavio

Rudolf II (emperor) Tilly, Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Wallenstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wittelsbach, House of


Alessandro (Florence) Alexander VI (pope)

Baglioni family Barberini family Borgia family Cenci, Beatrice Clement VII (pope)

Contarini family Corsini family Cosimo I

(Tuscany) Cosimo II (Tuscany)

Cosimo III      Hoorne, Filips van       Charles IX       Balboa, Vasco

(Tuscany)        Montmorency, (Sweden)         Nunez de

Doria family    Graaf van        Charles X Gustav        Bonaparte, Joseph

Este, House of            John Maurice of          (Sweden)         Charles II

Farnese family Nassau Charles XI       Charles III

Ferdinand I     John William Friso      (Sweden)         Charles V

(Tuscany)        Louis of Nassau          Charles XII     (Holy Roman

Ferdinand II    Margaret of     (Sweden)         Empire)

(Tuscany)        Austria            Christian II      Farnese,

Fieschi family  Maurice           (Denmark)       Alessandro,

Fieschi,            Oldenbarnevelt,          Christian III    Duke di Parma e

Gian Luigi       Johan van        (Denmark)       Piacenza

Francis (I)        Orange, House of        Christian IV    Ferdinand II

(Tuscany)        Ruyter, Michiel           (Denmark)       Ferdinand VI

Gonzaga dynasty        Adriaanszoon de         Christina          Floridablanca,

Guicciardini,   Tasman, Abel  De la Gardie,   Jose Moiiino

Francesco        Janszoon          Jacob Pontusson,         y Redondo,

Julius II (pope)            Tromp, Maarten          Count  conde de

Leo X (pope)   William I         Frederick I      Juan de Austria

Machiavelli,     William II        (Denmark)       Juan Jose de

Nicco16           William III      Frederick (I)    Austria

Medici family  William IV      (Sweden)         Margaret

Medici,            William V        Frederick II     of Austria

Giovanni de'    William Louis  (Denmark)       Olivares, Gaspar

Medici,            Witt, Johan de Frederick III   de Guzman

Lorenzino de'  Portugal:          (Denmark)       y Pimental,

Morosini family           Albuquerque,  Gustav I Vasa conde-duque de

Savoy, House of         Afonso de, the            (Sweden)         Orry, Jean

Sforza family  Great   Gustav II Adolf          Perez, Antonio

Sixtus V (pope)           Cabral, Pedro  (Sweden)         Philip I

Low Countries:           Alvares            Gustav III       Philip II

Coen, Jan        Covilha, Pero da         (Sweden)         Philip III

Pieterszoon      Dias, Bartolomeu        John III (Sweden)       Philip IV

Diemen,           Gama, Vasco da,         Oxenstierna (af           Philip V

Anthony van   Henry the        Sadermiire), Axel,       Riperda, Juan

Egmond,         Navigator        Greve  Guillermo

Lamoraal,        Magellan,        Oxenstierna, Bengt     Riperdd,

Count van       Ferdinand        Gabrielsson,    duque de

Farnese,           Pombal, Sebastido      Greve  Santa Cruz,

Alessandro,     de Carvalho,    Spain:  Alvaro de

Duke di Parma e         marques de      Alba, Fernando           Bazan,

Piacenza          Scandinavia:    Alvarez de       Marques de

Frederick Henry,         Adolf Frederick          Toledo y          Soto,

prince of Orange         (Sweden)         Pimentel, 3er   Hernando de

Hembyze, Jan van       Armfelt, Gustaf          duque de         Vespucci,

Heyn, Piet       Mauritz            Alberoni, Giulio          A merigo

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 962.         Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa from c. 1480 to c. 1800


A. The Christian states of eastern Europe

     1. Poland-Lithuania (1492-1795): gradual weakening of the monarchy, decline and dismemberment of the state

          a. The Golden Age of the Polish-Lithuanian empire (1492-1572)

            i. Foreign relations: Ottoman invasions, Russian invasion of Lithuania, alliance with Turks (1533) and reestablishment of Polish security, renewed Russian aggression

            ii. Domestic developments: population movements, constitutional reform, prosperous foreign trade, exploitation of the peasantry and their reduction to serfdom, effects of the Renaissance and the Reformation

          b. Establishment of the royal republic (1572-1648)

            i. The Interregnum (1572-75) and reform of the monarchy: Stephen Bathory (157686) and Sigismund III Vasa (1587-1632), indecisive wars with Sweden for possession of the Baltic region

            ii. WIadyslaw IV Vasa (1632-48): the Cossack revolt, economic prosperity, increased power of the nobility, effect of the Counter-Reformation

          c. The period of wars and disintegration (1648-97): the Cossack-Russian and Swedish invasions in the reign of John II Casimir (1648-68), loss of Ducal Prussia to Brandenburg (1657), Michael WiSniowiecki (1669-73), John III Sobieski's (1674-96) victories over the Turks

          d. The Saxonian era, the Russian Protectorate, and the partitions of Poland among Russia, Prussia, and Austria

            i. The reigns of Augustus II (1697-1733) and Augustus III (1733-63): participation in the Great Northern War, relations with Prussia, the Seven Years' War (1756-63)

            ii. The reign of Stanislaw II August Poniatowski (1764-95): the Confederation of Bar, reform, the partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, and 1795)

     2. Hungary: the Jagiellon kings (1490-1526) and the partition period (1526-1699)

          a. The peasant revolt (1514), defeat by the Ottoman Turks at Battle of Mohacs (1526)

          b. Division into Ottoman and Habsburg sectors in the 16th century, the spread of Protestantism, the Fifteen Years' War, the rise of Transylvania, defeat of the Turks (1686) and subjection of all Hungary to the Habsburgs in 1699

     3. Emergence of the Russian Empire (c. 1500-1796)

          a. Extension of Muscovite control over Russia under Vasily III (1505-33), Ivan IV the Terrible (1533-84), and Boris Godunov (1598-1605); civil revolt in the Time of Troubles (15981613)

          b. The Romanov Muscovy: election of Michael Romanov as tsar (1613) and continued autocracy under his successors, expansion into the Ukraine, 17th-century cultural and religious life

          c. The beginning of westernization and further expansion under Peter I the Great (16891725): the Petrine state

            i. The Table of Ranks and the new nobility: reform of the clerical hierarchy, urban legislation, building of St. Petersburg, conquest of the Baltic provinces

            ii. Development of Russia's status as a European power in Peter's reign: westernization of its culture

            iii. Peter I's weak successors: Anna (1730-40) and Elizabeth (1741-62)

          d. Further westernization and expansion under Catherine II the Great (1762-96): partitions of Poland and successful wars against the Ottoman Empire

          e. Education and social change in the 18th century: the impact of the Enlightenment


B. The Islamic states of eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa

     1. The Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1807, Morocco from 1459 to 1830

          a. The Ottoman Empire as the dominant power of Southwest Asia and southeastern Europe (1481-1566)

            i. Consolidation of the empire in the reign of Bayezid II (1481-1512), Selim I's (151220) successes against Iran and seizure of Syria and Egypt, Silleyman I's (1520-66) conflicts with the Habsburgs in Hungary and annexation of Iraq

            ii. Classical Ottoman society and administration: the class structure, the mitkata`a, religious and civil law

          b. Decline of the Ottoman Empire (1566-1807): corruption and nepotism

            i. Foreign relations: conflicts with the Russians, Austrians, and Iranians

            ii. Attempts at reform in government administration; defeats by Poles, Habsburgs, and Russians

          c. Imperial disintegration in the 18th and early 19th centuries: westernization and rise of local rulers

          d. Morocco: disunity after the fall of the Marinid dynasty, the anti-Portuguese policy of the Sa`di of Marrakesh, increasing isolation under the `Alawi dynasty (1659-1830)

     2. Iran and Afghanistan

          a. Iran from c. 1500 to 1779

            i. The rise of the Shiite Safavid dynasty: conflict with the Turks, possession of western Afghanistan, disintegration and later restoration of the state by `Abbas I (15871629), relations with European powers, decline and foreign invasions in the later 17th century, the arts under the Safavids

            ii. The expulsion (1730-32) of the Afghans, Russians, and Turks by Nadir Shah; invasions of India and Turkistan (1738-39); attempts to unite Shiite and Sunni Muslims; establishment of Zand and Qajar dynasties

          b. Afghanistan from c. 1500 to 1812: national awakening and rise of Afghan power in the early 18th century, subjection by Nadir Shah (1732), establishment of the Durrani dynasty (1747), intrusions in India and involvement in British affairs


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and

North Africa from c. 1480 to c. 1800


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Livonian War  Three Kings,    nizam-i cedid


Abo, Treaty of            Mohacs, Battle of       Battle of the    Ottoman Empire

Altranstadt,     Northern War, Transylvania    pasha

treaties of        First     Vienna, Siege of         Phanariote

Andrusovo,     Northern War, Zenta, Battle of           Rumelia

Truce of           Second            Ottoman Empire:        Sublime Porte

Baltic states     Podolia            aga       vizier

Belgrade, Treaty of     Poland,            Aleppo            Poland:

Beresteczko,    Partitions of    `ayn     Bar,

Battle of          Polish Succession,       bey      Confederation of

capitulation     War of the       derebey           Galicia

Chaldiran,       Russo-Turkish wars     dey      Henrician Articles

Battle of          Silesia  Janissary          Warsaw,

Deulino, Truce of        Stolbovo, Treaty of     Jelali Revolts   Compact of

Lepanto, Battle of                   kanun 

Zebrzydowski Gentry, Charter           streltsy Barbary pirate

Rebellion         to the   Troubles, Time of        DOzsa Rebellion

Russian Empire:          grand duke      tsar      dragoman

Catherine         oprichnina       zemsky sobor  Peacock Throne

the Great,        pale      other:   Wesselenyi

Instruction of  Pereyaslav       `Abid al-Bukhari         Conspiracy

Cossack           Agreement                 

Biographies     Sigismund III Vasa     Golitsyn, Vasily          Potemkin,


Bethlen, Gabor            Stanislaw I      Vasilyevich,    Grigory

Esterhazy family         Stanislaw II August    Knyaz  Aleksandrovich

John     Poniatowski    Golovkin, Gavriil        Pugachov,

Iran:     Stephen Ba.thory        Ivanovich, Count        Yemelyan

`Abbas I          Wladyslaw IV Vasa    Gordon, Patrick          Ivanovich

Ismail I            Zamoyski family         Ivan IV           Razin, Stenka

Nadir Shah      Russian Empire:          Khmelnytsky,  Repnin, Nikolay

Safavid dynasty          Alexis  Bohdan           Vasilyevich, Prince

Zand dynasty  Anna   Krfianie, Juraj Romanov dynasty

Ottoman Empire:        Bering, Vitus   Michael           Shcherbatov,

Bayezid II       Bestuzhev-Ryumin,    Miinnich,         Mikhayl

Koprulu Fazil  Aleksey           Burkhard         Mikhaylovich

Ahmed Pasa    Petrovich, Count         Christoph,       Sophia

Kopriilu Mehmed        Biron, Ernst     Count von       Stroganov family

Pasa     Johann,            Ordyn-            Suvorov, Aleksandr

Mahmud I       Reichsgraf von            Nashchokin,    Vasilyevich, Graf

Selim I Catherine II     Afanasy           Tolstoy, Pyotr

Selim II           Chirikov, Aleksey       Lavrentyevich Andreyevich,

Seim III           Ilich     Orlov, Grigory            Count

Suleyman I      Dmitry, False  Grigoryevich,  Vasily (IV) Shuysky

Poland:            Dolgoruky, Vasily       Graf     Vorontsov, Mikhail

Augustus II     Lukich, Knyaz            Osterman,        Illarionovich

John III Sobieski         Dolgoruky, Vasily       Andrey            other:

Kokiuszko,      Vladimirovich,            Ivanovich, Graf           Ahmad Shah

Tadeusz           Knyaz  Panin, Nikita   Durrani

Sigismund I     Dolgoruky family        Ivanovich, Graf           Al Bu Said dynasty

Sigismund II   Elizabeth         Peter III          Bashir Shihab II

Augustus         Godunov, Boris                      Ismail

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 963.         Europe from 1789 to c. 1920


A. European political and economic revolution (1789-1850): the French Revolution and its effects, the development and effects of industrialization

     1. The French Revolution and its reverberating effects on Europe (1789-1815)

          a. The climate of change: "patriotism" in America and the Netherlands (1770-90)

          b. France from 1789 to 1815: the Revolution, the First Republic, and the First Napoleonic Empire

            i. The revolt of the Third Estate: uprisings in Paris and the provinces, the reforms of the Constituent Assembly, abolition of the monarchy, Marat and the Jacobins, the Legislative Assembly

            ii. The First Republic to 1795: the Convention, Danton, Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety and the Terror, the Thermidorian reaction

            iii. The Directory (1795-99) and the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte: as first consul (17991804) and emperor (1804), the Code Napoleon and reconciliation with the church

            iv. France under the Napoleonic First Empire: social, economic, and religious reforms

          c. International war and diplomacy in the Age of the French Revolution

            i. The War of the First Coalition (1792-97): French support for revolution in neighbouring lands and annexation of Nice, Savoy, Austrian Netherlands, the Rhineland, and the Batavian Republic; Napoleon's Italian Campaign; the Treaty of Campo Formio (1797)

            ii. The French expedition to Egypt and Syria (1798-1802): Continental campaigns of the Second Coalition (1798-1802), French occupation of Rome and Naples, Marengo and Hohenlinden, Peace of Lunêville (1801) and Treaty of Amiens (1802), Napoleon's reorganization of the German states and the formal end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806)

            iii. The Third Coalition (1805-07) and the battles of Trafalgar, Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland: the subjugation of Prussia, Treaty of Tilsit (1807) and the peak of Napoleon's power, the Continental System and its failure

            iv. The Franco-Austrian War (1809), the Spanish uprising and the Peninsular War (1808-14), Napoleon's defeat in the Russian campaign (1812) and the campaign of the Fourth Coalition, downfall (1814) and exile of Napoleon

            v. The Hundred Days and Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo (1815), the Congress of Vienna and Metternich's attempt to restore the old order in Europe

          d. Political, economic, and social effects of French occupation in Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the Low Countries

          e. Great Britain from 1789 to 1815

            i. The influence of the French Revolution on the growth of English radicalism: governmental hostility to reform, Pitt's ministries and the war with France, Canning and Castlereagh, British gains in the peace settlements

            ii. Suppression of the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and union of Great Britain and Ireland (1801): Irish social, economic, and cultural life in the 17th and 18th centuries

          f. Russia in the reigns of Paul I (1796-1801) and Alexander I (1801-25): Russian participation in the Napoleonic Wars, the initial liberal reforms of Alexander I

          g. Prussia (1786-1815)

            i. Military decline following the death of Frederick II the Great: participation in the French Revolutionary Wars, defeat by Napoleon in 1806

            ii. The Stein reforms: Prussian leadership of Germany in the wars of liberation (181314), territorial acquisitions in the Vienna peace settlement (1815)

          h. Austria (1790-1815): the reigns of Leopold II (1790-92) and Francis II (1792-1806; as emperor of Austria, Francis I, 1804-35); participation in the coalitions against Napoleon, shift to compliance with him, and eventual intervention in the wars of liberation

            i. The smaller German states under French influence: the Confederation of the Rhine Spain and Portugal

            i. Spain in the reign of Charles IV (1788-1808), French occupation (1808) and British aid in the War of Independence (Peninsular War), restoration of the Bourbons

            ii. Portugal: alliance with Britain in the struggle against France k. Scandinavia from 1789 to 1815

            i. Denmark: defeat by the British (1801), alliance with France after 1807, the loss of Norway to Sweden (1814)

            ii. Sweden: Gustav IV and Charles XIII, the loss of Finland to Russia (1809), installation of Bernadotte as crown prince (1810), his anti-Napoleonic policy and the acquisition of Norway

     1. Italy during the French Revolution: support of revolutionary goals, French invasion and establishment of the republics, the French Consulate and the Napoleonic Empire

     2. Pan-European developments in the first half of the 19th century: economic, intellectual, cultural, and social movements

          a. The Industrial Revolution

            i. British commercial, agricultural, and military growth: the factory system and advances in textile and machine technology, development of railroads

            ii. Conditions on the Continent and the spread of the factory system to Belgium, France, and Germany

            iii. The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution: division between capitalist and worker, wages and living and working conditions, new abundance of manufactured goods

          b. The legacy of the French Revolution: cultural nationalism, populism, influence of Napoleon

          c. The Romantic movement: individualism and concern for nature and "folk" in contrast with the Enlightenment

          d. New facilities for scientific study in France and other Continental countries: effects of technological developments and scientific thought on society, principle of evolution

          e. Philosophy: the role of Immanuel Kant and his disciples (Fichte, Hegel, and Schopenhauer), German Idealism

          f. Religion and its alternatives: Catholic and Protestant revivals, Jewish emancipation, scientific positivism and the cult of art

          g. The beginning of "scientific history" and modern philology

          h. International war and diplomacy in the age of Metternich

            i. Congress of Europe: the Quadruple and Holy alliances for maintenance of the Vienna settlement, French intervention in Spain (1823), Austrian intervention in Italy (1821 and 1830), changes in the Congress system with the Revolution of 1830 in France and Belgium

            ii. General European unrest: the revolutions of 1848 and their suppression, Austrian intervention in Italy, Russian intervention in Hungary

            i. Great Britain and Ireland (1815-50)

            i. Economic depression and social unrest following the Napoleonic Wars: repression by the government

            ii. Political and social reform measures (1822-48); e.g., penal reforms, Catholic Emancipation (1829), Peel's new police force (1829), First Reform Bill (1832), abolition of slavery in British colonies (1833), new Poor Law (1834), repeal of the Corn Laws (1846), Navigation Acts, the Chartist movement, the growth of trade unionism and the Factory Act (1847), Public Health Act (1848)

            iii. Developments in Ireland: the Great Famine of the 1840s, Roman Catholic unrest, O'Connell and the Young Ireland movement

j. France from 1814 to 1852

            i. The Restoration (1814, 1815-30): moderate constitutionalism under Louis XVIII, reaction and clericalism under Charles X

            ii. The Revolution of 1830, Louis-Philippe and the July monarchy, the preservation of the status quo under Guizot, growing dissatisfaction with the regime in the 1840s

            iii. The Revolution of 1848: Socialist thought and the establishment of the Second Republic, suppression of Socialist experiments, presidency of Louis-Napoleon

k. Germany from 1815 to c. 1850

            i. The German Confederation: Austrian domination under Metternich, the student national unity movement and its repression by the Carlsbad Decrees (1819), beginning of industrialization and the Zollverein

            ii. The revolutions of 1848-49: the Frankfurt National Assembly and its failure to unite Germany

            iii. Frederick William IV: restoration of the German Confederation, return to conservative policies, continued industrialization

     1. The Austrian Empire from 1815 to 1850

            i. Development of national consciousness among the peoples of the empire: cultural revival among Magyars, Croats, Serbians, Poles, Romanians, Czechs, Slovaks, and Slovenes; German and Italian nationalism

            ii. Metternich's hostility to liberalism: Austria as a symbol of reaction in Italy

            iii. The revolutions of 1848 and 1849 in Vienna, Prague, and Budapest m. The Italian states from 1815 to 1850

            i. The Vienna settlement: the Austrian Habsburgs in Lombardy–Venetia, the Bourbons in the Two Sicilies, Victor Emmanuel in Savoy, the Carbonari

            ii. Abortive revolutions in Naples and Piedmont (1820); economic slump and revival; rebellions in Modena. Parma. the Romagna. the Marches, and Umbria (1831)

            iii. The Risorgimento: Mazzini, Young Italy, and Young Europe; the early liberalism of Pope Pius IX

            iv. The revolutions of 1848: the first phase of the Italian War of Independence, defeat of Piedmont by Austria (1848-49)

n. Switzerland from 1815 to 1860: conservative constitution of 1815. the Sonderbund War (1847), the new federal state established (1848-60). policy of neutrality

o. Russia from 1815 to c. 1850: later conservatism of Alexander I. the Decembrist revolt (1825). Nicholas I's (1825-55) conservative policies

            i. Rule by bureaucracy, social classes. intellectual life, the empire and its various nationalities

            ii. Foreign policy: conflict with Poland, relations with Turkey

The Low Countries from 1814 to 1848: union of The Netherlands. Luxembourg, and Belgium (1814); Belgian Revolution (1830) and establishment as a separate monarchy under Leopold I (1831-65); constitutional reform (1848) in The Netherlands

          a. Spain and Portugal from 1815 to 1850

            i. Spain under Ferdinand VII, revolution and abortive liberal government (1820-23), loss of South American empire (I 820s). Isabella II and the succession dispute, First Carlist War (1833-39) and the "Spanish marriages" controversy

            ii. Portuguese loss of Brazil (1822), civil war between constitutionalists and absolutists (1832-34), British intervention (1826-34). Maria II (1834-53) and civil strife between Septembrists and Saldanha

r. Scandinavia from 1815 to 1850

            i. Denmark in the reigns of Frederick VI (1808-39) and Christian VIII (1839-48): beginning of economic problems, tendencies toward constitutional government culminating in the constitution of 1849. war over Schleswig-Holstein (1848-51)

            ii. Developments in Sweden-Norway: conservative era under Charles XIV John (181844). liberal reforms after 1840 and under Oscar I (1844-59). Norway's struggle to assert independence from Sweden

            iii. Finland and Iceland: Finnish political organization and Russian influence, the position of Iceland after the Treaty of Kiel (1814)

s. The Balkan states from c. 1804 to 1850

            i. Serbian uprising (1804-13) and the rise of the principality, restoration of Ottoman power in Serbia (1813-15), Serbian autonomy (1830) under Ottoman Empire, Milos Obrenoviê recognized as prince of Serbia (1833-39) and government of Alexander Karageorge (1842-58)

            ii. Greek revolution (1821-30) and establishment of independence, internal strife under Otho I (1832-62), constitutional government introduced in 1843


B. Realism and materialism, nationalism, the reorganization of Europe. imperialist expansion (1850c. 1920)

     1. European cultural and economic life from 1850 to 1920

          a. Philosophy and political and social thought: the prevalence of Determinism and Materialism

          b. Developments in the arts, philosophy, and religion

          c. Scientific theory and practice: Einsteinian relativity, the social effects of medical advances, development of the behavioral sciences. new views of the universe

          d. Economic life: the course of industrialization (1870-1914)

            i. Industrial proliferation: expansion into new areas such as the U.S.. eastern Europe, and Japan

            ii. Changing balance of economic power in Europe: emergence of Germany as the leading industrial power, decline of British industrial strength

            iii. The revolution in transportation and communications: steam navigation and the beginning of air travel; the internal-combustion engine; the telegraph, telephone, and radio; industrialization on the eve of World War I

     2. International war and diplomacy from 1850 to c. 1920: Realpolitik and European diplomatic realignments

          a. The era of Italian and German unification

            i. Final dissolution of the Congress of Vienna alliance system: the Crimean War (185356) and its aftermath

            ii. The Italian War of Independence: French intervention against Austria in Italy. the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy (1861)

            iii. Bismarck and the creation of the German Empire: victories over Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870-71)

          b. The first period of German predominance

            i. Bismarck's system of alliances: the Dreikaiserbund and the isolation of France. the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78) and the Congress of Berlin (1878-79), the Triple Alliance (1882)

            ii. The Franco-Russian alliance (from 1893) and the Entente Cordiale (1904): Russia's defeat in the Far East (1904-05) and the formation of the Triple Entente (1907)

            iii. Prelude to World War I: the Moroccan and Bosnian crises, the Balkan Wars (191213), the outbreak of war between the great powers (1914)

          c. The resurgence of European imperialism (c. 1875-1914)

            i. Renewed interest in overseas expansion by the European powers in the late 19th century: new acquisitions and new colonial powers, development of new theories of imperialism

            ii. The European penetration of Asia and the partitioning of Africa: Russian expansion, economic penetration of China, rise of Japan, scramble for Africa

          d. World War I (1914-18) and the Treaty of Versailles (1919)

            i. The Serbian crisis and general mobilization: the opening German offensive in the east and west (August 1914), stabilization of the Western Front, trench warfare, new military technology (air power, tanks, and poison gas), the Battle of Verdun, renewed stalemate

            ii. The entrance of Italy, Turkey, Japan, and other nations into the war: campaigns in the Balkans and the Middle East

            iii. German submarine warfare and the U.S. entry into the war (1917); the Russian Revolution (1917), military collapse, and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918); the last Allied offensive and the armistice (1918)

            iv. Total war and the mobilization of whole populations; the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman empires

            v. The leadership, industrial strength, strategic plans and goals, and tactical and logistical procedures of the belligerents

            vi. The Paris Peace Conference (1919-20) and the peace treaty: Wilson's influence; German reparations, restrictions, and territorial losses; reorganization of central Europe and the Middle East by the Allies; the mandates and the League of Nations

     3. The European states from 1850 to c. 1920

          a. Great Britain and Ireland and expansion of overseas empire (1850-1920)

            i. Mid-Victorian politics and economics: liberalism and free trade, the Great Exhibition (1851), Russell's and Palmerston's foreign policies regarding the Crimean War and thi Indian Mutiny, Second Reform Bill (1867)

            ii. Mid-Victorian society and religion: Victorian social attitudes (duty. thrift, hard work, and character), liberalism and the High Church movement, revival of Scottish Calvinism

            iii. Gladstone's liberalism and "Tory Democracy" and imperialism under Disraeli; Third Reform Bill (1884); the Irish Question and the rise of Fenianism, Parnell. and the Home Rule movement; Chamberlain and the split in the Liberal Party: Fabian socialism and growth of the Labour movement; South African War (1899-1902)

            iv. The return of the Liberals (1905-14): Lloyd George's people's budget and National Insurance Act (1911), Parliament Act of 1911, continuing struggle over Ireland and Unionism in Ulster

            v. British participation in World War I: Lloyd George's Coalition government, the Easter Rising of 1916 in Ireland

          b. France from 1852 to 1920: the Second Empire and the Third Republic

            i. Napoleon III's authoritarian policies and reassertion of France's role in Europe (the Crimea and Italy): partnership with Britain (1852-60), the liberal years (1859-70), foreign policy failures and defeat by Germany (1871)

            ii. The siege of Paris, the Commune, and the establishment of the Third Republic (1870); attempts at restoration; the "Republican Republic"; opportunist control under Gambetta; the Boulangists; colonial expansion; the Dreyfus affair; separation of church and state (1905)

            iii. The prewar years: conflicts between French rightists and Socialists, alignment with Russia and Britain before World War I, nationalism and revanchism

            iv. World War I (1914-18): German occupation of northeastern France, the crisis of 1917, the Clemenceau government, French human and material losses in the war

          c. The unification of Germany and Prussia (1850-1920)

            i. William I and tentative reform: clashes with the liberals, Bismarck and reform of the Prussian Army, parliamentary subservience to the crown

            ii. Prussian and Austrian differences over the subjugation of Schleswig-Holstein (186466), the exclusion of Austria and the union of north and south Germany in the German Empire after the defeat of France (1871)

            iii. Bismarck as imperial chancellor (1871-90): Kulturkampf and the breach with the National Liberals, anti-Socialist measures and social legislation, Bismarck's consolidation of German power and formation of the Triple Alliance (1882)

            iv. The accession of Emperor William II (1888) and the fall of Bismarck; chancellorships of Caprivi, Hohenlohe, and Billow (1890-1909); estrangement from Russia and rivalry with Britain; colonial expansion; militarists and Social Democrats in the period before World War I

            v. World War I (1914-18) and increasing influence of the army: German military defeat (1918), establishment of the German Republic (1919)

          d. The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1850 to 1920

            i. Constitutional experiments: the Kremsier and Stadion constitutions; the "Bach System," the October Diploma (1860), and the February Patent (1861); federalism and centralism (1850-67); the role of Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916); exclusion from Italy (1859) and Germany (1866); the Ausgleich (Compromise) and the establishment of the Dual Monarchy (1867)

            ii. Austria: the liberal ascendancy under the Auersperg ministry (1871-78) and the coalition of clericals, German aristocrats, and Slays under Taaffe (1879-93); relations between Austrians and Slavic minorities in the empire; the introduction of universal male suffrage (1907); foreign policy (1878-1908); annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina and the crises in the Balkans

            iii. Hungary: the Andrissy government, internal conflict between the opponents and advocates of the Compromise of 1867, social reforms and economic progress, Magyar supremacy maintained under Tisza (1875-90)

            iv. Adherence to the Triple Alliance, increasing governmental paralysis and subordination to Germany during World War I, the dissolution of the Habsburg monarchy (1918) and the dismemberment of the empire

          e. The Russian Empire from c. 1850 to 1917

            i. Defeat in the Crimean War (1853-56), abolition of serfdom (1861) and local government reforms under Alexander II (1855-81), Polish rebellion of 1863 and the spread of revolutionary sentiment, the assassination of the Tsar (1881)

            ii. Reversal of the reform movement under Alexander III (1881-94), the zemstros, government hostility to non-Russian minorities, Nicholas II (1894-1917), anti-reform policies, foundation of the Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries

            iii. Economic, cultural, and social developments: Russification policies, foreign policies

            iv. Disorders following defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), the Dumas, World War I and the abolition of the monarchy (1917)

          f. Italy from 1850 to 1920

Cavour and the unification of Italy under Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont: alliance with France and domestic liberalism, papal opposition, Austrian defeat and territorial cessions in northern Italy in the war of 1859, Garibaldi and the conquest of the south, the annexation of Venetia from Austria (1866) and acquisition of Rome (1870)

            ii. The Kingdom of Italy: Minghetti, Depretis, and Crispi; Italian adherence to the Triple Alliance; growth of Socialism, labour movements, and militant nationalism; the Giolitti era; participation in World War I

          g. Switzerland from 1850 to 1920: domestic policies, neutrality in World War I

          h. Spain and Portugal

            i. Continued civil strife in Spain: control by the military; Carlists, inoderados, progressistas, and republicans; the First Republic (1873-74); constitutional monarchy in 1876; further colonial losses in the Spanish-American War (1898)

            ii. The reaction against liberalism following Spain's defeat, Spanish involvement in Morocco, civil tensions and neutrality in World War I

            iii. Alternating progressive and conservative governments in Portugal under Pedro V (1853-61) and Luis 1 (1861-89), dispute with Great Britain over colonial policies, financial difficulties, dictatorship in 1906, the Portuguese Republic (1910) and Portugal's adherence to the British alliance in World War I

            i. Scandinavia from 1850 to 1920

            i. Denmark: the Schleswig-Holstein question, defeat by Prussia and Austria (1864) and loss of the duchies, social and economic change under the Conservative regime

            ii. Sweden-Norway: parliamentary reforms in Sweden under Charles XV (1859-72), foreign policy, attitudes in Sweden and in Norway toward the Swedish-Norwegian union

            iii. Finland and Iceland: the language problem and political reforms in Finland, its relations with Russia, Iceland's demands for self-government

The Low Countries from 1848 to 1920

            i. The Netherlands: liberalization after 1848, the establishment of the independence of Luxembourg (1890), Queen Wilhelmina and World War I

            ii. Belgian Liberal government (1857-84), rise of Catholic and Belgian Workers' (Socialist) parties, the education controversy and Catholic party rule (1884-1914), universal male suffrage and child labour laws, Leopold il's establishment of Congo Free State (1885) and annexation as Belgian Congo (1908), Flemish resistance to the French-speaking elite

            iii. World War I: Dutch neutrality and the German conquest of Belgium

k. The Balkan States from 1850 to 1920: power conflicts resulting in the Balkan Wars (191213) and World War I

            i. Greece: the overthrow of Otho I (1862), the constitution of 1864, acquisition of the Ionian Islands (1864) and Thessaly (1881). Cretan union with Greece (1908), Venizelos' policies, eventual adherence to the Triple Entente in World War I

            ii. Serbia: restoration of Milos Obrenovie in 1858, defeat by Turkey (1876), the Kingdom of Serbia (1882), the pro-Austrian policy of the Obrenovie dynasty, restoration of the Karageorgevie dynasty and pro-Russian orientation, conflict with Austria-Hungary, conquest by the Central Powers in World War I

            iii. Bulgaria: "great Bulgaria" established by the Treaty of San Stefano (1878), Prince Alexander I and Russian influence (1879-86), Ferdinand 1 (1887-1918) and Stambolov's formation of a government, revolt of the Macedonian minority (1903), separation from Turkey (1908), adherence to the Central Powers in World War I

            iv. Romania: union of Moldavia and Walachia under Alexandru Cuza (1861), Carol I (1866-1914; king after 1881), independence from Turkey (1878). alignment with the Triple Entente and conquest by the Central Powers in World War I


Suggested reading in the Encyclopmdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with Europe from 1789 to c

Czech and Slovak       Hungary          Milan   Sweden

Republics        Iceland            Moscow          Switzerland

Denmark         International    Naples Ukraine

Dublin Relations,        Napoleon         United Kingdom

Edinburgh       20th-Century   Netherlands, The         Venice

European History        Ireland Norway           Victoria and the

and Culture     Italy     Paris    Victorian Age

Finland            Lisbon Poland Vienna

Florence          London           Portugal           Warsaw

France Luxembourg    Prague Wellington

Geneva            Madrid            Rome   World Wars, The

Germany         Malta   Russia 

Greece Manchester      Spain  

Hamburg         Marseille                     


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects          Peninsular War            Europe, Concert of     Dardanelles


capitalism        Pressburg,        Franco-German War   Campaign

Classicism and            Treaty of         Greco-Turkish wars     Fourteen Points

Neoclassicism  Pyramids, Battle         Hague Convention      Isonzo, Battles

Industrial         of the   Italo-Turkish War        of the

Revolution      Quadruple Alliance     Koniggratz,     June Offensive

laissez-faire     (1813)  Battle of          Jutland, Battle of

Marxism          SchOnbrunn,   Moroccan crises          Lusitania

nationalism      Treaty of         Neuchatel crisis           Marne, First Battle

Romanticism   Tilsit, Treaties of         Novara, Battle of        of the

Socialism         Toulon, Siege of          Pan-Slavism    Marne, Second

international    Trafalgar, Battle of     Paris, Treaty of            Battle of the

relations—French        Troppau,          power, balance of        Meuse-Argonne,

Revolutionary Congress of     Quadruple       battles of the

period and       Ulm, Battle of Alliance (1834)           Mudros,

aftermath:        Verona,           Reglement       Armistice of

Aix-la-Chapelle.          Congress of     Organique       Paris Peace

Congress of     Vienna,            Reinsurance     Conference

Amiens, Treaty of       Congress of     Treaty  Saint-Germain,

Batavian Republic       Wagram, Battle of      Russo-Japanese War   Treaty of

Borodino, Battle of     Waterloo, Battle of     Russo-Turkish wars     Saint-Jean-de-

Campo Form io,          international    San Stefano,    Maurienne,

Treaty of         relations           Treaty of         Agreement of

Canak, Treaty of         nationalism and           Sedan, Battle of          San Remo,

Dresden, Battle of      balance of powers:      Serbo-Bulgarian War  Conference of

Europe, Concert of     Algeciras         Serbo-Turkish War      Somme, First

Eylau, Battle of           Conference      Sevastopol,      Battle of the

First of June,   Alma, Battle of the     Siege of           Somme, Second

Battle of the    Balaklava, Battle of    Solferino, Battle of     Battle of the

Fleurus, Battle of        Balkan League            Straits Question          Sykes-Picot

French Balkan Wars    Triple Alliance Agreement

Revolutionary Berlin, Congress of     Villafranca,     Trianon, Treaty of

and Napoleonic           Bosnian Crisis of         Conference of Verdun, Battle of

wars     1908    Vlore   Versailles,

Friedland, Battle of    Bulgarian Horrors       proclamation   Treaty of

Holy Alliance  Crimean War   international    World War I

Jassy, Treaty of           Dreikaiserbund            relations           national affairs

Jena, Battle of Dual Alliance  World l'I"ar I and        Britain and Ireland:

Laibach,          Eastern Question         aftermath:        Catholic

Congress of     Edirne, Treaty of         Allied Powers Emancipation

Leipzig, Battle of        1830,   Brest-Litovsk, Chartism

Lodi, Battle of            Revolutions of            treaties of        Clapham Sect

Mantua, Siege of         1848,   Constantinople            Combination Acts

Marengo, Battle of      Revolutions of            Agreement      Conservative Party

Paris, Treaties of         Entente Cordiale         Corfu Declaration       Corn Laws

Don Pacifico   Hebertist         Prussia Kadet

Affair  Helvetic Republic       Rhine,  Labour,

Easter Rising   Hundred Days            Confederation Liberation of

Fabian Society            Jacobin Club   of the   Leninism

Fenian July Revolution           Seven Weeks' War      Liberation,

Guild Socialism           Montagnard    Social Democratic       Union of

Home Rule      Napoleonic Code        Party of Germany       Menshevik

Irish Potato     National Assembly      Spartacus League        mir

Famine            National          Zollverein        Narodnaya Volya

Irish Rebellion Convention     national affairs            Narodnik

Labour Party   Orleanist          Italy:    November

Land League   Paris,   Carbonaro       Insurrection

Liberal Party   Commune of   Cisalpine Republic      October Manifesto

London Dock  Peninsular War            Cispadine        Octobrist

Strike   Plain, The        Republic          Orthodoxy,

Luddite           Public Safety,  Custoza, Battles of     Autocracy, and

Oxford Movement      Committee of  fascio siciliano Nationality

Parliament Act of        Revolutionary Fiume question            Pan-Slavism

1911    Tribunal           Guarantees,     Progressive Bloc

Peterloo Massacre       Rights of Man and      Law of            Russian

Phoenix Park   of the Citizen, Irredentist       Revolution of

murders           Declaration      Italo-Turkish War        1905

pocket borough           of the   Ligurian Republic       Russian

Reform Bill     Roman Republic         Parthenopean  Revolution of

Taff Vale Case            sansculotte      Republic          1917

test act September       Popolare          Russian

Tolpuddle Martyrs      Massacres        Risorgimento   Social-Democratic

Union, Act of  Tennis Court   Roman Republic         Workers' Party

(Britain-Ireland)          Oath    Solferino,        Russo-Japanese

United Irishmen,         Terror, Reign of          Battle of          War

Society of        Thermidorian   Statuto Albertino        Russo-Turkish

national affairs            Reaction          Thousand,       wars

France:            ultra     Expedition of the        Slavophile

Action Francaise         Vendee, Wars Villafranca,     Socialist

Alsace-Lorraine           of the   Conference of Revolutionary

anticlericalism VentOse Decrees        Young Italy     Party

assignat           national affairs            national affairs            Stolypin land

Bastille            Germany and  Poland:            reform

Batavian Republic       Austria:           Congress Kingdom     Third Department

Bonapartist      Agrarian League         of Poland        Zemlya i Volya

Brumaire, Coup of      Austria-Hungary         Cracow,           zemstvo

18-19   Burschenschaft           Republic of     national affairs

Chouan            Carlsbad Decrees        January            Scandinavia:

Cisalpine Republic      Centre Party    Insurrection     Bodo Affair

Civil Constitution       Deutschlandlied          liberum veto    Eider Program

of the Clergy   1848,   November       Kiel, Treaty of

Continental     Revolutions of            Insurrection     Pan-Scandinavianis

System            Ems telegram  Poland,            Riksdag

Corps Legislatif          Erfurt Union   Partitions of    national affairs

Directory         Parliament       Warsaw, Duchy of      Spain and Portugal:

1801, Concordat of     Frankfurt National      national affairs            Carlism

émigré Assembly        Russia: Oranges, War

Enrage Freikorps         Black Hundreds          of the

Entente Cordiale         German           Bloody Sunday           Peninsular War

Feuillants, Club           Confederation Bolshevik        Pragmatic

of the   Heimwehr       Bund   Sanction of King

Fourierism       Junker  Decembrist      Ferdinand VII

French Revolution      Kulturkampf   Duma  Spanish-

Gauches,         March laws      Emancipation  American War

Cartel des        Olmiitz,           Manifesto        Spanish Marriages,

Girondin          Punctation of  January            Affair of the

guillotine         Pan-Germanism           Insurrection     Verona, Congress o

national affairs            Sonderbund    British Empire French Equatorial

other:   Walachia         British South   Africa

Flemish movement      overseas empires and  Africa Company         French West Africa

Greek  commerce:       British West Africa     German East Africa

Independence,            Algeciras         Clayton-Bulwer          German South West

War of Conference      Treaty  Africa

Guarantees, Law of    Berlin, Congress of     East India        influence, sphere of

Moldavia         Bowring Treaty           Company         Open Door policy

            British East Africa      Fashoda Incident        protectorate


Austrian Empire and   Balkans:          Canning, George         Devonshire,

Austria-Hungary:        Carol I Cardigan,        Spencer Compton

Andrassy, Gyula,        TheOdoros      James Thomas Cavendish, 8th

Count              Brudenell, 7th Duke of

BeneS, Edvard            Ferdinand        Earl of Dillon, John

Berchtold,       (Bulgaria)        Carson, Edward          Disraeli, Benjamin

Leopold,          Ferdinand I     Henry Carson, Dundonald,

Count von       (Romania)       Baron  Thomas

Beust, Friedrich          Garaganin, Ilija           Casement, Sir  Cochrane, 10th

Ferdinand,       Kapodistrias,   Roger  Earl of

Graf von          Ioannis AntOnios,       Castlereagh,    Edward VII

Charles, Archduke      Count  Robert Stewart,           Fisher, John

Cobenzl, Ludwig,       Karageorge      Viscount          Arbuthnot Fisher,

Graf von          Mavrokordatos,           Chamberlain,   1st Baron

Conrad von     Alexandros      Joseph Forster, William

HOtzendorf,   Milan IV (or II)           Churchill, Lord           Edward

Franz, Graf      Milos   Randolph        Fox, Charles James

Deak, Ferenc   Nicholas I        Churchill, Sir   French, John

Francis II         (Montenegro)  Winston           George III

(Germany/Holy           Otto (Greece)  Clare, John      George IV

Roman Empire)           PaSie, Nikola  Fitzgibbon, 1st            George V

Francis Ferdinand,      Peter I earl of  Gladstone,

Archduke of    (Montenegro)  Cobbett, William         William Ewart

Austria-Este    Peter I (Serbia)            Cobden, Richard         Goldie, Sir George

Francis Joseph Stamboliyski,  Cockburn, Sir  Grenville, William

Gentz, Friedrich          Aleksandfir     Alexander James         Wyndham

Habsburg,        Venizelos,       Edmund          Grenville, Baron

House of         Eleutherios      Collingwood,  Grey, Charles

Kdrolyi, Mihaly,         Britain and Ireland:     Cuthbert          Grey, 2nd Earl

Count  Aberdeen, George       Collingwood, 1st        Grey, Sir Edward,

Kaunitz, Wenzel         Hamilton-Gordon,      Baron  3rd Baronet

Anton von       4th Earl of       Collins, Michael          Griffith, Arthur

Kossuth, Lajos            Albert, Prince  Cornwallis, Charles     Haig, Douglas

Kun, Bela        Consort of Great         Cornwallis, 1st            Haig, 1st Earl

Leopold II       Britain and      Marquess and  Haldane, Richard

(Germany/Holy           Ireland 2nd Earl          Burdon

Roman Empire)           Asquith, H.H. Cromer, Evelyn           Hardie, J. Keir

Metternich,      Balfour, Arthur           Baring, 1st Earl of       Howe, Richard

Klemens,         James Balfour,            Curzon, George           Howe, Earl

Furst von         1st earl of        Nathaniel         Hyndman, Henry

Radetzky, Joseph,       Bentinck, Lord            Curzon,           Mayers

Count  William            Marquess         Jellicoe, John

Rudolf, Archduke       Bright, John    Dalhousie,       Rushworth

and Crown      Brougham and            James Andrew            Jellicoe, 1st Earl

Prince of Austria         Vaux, Henry   Broun Ramsay,           Kitchener, Horatio

Schwarzenberg,           Peter Brougham,         Marquess and  Herbert

Felix, Prince zu           1st Baron         10th Earl of     Kitchener,

Schwarzenberg,           Campbell-Bannerman,            Derby, Edward           1st Earl

Karl Philipp,    Sir Henry         Stanley, 14th   Lansdowne, Henry

Prince zu         Canning, Charles         earl of  Charles Keith

Stadion, Johann          John Canning,             Petty-Fitzmaurice,

Philipp, Graf von        Earl                  5th marquess of

Lawrence, John           Shaftesbury.    Decazes, Elie,  Nemours,

Laird Mair       Anthony Ashley          Duke   Louis-Charles-

Lawrence, 1st  Cooper, 7th     Delcasse,         Philippe-Raphael

Baron  Earl of Theophile        d'Orleans,

Lawrence, T.E.            Sidmouth, Henry        Desmoulins,    Duke de

Liverpool, Robert        Addington, 1st            Camille            Ney, Michel

Banks Jenkinson,        Viscount          Dreyfus, Alfred          011ivier, Emile

2nd Earl of      Stanley, Sir Henry       Dumouriez,     Orleans,

Livingstone, David     Morton            Charles-Francois         Louis-Philippe-Jose]

Lloyd George, Tone, Wolfe    du Perier          duc d'

David  Victoria           Enfantin,         Pichegru, Charles

Lugard, F.D.   Wellesley, Richard      Barthelemy-Prosper    Poincare,

Macaulay, Thomas      Colley Wellesley,        Foch, Ferdinand          Raymond

Babington       Marquess         Fouche, Joseph            Pozzo di Borgo,

Macaulay, Baron         Wellington. Arthur      Gambetta, Leon          Charles-Andre,

Melbourne,      Wellesley, 1st  Guizot, Francois          Count

William Lamb,            Duke of           Hebert,            Robespierre,

2nd Viscount  Wilberforce,    Jacques-Rene  Maximilien-Francoi

Napier, Robert            William            Hoche, Lazare Marie-Isidore de

Napier, 1st       William IV      Jaures, Jean     Roland,

Baron  Wilson, Sir Henry       Jolfre,  Jean-Marie

Nelson, Horatio           Hughes, Baronet         Joseph-Jacques-           Roland,

Nelson, Viscount        Wolscley, Garnet        Cesaire            Jeanne-Marie

Northcote, Sir Joseph Wolseley,         Josephine         Saint-Just,

Stafford Henry,          1st Viscount    Lafayette,        Louis de

8th Baronet     France:            M arie-Joseph- Sieyês,

O'Connell, Daniel       Babeuf,           Paul-Yves-      Emmanuel-Joseph

Palmerston, Henry      Francois-Noel  Roch-Gilbert   Talleyrand,

John Temple, 3rd        Barras. du Motier,       Charles-

Viscount          Paul-Francois- marquis de       Maurice de

Parnell, Charles           Jean-Nicolas,   Lamartine,       Thiers, Adolphe

Stewart            vicomte de      Alphonse de    Villele, Joseph,

Pearse, Patrick Berthier,          Ledru-Rollin,  comte de

Henry  Louis-Alexandre         Alexandre-Auguste     Viviani, Rene

Peel, Sir Robert           Blanc, Louis    Lesseps,           Waldeck-Rousseau,

Perccval, Spencer        Bonaparte, Jerome      Ferdinand,       Rene

Pitt, William, the         Bonaparte, Joseph       Viscount de     Germany:

Younger          Bonaparte, Lucien       Loubet, Emile Bennigsen,

Portland, William        Boulanger. Georges    Louis XVI       Rudolf von

Henry Cavendish        Bourbon, House of     Louis XVIII    Bethmann

Bentinck, 3rd  Briand, Aristide          Louis-Philippe Hollweg,

Duke of           Brissot,            Lyautey,          Theobald von

Raglan, FitzRoy          Jacques-Pierre Louis-Hubert- Bismarck,

James Henry    Broglie, Victor, 3'       Gonzalve         Otto von

Somerset, 1st   due de Mac-Mahon,    Blucher, Gebhard

Baron  Broglie, Albert, 4'       Marie-Edme-   Leberecht von

Redmond, John           duc de Patrice-Maurice,          Billow, Bernhard,

Ripon, George Caillaux, Joseph          comte de         Furst von

Frederick Samuel        Cambacerês,    Macdonald,     Caprivi, Leo,

Robinson, 1st  Jean-Jacques-  Jacques-Alexandre      Graf von

Marquess of    Regis de          Marat, Jean-Paul         Dahlmann,

Rosebery,        Cambon, Joseph          Marie-Antoinette        Friedrich

Archibald Philip          Carnot, Lazare            Marie-Louise   Ebert, Friedrich

Primrose, 5th   Caulaincourt,   Massena, Andre          Engels, Friedrich

earl of  Armand,          Mirabeau,        Erzberger,

Russell, John   marquis de       Honore-Gabriel           Matthias

Russell, 1st Earl          Charles X        Riqueti, comte de        Frederick

Salisbury, Robert        Clemeneeau,    Moreau, Victor            Augustus I

Arthur Talbot  Georges           Napoleon I      Frederick

Gascoyne-       Couthon, Georges       Napoleon III   Augustus II

Cecil, 3rd        Danton, Georges         Necker, Jacques          Frederick

marquess of                             William II


William III Frederick

William IV Gneisenau,

August, Count Neidhardt von Hardenberg, Karl August, Furst von Hindenburg,

Paul von HohenloheSchillingsfurst, Chlodwig Karl Viktor, Furst zu Hohenzollern dynasty


Friedrich von Kiderlen-Wachter, Alfred von

Louis I (Bavaria) Louis II (Bavaria) Ludendorff, Erich Marx, Karl Maximilian I (Bavaria) Maximilian II (Bavaria)


Helmuth von Radowitz, Joseph Maria von

Roon, Albrecht Theodor Emil, Graf von Scharnhorst, Gerhard Johann David von Schlieffen, Alfred, Graf von

Stein, Karl, Reichsfreiherr vom and zum Tirpitz, Alfred von William I (German Empire) William II (German Empire)


Bandiera, Attilio; and Bandiera,

Emilio Bonaparte, Joseph Bourbon,

House of Cavour, Camillo Benso, conte di Charles Albert Charles Felix Consalvi, Ercole Crispi, Francesco

D'Annunzio, Gabriele

Depretis, Agostino Farini, Luigi Carlo Ferdinand I (Naples) Ferdinand II (Naples)

Francis I (Naples) Francis II (Naples) Garibaldi, Giuseppe Gioberti,


Giolitti, Giovanni Mazzini, Giuseppe Murat, Joachim Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele Pelloux, Luigi Savoy, House of Umberto I

Victor Emmanuel I Victor

Emmanuel II Victor

Emmanuel Ill Visconti-Venosta, Emilio, Marchese

Low Countries: Albert (Belgium) Bonaparte, Louis Leopold I (Belgium) Leopold II (Belgium) William I (Netherlands: king)

William II (Netherlands: king)

William III (Netherlands: king)


Beresford, William Carr Beresford, Viscount

Charles John VI Maria I Maria II Michael

Pedro I (Brazil)

Russia: Alexander I Alexander II Alexander III Alexandra


Aleksey Andreyevich,


Bennigsen, Leonty Leontyevich,

Graf von Catherine II Chernyayev,

Mikhayl Grigoryevich Gorchakov,

Mikhail Dmitriyevich, Prince


Aleksandr Ivanovich

Ignatyev, Nikolay Pavlovich, Graf Kerensky,

Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kornilov, Lavr Georgiyevich Kutuzov, Mikhail Illarionovich, Prince

Lenin, Vladimir Bich

Lobanov-Rostovsky, Aleksey



Lvov, Georgy Yevgenyevich, Prince Milyukov, Pavel Nikolayevich Milyutin, Dmitry Alekseyevich, Count

Nesse(rode, Karl Vasilyevich,

Count Nicholas I

Nicholas II

Orlov, Aleksey Fyodorovich, Knyaz Paskevich, Ivan Fyodorovich



Georgy, Valentinovich Pobedonostsev, Konstantin Petrovich

Rasputin, Grigory Yefimovich

Rostopchin, Fyodor Vasilyevich, Graf Savinkov, Boris Viktorovich Shamil

Skobelev, Mikhail Dmitriyevich Speransky, Mikhail Mikhaylovich, Graf

Stolypin, Pyotr Arkadyevich Witte, Sergey Yulyevich, Graf

Scandinavia: Branting, Karl Hjalmar

Charles XIII (Sweden) Charles XV (Sweden) Christian VIII Christian IX Christian X Frederick VI (Denmark) Frederick VII (Denmark) Frederick VIII (Denmark) Gustav IV Adolf Gustav V

Haakon VII Oscar I

Oscar II


Alfonso XII Alfonso XIII Bonaparte, Joseph Cânovas del Castillo, Antonio Carlos Luis de BorbOn

Carlos Maria de los Dolores de BorbOn

Carlos Maria Isidro de Borb6n Castelar y Ripoll, Emilio

Charles IV Ferdinand VII Godoy, Manuel de Isabella II

Maria Cristina I Maria Cristina II Serrano y

Dominguez, Francisco

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 964.         European Colonies in the Americas from 1492 to c. 1790


A. The geography and ethnography of the Americas


B. Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas, other European powers in South America and the Caribbean to c. 1790

     1. Spanish discovery, exploration, and conquest of the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, and Rio de la Plata (1492–c. 1550)

     2. Spain's colonial empire

          a. Colonial administration: the Council of the Indies, viceroys and other provincial officials, audiencias, legal restrictions on public officials

          b. Indian policy: slavery and peonage under the encomienda and repartimiento, the missionary role of the Roman Catholic Church, decline of the Indian population. introduction of black slaves

          c. Colonial economy: expansion of agriculture; gold and silver mining; cattle industry; mercantilism, smuggling, and piracy

     3. The exploration and colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese (from 1500)

          a. Colonial economic policies: introduction of black slavery, gold and diamond mining, agricultural and commercial development

          b. Colonial administration: establishment of captaincies (1533), centralized royal control (1549), role of the Roman Catholic Church, the Brazilian racial mixture

     4. Administrative reforms of the Spanish Bourbon kings (1700-88): decentralization of the

governments of Peru, Venezuela, and Chile; encouragement of trade and agriculture

     5. Spanish colonial expansion into North America (c. 1600-1790): settlements and religious missions

     6. English, French, and Dutch territorial and economic expansion (from c. 1600) into areas of Spanish and Portuguese colonization in Latin America and the Caribbean


C. Norse, English, Dutch, and Swedish discoveries, explorations, and settlements in North America (c. 1000-1763)

     1. Norse voyages to Greenland and North America (c. 1000)

     2. Early English exploration and attempted settlement (1497–c. 1600), Dutch and Swedish settlement and later expulsion by the English

     3. Development of the English colonies in North America

          a. The founding of the 13 Colonies: economic, political, and religious reasons for settlement

          b. Economic, political, and social development

            i. British economic policies: mercantilism and the Navigation Acts

            ii. Colonial administration: loose royal control prior to 1763, self-government and local political activity

            iii. Social mobility and the rise of economic classes: immigration and the introduction of slavery, agricultural and commercial development

          c. Colonial cultural and scientific achievements; e.g., the American Philosophical Society, newspapers and almanacs, the beginning of public education, the "Great Awakening"

          d. Conflicts with the French and Indians and expulsion of French power from North America (1763)


D. French discoveries, explorations, and settlements in North America: New France and Louisiana (1524-1763)

     1. The settlement of New France: missionaries, Indian relations, and the fur trade; royal administration and joint-stock companies

     2. Expansion and eventual conflict with the English, resulting in the eclipse of French power in North America (1763)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with European colonies in the Americas

from 1492 to c. 1790                         

Arctic, The      Latin America,            New Orleans   South America

Boston The History of New York City           United States of

Canada            Mexico            North America            America

Columbus        Montreal          Philadelphia   


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

English and French     Mayflower      1763,   Indies,

colonization of North  Compact          Proclamation of           Laws of the

America:          Mississippi Bubble      Sovereign Council       mameluco

Acadia Molasses Act   Sugar Act        New Granada,

Albany Congress         Monongahela, Walking Purchase       Viceroyalty of

Culpeper's       Battle of the    Yamasee War  New Spain,

Rebellion         New England, Spanish and     Viceroyalty of

French and      Council for      Portuguese      Palmares

Indian War      New England  colonization of the      Peru,

French Shore   Confederation Americas:        Viceroyalty of

Hat Act           New France     alcalde Pueblo Rebellion

Hudson's Bay  New Hampshire          asiento de negros        Real Cuerpo de

Company         Grants audiencia         Mineria

Iron Act          Nootka Sound bandeira          reduction

Iroquois           controversy     cabildo            repartimiento

Confederacy   Paxton Boys    caciquism        residencia

Jamestown      uprising           Cibola, Seven  Rio de la Plata,

King George's War     Pilgrim Fathers            Golden Cities of         Viceroyalty of the

King Philip's War        Plymouth         conquistador   Santo Domingo

King William's            Company         ContrataciOn, Spanish treasure

War     Powhatan War            Casa de           fleet

London Company       proprietary colony       corregidor        Strangford Treaty

Lost Colony    Quebec, Battle of        donatario         other:

Massachusetts Bay      Queen  Eldorado         Middle Passage

Colony            Anne's War     encomienda     New Sweden

Mayflower      Salem witch trials        fazenda           Vinland


English explorers and  French explorers and   Laval, Francois de       Diaz de Solis,

colonizers:       colonizers:       Montmorency  Juan

Cabot, John     Bienville,         Roberval,         Las Casas,

Cabot, Sebastian         Jean-Baptiste   Jean-Francois de         Bartolome de

Cook, James    Le Moyne de   La Rocque,      Narvdez,

Hudson, Henry           Cartier, Jacques           Sieur de           Panfilo de

Johnson, Sir     Champlain,      Spanish and     Soto,

William, 1st     Samuel de       Portuguese explorers   Hernando de

Baronet           Frontenac, Louis         and colonizers:            Velazquez, Diego

Mather, Cotton           de Buade, comte         Balboa, Vasco Vespucci,

Mather, Increase         de Palluau et de          Nunez de         Amerigo

Penn, William  Iberville, Pierre Le      Cabral, Pedro  other:

Pocahontas      Moyne d'         Alvares            Bering, Vitus

Smith, John     La Salle,          Columbus,       Chirikov, Aleksey

Stirling, William          Rene-Robert    Christopher     Bich

Alexander, 1st Cavalier, Sieur de        Coronado,       John Maurice of

earl of  La Verendrye, Francisco         Nassau

Williams, Roger          Pierre Gaultier de        Vazquez de    

Winthrop, John           Varennes, et de                      

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 965.         Development of the United States and Canada from 1763 to 1920


A. The United States to 1865: national formation and territorial expansion, conflict between North and South

     1. Establishment and consolidation of the United States (1763-1816)

          a. The American Revolutionary period (1763-87)

            i. Political and economic opposition to Britain's taxation policies culminating in the Declaration of Independence (1776)

            ii. The U.S. War of Independence (1775-83): land and sea campaigns, military leadership, French military support, peace treaty (1783)

            iii. The government of the Articles of Confederation (1781-87) and evolution of a western lands policy

          b. The strengthening of the national government (1787-1816)

            i. The Constitutional Convention, the federal Constitution, and the struggle for ratification (1787-89)

            ii. Development of national policies and formation of political parties: Hamilton's economic policies, foreign relations during the administrations of Washington and John Adams, Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

            iii. Jefferson's administration and the Louisiana Purchase (1803), Madison's administration and the War of 1812, role of the Supreme Court

     2. The United States from 1816 to 1850: nationalism, expansionism, extension of the franchise, and industrialization

          a. Strengthening of national feelings: administrations of Monroe and John Quincy Adams, Supreme Court under Marshall

            i. "The Era of Good Feelings" (1816-24): nationalism and sectionalism, the Missouri Compromise (1820)

            ii. Developments in commerce and finance: industrialization and early labour movements, transportation and internal improvements, cotton and slavery

            iii. Social development: German and Irish immigration (1830-50), urbanization and social mobility

          b. Jacksonian democracy (1829-41): extension of the franchise; development of Democratic, Whig, and minor party politics; bank war; nullification; Indian removal policy

          c. The "Age of Reform" (1830-50): the Abolitionist movement and other reform activities, diverse religious attitudes

          d. Westward expansionism: annexation of Texas, acquisition of Oregon, the Mexican War (1846-48) and the annexation of California and New Mexico, the Compromise of 1850

          e. Cultural development to 1850: the growth of the novel, poetry, music, the visual arts, historical writings, the Transcendentalist movement

     3. The United States from 1850 to 1865: sectionalism, secession, and Civil War

          a. Sectionalism and slavery: economic and psychological bases of slavery, the failure of popular sovereignty, the Abolitionist movement, literature of the period

          b. Political and geographical polarization: disruption of the Democratic and Whig parties, emergence of the Republican Party, and Lincoln's election (1860)

          c. Secession of the Southern states and the Civil War (1860-65)

            i. Relative military strengths: strategies and tactics of North and South

            ii. The land and sea war (1861-65): initial Confederate victories, Union success in the West and final victory over the South

            iii. Foreign affairs of the Union and the Confederacy, moves toward emancipation during the war


B. The United States from 1865 to 1920: Reconstruction, industrialization, increased immigration, development of the West, and emergence as a world power

     1. Radical Reconstruction (1866-77) and the New South (1877-1900)

          a. Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction and congressional opposition (1864-65), conflicts between the Radical Republican-controlled Congress and Andrew Johnson, state "Black Codes" and federal civil rights legislation

          b. Reconstruction (1866-77): freedmen, sharecropping, and "Black Reconstruction"; Grant's administrations and the decline of Republican control in the South

          c. The New South (1877-1900): conservative Democrats in control and erosion of black rights, Populist resurgence in the 1890s. white supremacy and Jim Crow legislation, the black response

     2. The transformation of American society: the United States from 1865 to 1900

          a. Urbanization and immigration: southern and eastern European immigrants and growth of slums, problems of prejudice, rise of city machine politics, development of public education

          b. The development of the West (1865-1900)

            i. The quest for gold and silver: boom and bust in mining towns

            ii. Cattlemen and the open range: the cattle industry (1866-88), the cowboy and cattle drives, conflicts with settlers

            iii. Westward expansion of the railroads: early government subsidies, relationship of the transcontinental carriers to the national economy

            iv. Violation of the Indian treaties: settlers' encroachments on Indian lands, Indian wars, corruption among agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

          c. The industrialization of the American economy: the manufacturing boom

            i. Technological advances in the iron and steel industry: exploitation of oil, ores, lumber, and other natural resources

            ii. Development of trusts and holding companies: development of a legal climate favourable to big business

          d. U.S. foreign trade and commerce: growth of exports and imports

          e. Emergence of national labour union organizations: strikes and boycotts, collective bargaining, antilabour stance of government, the Haymarket Riot (1886)

          f. National politics (1877-1900): general ascendancy of Congress and decline of the presidency

            i. Aftermath of the disputed election of 1876: the Compromise of 1877, the end of Southern Reconstruction, and Hayes's administration (1877-81); inflation and the silver issue

            ii. The election of 1880 and the presidency of Garfield: Garfield's assassination (1881), Arthur's administration (1881-85). establishment of the Civil Service Commission (1883)

            iii. The election of 1884 and Cleveland's first administration (1885-89): the reemergence of presidential leadership, the Treasury surplus and tariff issues, the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and federal regulation of railroads

            iv. The election of 1888 and Benjamin Harrison's administration (1889-93): congressional leadership, the Sherman Anti-Trust and Sherman Silver Purchase acts, and the McKinley Tariff Act (1890)

            v. Depressed agricultural conditions (1887-97): the Farmers' Alliances and the establishment of the Populist Party (1891), farmers' defection from Republican Party

            vi. The election of 1892 and Cleveland's second administration (1893-97): gold reserves and the Panic of 1893. repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1893), lowering of the tariff

            vii. The election of 1896 and McKinley's administration (1897-1901): the raising of the tariff (1897) and the Gold Standard Act (1900), gradual economic recovery

     3. Imperialism, the Progressive Era, and the rise to world power (1896-1920) a. The emergence of the U.S. as an imperial power

            i. The Spanish-American War and U.S. suzerainty over Cuba; acquisition of the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands. and Puerto Rico (1898)

            ii. The "Open Door" policy and armed intervention in China (1900)

            iii. Acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone (1903) and the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: intervention in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Nicaragua

          b. The Progressive Movement (c. 1896-1920)

            i. Scholars, social workers, and "muckrakers" as leaders of the Progressive Movement; social and political urban reforms by state government

            ii. Theodore Roosevelt's administrations (1901-09) and expansion of presidential power and regulatory legislation, Taft's administration (1909-13) and the defection of Progressive Republicans in the 1912 election

            iii. Wilson's first administration (1913-17): tariff, currency, credit, tax, and labour reforms; intervention in Mexican affairs

          c. The role of the U.S. in World War I

            i. Initial U.S. neutrality: loans and supplies to the Allies, submarine warfare and the break with Germany

            ii. U.S. entry into the war: mobilization of manpower and the economy, decisive effect of U.S. military forces on the Western Front (1918)

            iii. Wilson's policies at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and the U.S. Senate rejection of the Treaty of Versailles (1920), the election of 1920 and the return to isolationism

     4. Cultural developments from 1865 to 1920

          a. Advances in fiction, poetry, drama, music, and the visual arts

          b. Developments in education and historical writings, growth of American philosophy


C. Canada under British colonial rule from 1763 to 1867, the Dominion of Canada from 1867 to 1920

     1. British colonial administration: the Quebec Acts of 1763 and 1774, immigration of United Empire Loyalists after U.S. War of Independence, establishment of French- and English-speaking provinces

     2. Social, political, and economic development from 1790 to 1850

          a. Immigration, westward expansion, and the fur trade; participation in the War of 1812

          b. Dissension between French and English settlers: the rebellions of 1837, the Union of Upper and Lower Canada (1841), self-government for domestic affairs (1848)

     3. The Dominion of Canada from 1867 to 1920

          a. The Confederation movement and the establishment of the Dominion (1867)

          b. Westward expansion and internal disunity

            i. Louis Riel and the first MEtis-Indian rebellion (1870), establishment of the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia

            ii. The transcontinental railroad, suppression of the second Mêtis-Indian rebellion (1885), economic depression and downfall of the Conservative government (1896)

          c. Liberal governments under Laurier and economic prosperity (1896-1911)

            i. The Klondike gold rush (1897) and the settlement of the Northwest Territories, creation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan (1905)

            ii. Involvement in Britain's imperialist policies: participation in South African War (1899), border disputes with the United States

          d. Economic nationalism and the Conservative government (1911-17): participation in World War I, recognition of Canadian autonomy (1917)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with the development of the United States and

Canada from 1763 to 1920                            

Boston Lincoln            Philadelphia    Washington, D.C.

Canada            Montreal          San Francisco  Washington,

Chicago           New Orleans   Toronto           George

Franklin           New York City           United States of         

Jefferson         North America            America          


MIcR0PAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of Homestead Movement Indian

Removal Act Indian Territory Little Bighorn, Battle of the Manifest Destiny Mexican War Oregon Question Oregon Trail Ostend Manifesto Palo Alto, Battle of Russian-American Company San Jacinto. Battle of Sante Fe Trail Seminole Wars Southern Overland Mail Company Westward Movement Young America Movement

United States—sectional crisis: Ableman v. Booth abolitionism Alabama claims American

Anti-Slavery Society American Colonization Society

Antietam, Battle of Appomattox Court


Atlanta Campaign Big Black River, Battle of black code Bleeding Kansas Bull Run, battles of carpetbagger Chancellorsville, Battle of Chattanooga,

Battle of Chickamauga Creek, Battle of Civil War Cold Harbor, battles of

Confederate States of America Confiscation Acts Constitutional Union Party Copperhead Crittenden Compromise Dixie

Draft Riot of 1863 Dred Scott decision


Compromise of Electoral Commission Emancipation Proclamation Force Acts Fredericksburg. Battle of Free-Soil Party Freedmen's Bureau Fugitive Slave Acts Gettysburg,

Battle of Gettysburg


Hampton Roads Conference Harpers Ferry Raid

Hunkers and Barnburners Jim Crow law Kansas

Nebraska Act Kenner mission Know-Nothing party

Ku Klux Klan Lecompton Constitution Liberal Republican Party

Liberty Party Lincoln–Douglas Debates McCardle, Ex Parte

Memphis Race Riot

Merryman, Ex Parte

Milligan, Ex Parte Missouri

Compromise Mobile Bay, Battle of

Monitor and Merrimack, Battle of Nashville, Battle of Nashville Convention Ohio Idea

Pea Ridge, Battle of Peninsular Campaign personal liberty laws

Petersburg Campaign popular

sovereignty Radical

Republican Reconstruction Red River

Campaign Seven Days' Battles Shenandoah Valley

Campaigns Shiloh, Battle of Stones River, Battle of

Tenure of Office Act Topeka Constitution Underground Railroad

Union League Vicksburg Campaign Wade-Davis Bill Wilderness, Battle

of the

Wilmot Proviso Wilson's Creek,

Battle of United States—urbanization, industrialization, and the agrarian revolt:

Coxey's Army Free Silver Movement Granger movement Greenback movement Hammer v. Dagenhart Haymarket Riot

Industrial Workers of the World Knights of Labor Molly Maguires Mugwump Populist

Movement Pullman Strike Slaughterhouse Cases

United States—war with Spain, Progressivism, and the rise to world power:

Big Stick Policy Bryan–Chamorro Treaty

Bull Moose Party Dollar Diplomacy Fourteen Points Gentlemen's

Agreement Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty

International Boundary Waters Treaty King–Crane Commission Lansing–Ishii Agreement Maine,

destruction of the

Manila Bay,

Battle of

New Nationalism Open Door policy Paris, Treaty of (1898)

Platt Amendment Preparedness Movement Root–Takahira Agreement Rough Rider Santiago, Battle of Spanish–American War Veracruz incident


Anti-Saloon League

Atlanta Compromise Bank War Bering Sea Dispute

Black Friday Brook Farm

Brownsville Affair      East Saint Louis          Prohibition Party         Tammany Hall

Chicago Race  Race Riot        Resumption Act          Universal Negro

Riot of 1919    of 1917            of 1875            Improvement

Credit Mobilier           Niagara            slave rebellions            Association

Scandal           Movement       Stalwart           Wounded Knee

Dawes General            Nonpartisan     Talented Tenth           

Allotment Act League                       


American Indian         Randolph, John           Sheridan, Philip H.      Harrison, William

leaders:            U.S. explorers and      Sherman, William        Henry

Brant, Joseph  frontiersmen:   Tecumseh        Hayes,

Cochise           Boone, Daniel Stuart, Jeb       Rutherford B.

Crazy Horse    Carson,            Thomas,           Jackson, Andrew

Dull Knife       Christopher     George H.       Jefferson, Thomas

Geronimo        Clark, George  U.S. military    Johnson, Andrew

Joseph, Chief  Rogers leaders—Mexican       Lincoln, Abraham

McGillivry,      Cody, William F.                    McKinley,

Alexander       Crockett, Davy           Gorgas, Josiah William

Pontiac            Fremont, John C.        Kearney, Stephen        Madison, James

Red Jacket      Peary. Robert  Watts   Monroe, James

Sitting Bull      Edwin Scott, Winfield           Pierce, Franklin

Tecumseh        Whitman, Marcus        Taylor, Zachary           Polk, James K.

Washakie         U.S. industrialists:       U.S. military    Roosevelt,

Canadians:      Hanna, Mark   leaders Theodore

Baldwin, Robert         Hewitt, Abram            Revolutionary HPar:   Taft, William

Borden, Sir Robert      Martin, Luther Arnold, Benedict        Howard

Brown, George           Rockefeller,     Greene, Nathanael      Taylor, Zachary

Durham, John  John D.            Hale, Nathan   Tyler, John

George Lambton,        Vanderbilt family        Hampton, Wade          Van Buren,

1st earl of        See also Section          Jones, John Paul          Martin

Galt, Sir           732 of Part Seven       Ko§ciuszko,    Washington,

Alexander       U.S. military    Tadeusz           George

Tilloch leaders—Civil War:    Lafayette,        Wilson, Woodrow

Lansdowne, Henry     Beauregard, P.G.T.     Marie-Joseph-  U.S. social reformers

Charles Keith  Bragg, Braxton           Paul-Yves-      and religious

Petty-Fitzmaurice.       Breckinridge,  Roch-Gilbert   leaders:

5th marquess of           John C.            du Motier,       Garvey, Marcus

Laurier, Sir Wilfrid     Burnside, Ambrose     marquis de       Grimke, Sarah and

Macdonald, Sir           Everett            Washington,    Angelina

John     Butler, George            La Follette.

Mackenzie,      Benjamin F.     U.S. military    Robert M.

William Lyon  Early, Jubal A.            leaders—other:            Noyes, John

Papineau, Louis           Farragut, David           Custer, George            Humphrey

Joseph Forrest, Nathan           Armstrong       Truth, Sojourner

Riel, Louis       Bedford          Jackson, Andrew        Washington,

U.S. Abolitionists:      Grant, Ulysses S.        Mitchell, William        Booker T.

Brown, John    Hood, John B. Perry, Matthew C.      Woodhull,

Delany, Martin R.       Hooker. Joseph           Pershing, John J.         Victoria

Douglass,        Jackson, Thomas         U.S. presidents:           Wright, Frances

Frederick         Jonathan          Adams, John   Young, Brigham

Garrison, William        Johnston,         Adams, John   U.S. statesmen and

Lloyd  Joseph E.         Quincy            political figures

Julian, George W.       Lee, Robert E. Arthur, Chester A.      Civil War and

Tappan. Arthur            Longstreet, James       Buchanan, James         Reconstruct ion:

U.S. diplomats:           McClellan,       Cleveland, Grover       Bates, Edward

Blaine, James  George B.        Fillmore, Millard         Blair, Francis

Harris, Townsend        Meade, George G.      Garfield, James A.      Preston, Jr.

House, Edward M.     Pope, John       Grant, Ulysses S.        Boutwell, George

Page. Walter    Rosecrans,       Harrison,         Sewall

Hines   William S.       Benjamin         Brownlow,

                                    William G.

Chase, Salmon P.        Vance, Zebulon B.      Paine, Thomas U.S. Supreme Court

Clay, Henry     Welles, Gideon           Pendleton,       justices:

Crittenden,      U.S. statesmen and     Edmund          Brandeis, Louis

John J. political figures           Revere, Paul    Field, Stephen J.

Davis, Henry   Federalist period:        Rush, Benjamin           Harlan, John

Winter Burr, Aaron     Wilkinson, James        Marshall

Davis, Jefferson          Clinton, Dewitt           U.S. statesmen and     Holmes, Oliver

Douglas,          Dayton, Jonathan        political figures           Wendell

Stephen A.      Hamilton,        other:   Jay, John

Mason, James  Alexander       Altgeld, John Peter     Marshall, John

Murray            Pinckney, Charles       Benton, Thomas          Matthews, Stanley

Owen, U.S. statesmen and     Hart     Miller, Samuel

Robert Dale     political figures           Bryan, William            Freeman

Revels, Hiram R.         Revolutionary War:     Jennings          Story, Joseph

Seward,           Adams, John   Hay, John        Taney, Roger

William H.       Adams, Samuel           Houston, Sam Brooke

Sherman, John Franklin,          Lansing, Robert          Waite, Morrison

Stanton, Edwin M.     Benjamin         Lodge, Henry  Remick

Stevens, Thaddeus      Henry, Patrick Cabot  White, Edward

Sumner, Charles          Mason, George            Root, Elihu      Douglas

Vallandigham, Otis, James      Webster, Daniel         

Clement L.                             

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 966.         Development of the Latin-American and Caribbean Nations to c. 1920


A. The Latin-American independence movement (1790-1825)

     1. Background of the Latin-American wars of independence

          a. Discontent among Indians, Creoles, and mestizos: the influence of the Enlightenment, the U.S. War of Independence, and the French Revolution

          b. Influence of Toussaint-Louverture's successful slave revolt (1791-94): war with the French (1802-03) and the establishment of Haiti (1804)

          c. Spanish involvement in European wars: the Peninsular War in Spain (1808-14), Napoleon's seizure of the Spanish throne and Creole support of Ferdinand VII

     2. The Spanish South American War of Independence (1810-25), the establishment of the independent Empire of Brazil (1822)

          a. The struggle for independence in New Granada

            i. Initial phases of the revolt under Miranda and Bolivar (1811-14), military setbacks (1815)

            ii. Final expulsion of the Spanish from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama (1821); establishment of the Republic of Gran Colombia (1821-29)

          b. Establishment of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1813) at Buenos Aires; division of provinces into states of Paraguay, Buenos Aires, and Uruguay (1828)

          c. San Martin's military support of the Chilean independence movement under O'Higgins (1817-18), the liberation of Peru (1821)

          d. San Martin's withdrawal and assumption of control by Simon Bolivar, final defeat of Spanish troops (1824), Upper Peru's emergence as independent state of Bolivia (1825) under Sucre

          e. The Portuguese government in exile in Brazil (1808-22): reforms of King John VI (181622), establishment of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I (1822)

     3. The Mexican War of Independence (1810-21): Hidalgo's revolt (1810-11), social and economic reforms under Morelos (1811-15), Iturbide's leadership (1820-21)


B. Mexico from independence (1821) through the end of the Revolution (1917) 1. Mexico from 1821 to 1855

          a. The independent Mexican Empire under Iturbide (1821-23), Santa Anna and the establishment of the Mexican Republic (1824), the constitution of 1824, Centralist-Federalist struggles

          b. Santa Anna's military career and intermittent terms as president (1833 to 1855): the Alamo (1836); war with U.S. (1846-48) over Texas, New Mexico, and California

     2. Mexico from 1855 to 1876

          a. Juarez and La Reforma: social and economic reforms of the 1857 constitution, anticlericalism, the civil war (1857-60)

          b. French intervention (1862) and Emperor Maximilian's puppet rule (1864-67): attempted liberal reforms; loss of conservative support; French withdrawal, defeat of imperial forces, and Maximilian's execution (1867)

          c. Restoration of the republic under Juarez' leadership (1867-72), educational and economic reforms, Lerdo's presidency (1872-76), further separation of church and state

     3. The Porfirio Diaz dictatorship (1876-1911)

          a. Diaz' economic and social policies: maintenance of public order and suppression of dissent, economic development through foreign investment, reconciliation with church, middle-class control of land

          b. Emergence of radical and liberal political clubs (c. 1900): internal unrest; labour strikes; Madero's unsuccessful challenge to Diaz' reelection (1909); armed revolt, Diaz' resignation, and Madero's election (1911)

     4. The Mexican Revolutionary period (1910-17): Huerta's coup and Madero's execution (1913); Carranza's loose alliance with Pancho Villa, Zapata, and ObregOn; civil war; the constitution of 1917; Carranza's election (1917)


C. Central America and the Caribbean to c. 1920

     1. The Central American republics to c. 1920

          a. Independence from Spain (1821), participation in Mexican Empire (1822-23), federation of United Provinces of Central America (1823), armed conflict between Conservatives and Liberals, collapse of the federation (1838)

          b. Guatemala from 1838 to 1920: Carrera's Conservative dictatorship (1838-65), social and economic reforms of Barrios (1873-85) and subsequent Liberal regimes to 1898, Estrada Cabrera's administration (1898-1920)

          c. Honduras from 1838 to 1920: Conservative domination to the 1870s, Aurelio Soto's Liberal regime (1876), return of Conservative control (1885), U.S. investments and military intervention (1912)

          d. El Salvador to 1930: establishment of the republic (1841), Liberal-Conservative conflicts to 1885, coffee economy, political stability (1899-1930)

          e. Nicaragua from 1838 to 1920: Liberal-Conservative conflicts, foreign intervention in the 1850s, stable Conservative governments (1857-93), economic growth, Zelaya's Liberal regime (1893-1909), U.S. military intervention from 1910

          f. Costa Rica from 1838 to 1920: the coffee economy and social stability, Guardia dictatorship (1870-82) and the 1871 constitution, orderly presidential succession after 1890, Rio San Juan dispute with Nicaragua

          g. Panama to 1920: union with Gran Colombia (1821-1903), civil war, U.S. intervention and establishment of Republic of Panama (1903), building of Panama Canal (1904-14), U.S. control of Canal Zone

          h. British colonial and U.S. economic interests in, and conflicts over, the Central American region; e.g., in British Honduras

     2. The island states of the Caribbean (c. 1800-1930)

          a. Haiti to 1934: independence in 1804, civil war between the blacks and mulattoes, black hegemony under Christophe (later Henri I, 1806-20), ascendancy of mulattoes under Boyer (1820-43), political instability (1843-1915), U.S. military occupation (1915-34)

          b. The Dominican Republic to 1930: the struggle for independence (to 1844), despotic regimes (1844-1916), U.S. armed intervention (1916-30)

          c. Cuba from 1790 to 1934

            i. 19th-century social and economic developments: growth of the sugar industry, the abolition of slavery (1886)

            ii. Spanish suppression of Cuban liberation movement in the Ten Years' War (1868-78), economic relations with United States, the Cuban War of Independence from Spain (1895-98)

            iii. Cuba as a U.S. protectorate until 1934: military occupation (1899-1901), Republic of Cuba (1902), later U.S. occupation (1906-09), dictatorships and the sugar industry

          d. The remaining European insular and mainland possessions in the Caribbean region from c. 1810 to c. 1920


D. The successor states of Gran Colombia to c. 1930

     1. Venezuela from 1810 to 1935

          a. Venezuelan independence movement (1810-30), national development under Pdez (183048), Conservative Party rule

          b. Monagas family regime (1848-58) and turmoil between Liberal and Conservative parties to 1870, regime of Guzman Blanco (1870-88)

          c. Political instability to 1892, Crespo's regime (1892-96), the Castro (1899-1908) and Gomez (1908-35) dictatorships

     2. Colombia from 1819 to 1930

          a. Independence (1819), participation in Gran Colombia to 1830, power struggle between Conservative and Liberal parties (1840-80), social reforms, anticlericalism

          b. Political instability and civil wars (1880s and 1899-1903), loss of Panama (1903). development of coffee industry (1909-28)


E. The Indian nations of the Andes to c. 1930

     1. Ecuador from 1822 to 1925

          a. Participation in Gran Colombia (1822-30), independent republic (1830), dictatorial regimes to 1845. political instability (1845-60)

          b. Clericalism in Garcia Moreno's dictatorship (1860-75), Liberal ascendancy after 1875, Alfaro's administrations (1897-1911), social problems, depression in the 1920s

     2. Peru from 1824 to 1930

          a. Establishment of republic (1824). power struggle among caudillos (1824-41), temporary union with Bolivia (1836-39), orderly government under Castilla (1845-51 and 1855-62)

          b. Spanish military invasion (1864-69), Pardo's civilian government (1872-76) and economic crises, War of the Pacific (1879-84) and loss of territory to Chile, establishment of Peruvian Corporation (1889)

          c. Economic and social reforms of Piêrola's administration (1895-1908), conflict between Democratic and Civilian parties, Leguia's administrations (1908-12 and 1919-30) and economic development, formation of the Aprista Movement

     3. Bolivia from 1809 to 1930

          a. Participation in Latin American wars of independence (1810-25). Bolivian independence (1825), Sucre's presidency (1826-28), economic decline

          b. Dictatorship of Santa Cruz (1829-39), temporary union with Peru (1836-39), silver-mining boom, War of the Pacific (1879-84) and territorial loss to Chile

          c. Conservative Party rule (1880-99), economic growth, the Federal Revolution (1899), Montes' leadership in Liberal Party rule (1899-1920), growth of tin-mining industry, Republican Party coup (1920), economic decline


F. Chile from 1810 to 1920

     1. Chile from the 1810 establishment of the republic to 1860

          a. The provisional government (1810-12), return of Spanish rule (1812), defeat of Spanish troops by combined Chilean-Argentinian army (1817)

          b. Bernardo O'Higgins as head of state (1817-23): liberal reforms and conservative opposition, O'Higgins' abdication (1823), political instability (1823-30)

          c. The conservative hegemony (1830-61): the 1833 constitution; political stability and conservative governments under Portales, Ovalle, Prieto, Bulnes, and Montt; economic prosperity; growth of liberal faction

     2. The widening of liberal influence and the growth of political splinter groups (1861-91)

          a. The "Liberal Republic" under Perez (1861-71) and the liberal-conservative alliance: cultural and economic ties with Great Britain, political conflict over church-state relations (1872)

          b. The War of the Pacific (1879-84) and threatened European intervention: annexation of

saltpetre-mining provinces from Peru and Bolivia, civil war and Balmaceda's abdication (1891)

     3. The parliamentary republic (1891-1920): era of legislative supremacy; growth of middle and

lower classes; formation of Democratic (1887), Radical (1888), and Socialist (1901 and 1912) parties


G. The successor states of the Rio de la Plata (excluding Bolivia) to c. 1920

     1. Argentina to 1930

          a. Efforts toward reconstruction (1820-29), confederation under Rosas and ascendancy of Buenos Aires (1829-52)

            i. Dominance of Buenos Aires: interprovincial rivalries, presidency of Rivadavia (1826-27)

            ii. The Rosas government (1829-52): domestic politics and foreign policies

          b. Period of national consolidation (1852-80), conservative regimes (1880-1916)

            i. The constitution of 1853 and civil wars (1853-60), government under Mitre (186268) and his successors

            ii. Economic development during Roca's administration (1880-86), economic crisis of 1890

            iii. The rise of radicalism: growth of social unrest, electoral reform of 1912

          c. The Radical regimes (1916-30): Irigoyen's presidency (1916-22), continued Radical rule in the 1920s, growth of foreign influence in the economy, military coup (1930)

     2. The Uruguayan struggle for independence and national unity (1811-1929)

          a. Independence from Spain (1811) and participation in United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1813-28), establishment of independent Uruguay (1828)

          b. Civil war (1839-51) between Colorado and Blanco political parties, participation in war against Paraguay (1865-70), military rule (1875-90)

          c. Civilian rule and continued political crises and insurrections (1890-1904), Peace of Acequd

(1904) and return to orderly government, social and economic reforms, economic boom during World War I

     3. Paraguay from 1810 to 1924

          a. Independence from Spain (1811), struggle with Buenos Aires for autonomy, establishment of independent Paraguay (1813)

          b. Isolationism during Rodriguez Francia's dictatorship (1814-40), encouragement of foreign trade during Carlos Antonio Lopez' dictatorship (1841-62)

          c. Francisco Solano Lopez' regime (1862-70): loss of territory after war with Brazil and Argentina (1864-70), political instability after 1870


H. Brazil from the establishment of the empire to the fall of the First Republic (1822-1930)

     1. The independent Empire of Brazil (1822-89)

          a. The empire under Pedro I (1822-31): the constitution of 1824, Pedro's abdication (1831), internal disunity during the regency (1831-40)

          b. The empire under Pedro II (1840-89): intervention in Uruguayan affairs and war with

Paraguay (1864-70); cessation of slave trade (1853), gradual emancipation, and abolition of slavery (1888)

     2. Brazil during the First Republic (1889-1930)

          a. The constitution of 1891 and social reforms, military dictatorships (1891-94), civilian governments (1894-1914)

          b. Brazilian participation in World War I, postwar prosperity to 1922, economic problems

during the 1920s, increasing political role of the military, civil disorders leading to the revolution of 1930


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with the development of the Latin-American nations to c. 1920

Argentina Bolivia


Buenos Aires Caracas

Central America Chile

Colombia Ecuador Guyana Havana

Latin America, The History of Lima


Mexico City North America Paraguay


Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo

and Caribbean

South America Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

West Indies, The


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Central America and   Chapultepec    South America:           Pacific, War of the

the Caribbean: Chilpancingo,  Acto Adicional           Paraguayan War

Canal Zone      Congress of     of 1834            PayOn, Battle of

Cuban  cientifico         Ayacucho,       Peruvian-Bolivian

Independence Contreras,        Battle of          Confederation

Movement       Battle of          Bidlack Treaty            Pipiolo and

Hay-Bunau-Varilla      Gadsden Purchase      Boyacd, Battle of       Pelucen

Treaty  Grito de Dolores         Bryan-Chamorro         Rio Branco Law

Maine, destruction      Guadalupe       Treaty  Talambo affair

of the   Hidalgo,          Carabobo,        Thousand Days,

Platt Amendment        Treaty of         Battle of          The War of a

Santiago, Battle of      Iguala Plan      Cepeda, battles of       Tucuman,

Spanish-          Indigenismo    Chacabuco,     Congress of

American War Mexican          Battle of          Water Witch

United Provinces        Revolution      Civilista           incident

of Central        Mexican War   estancia          

America           Palo Alto, Battle of     gaucho

Mexico:           Pastry War      Gran Colombia           

Buena Vista,   Puebla, Battle of         Guayaquil       

Battle of          Reforma, La    Conference     

Celaya, Battle of         Rurales            Itata and         

Cerro Gordo,   San Jacinto,     Baltimore       

Battle of          Battle of          incidents         


Central America and   Guerrero, Vicente       Artigas, Jose    O'Higgins,

the Caribbean: Hidalgo y Costilla,      Gervasio          Bernardo

Barrios, Justo  Miguel Battle y Ordeilez,        Pedro I

Rufino Huerta, Victoriano      Jose     Pedro II

Dessalines,      Iturbide,          Bolivar, Simian           Reyes, Rafael

Jean-Jacques    Agustin de      Carrera, Jose    Rivadavia,

Estrada Cabrera,         Juarez, Benito Miguel Bernardino

Manuel            Madero, Francisco      Fonseca, Manuel         Rosas, Juan

Estrada Palma,            Maximilian      Deodoro da     Manuel de

Tomas  Morelos, Jose  Guzman Blanco,         San Martin,

Marti, Jose Julian        Maria   Antonio           Jose de

Morazdn,         Santa Anna,    Haya de la Torre,        Silva Xavier,

Francisco         Antonio Lopez de       Victor Raid     Joaquim Jose da

Toussaint-Louverture  Villa, Pancho   Lopez, Francisco         Sucre, Antonio

Zelaya, Jose Santos     Zapata, Emiliano         Solano Jose de

Mexico:           South America:           Miranda,          Uriburu,

Carranza,         Andrada e Silva,         Francisco de    Jose Felix

Venustiano      Jose Bonifacio de        Mitre, Bart°lome         Urquiza, Justo

Diaz, Porfirio              Moreno, Mariano        Jose de

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above


Section 967.         Australia and Oceania to c. 1920


A. The character and historical development of the diverse peoples of Oceania and the effects of colonization

     1. The historical sources and historiographic problems

     2. Geography, ethnography, and prehistory of Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia (including New Zealand)

     3. European exploration and colonial settlement: missionaries, trading societies, and colonial government


B. Australia to 1920

     1. Early European exploration by sea and land

     2. British colonization of New South Wales in 1788, expansion and development of self-government (1830-60), economic growth and the federation movement (1860-1901), the establishment of the commonwealth in 1901, social tensions, cultural developments

     3. Early years of the commonwealth: establishment of a White Australia immigration policy, Labor Party reforms, industrial growth, cooperation with Britain in World War I

     4. Relations with the Aboriginal population


C. New Zealand to 1928

     1. The extension of British control over, and annexation of, North and South Islands (1838-41)

     2. Relations between the indigenous Maori people and the British: encroachments and ensuing conflicts

     3. Establishment of self-government (1852): economic development and immigration

     4. Politics and foreign relations (1890-1928): Liberal and Reform Party governments, radical politics, the Labour Party, cooperation with Britain in World War I


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Australia and Oceania to c. 1920



New Zealand

Pacific Islands


United States of America: Hawaii


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Australia:         Immigration    United Australia         New Zealand

ANZAC          Restriction Act            Party    Political Reform

Australian        Kanaka            Van Diemen's  League

Colonies          Lambing Flat   Land    Waitangi,

Government Act         Riots    White Australia           Treaty of

Australian Labor         Liberal Party of           Policy  Young Maori

Party    Australia          New Zealand: Party

Australian        National Party ANZAC          other:

Patriotic           New South Wales       Hauhau            Lapita culture

Association     Corps   Maori   Melanesia

Black War       Port Phillip      Representation            Micronesia

blackbirding    Association     Act      Polynesia

bushranger       Port Phillip      New Zealand 

Castle Hill Rising        District            Company        

Emancipist      Rum Rebellion            New Zealand 

Eureka Stockade         squatter           Labour Party  




Australia:         Parkes, Sir Henry        other:   Mitchell, Sir

Arthur, Sir George,     Phillip, Arthur Bougainville,   Thomas

1st Baronet      Stun, Charles   Louis-Antoine de        Livingstone

Barton, Sir       Torrens, Sir      Clunies-Ross   Oxley, John

Edmund          Robert Richard           family  Tasman, Abel

Bligh, William Wentworth, W.C.       Cook, James    Janszoon

Deakin, Alfred            New Zealand: Dumont d'Urville,       Wakefield,

Forrest, Sir John          Kingi, Wiremu            Jules-Sebastien-Cesar  Edward Gibbon

Hughes, William         Massey, William          Flinders, Matthew       Weld, Sir

Morris  Ferguson         Kamehameha I            Frederick

Macarthur, John          Pomare, Sir Maui        Kamehameha IV         Aloysius

Macquarie,      Seddon, Richard                    

Lachlan           John                

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 968.         South Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism from c. 1500 to c. 1920


A. European activity in India (1498–c. 1760)

     1. Portuguese commercial relations with India from 1498: establishment of the colony of Goa, decline of Portuguese hegemony and rise of British and Dutch influence

     2. Dutch trading posts and conflicts with the British

     3. The British and French in India

          a. Establishment and growth of British settlements and trading posts (1600-1740): the East India Company, relations with indigenous peoples

          b. Development of French trading companies from 1674: Anglo-French rivalry (1740-63) and establishment of British hegemony

          c. The British seizure of Calcutta (1757) and Clive's establishment of British control over the local Bengal ruler (1757-60)


B. Extension of British power (1760-1858)

     1. Growth of the political power of the British East India Company and attempts by the British crown to regulate its affairs

          a. Securing of British supremacy in Bengal

          b. Warren Hastings (1774-85) and the transition of the status of the company from revenue farmer to a ruling power in India

          c. Wars with the Mardth-ds and Mysore at the end of the 18th century

          d. Expansion and consolidation of British control over various Indian states during administrations of Lord Wellesley (1798-1805), Lord Minto (1807-13), and Lord Hastings (1813-23)

          e. The organization and determination of administrative policy: Cornwallis and the transition toward British administrative procedures

          f. Completion of British annexation of, or domination over, the Afghan, Sikh, and Lower Burmese kingdoms in the 1840s and 1850s

     2. The political, legal, economic, social, and cultural effects of the first century of British influence

     3. The cause, outbreak, suppression, and effects of the Indian Mutiny (1857-59): the British crown's assumption of total responsibility for the government of India


C. British imperial power (1858-1920)

     1. Climax of the raj: social and economic policies, government organization, the influence of the viceroys

     2. British foreign policy in India: conflicts with Russia over the northwest frontier, the incorporation of Burma (1886), the Second Afghan War (1878-80) and the creation of the North-West Frontier Province (1901), the Third Afghan War (1919)

     3. Beginning of Indian nationalism in the late 19th century and the British response: formation of the Indian National Congress (1885), policies of Lord Curzon (1899-1905), partition of Bengal, founding of the nationalist Muslim League, the Indian Councils Act of 1909

     4. World War I and its aftermath: India's contribution to the war effort, anti-British activity, the Amritsar massacre, the Government of India Act (1919), Hindu–Muslim relations, the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi and the adoption of his noncooperation policy


D. Ceylon under foreign rulers from c. 1505 to 1920

     1. Portuguese political and commercial activities in Ceylon (1505-1658): conflict with the Kandyan kingdom

     2. Dutch rule in Ceylon (1658-1796) and its influence on the political, economic, judicial, and administrative systems; commercial enterprises and missionary attempts

     3. The British in Ceylon from 1796: unification and early administration, the reforms of 1833, the transition from a subsistence to a commercial economy, the beginnings of constitutional government, nationalist unrest during World War I


E. Tibet and Nepal from c. 1750 to c. 1920

     1. Decline of Chinese influence in Tibet: administration and culture under the Manchus

     2. Nepal's territorial expansion under the Shah rulers, decline of Shah family and rise of Thapa and Rana families, accommodation with the British to preserve Nepal's independence


Suggested reading in the Encyclopaylia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with South Asia under the influence of European imperialism from c. 1500 to e. 1920


Calcutta India


Sri Lanka


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information General subjects

colonial            historic' events:           Saint George,  Purandhar,

administration and      Amritsar,         Fort     Treaty of

polio':  Massacre of     William, Fort   Surji-arjungaon,

Afridi  Baksar, Battle of         nationalist groups        Treaty of

Bengal,            Barrackpore     and movements:          Wadgaon,

Partition of      Mutiny            Ghadr  Convention of

Colebrook-Cameron    Black Hole of  Indian

Commission    . Calcutta         Association

Cornwallis Code         Carnatic Wars Indian National

Durand Line    Firoz Shah,      Congress

East India        Battle of          Muslim League

Company         Gujrat, Battle of          Noncooperation

Government of            Indian Mutiny Movement

India Act         Maratha Wars  Servants of India

lapse,   Miani, Battle of           Society

doctrine of      Mysore Wars   treaties:

McMahon Line           Sikh Wars        Amritsar,

mahalwari system        Sobraon.          Treaty of

Sadr Dtwani    Battle of          Banaras,

`Adlat  Vellore Mutiny            Treaties of

Thesavalamai   historic states and       Bassein, Treaty of

tombo  sites:    Lucknow Pact

zamindar         Cis-Sutlej states          Malvana.

Kandy Convention of Saint David, Fort



Britons:           Fitch, Ralph    Minto, Gilbert Holkar dynasty

Auckland, George       Frere, Sir Bartle           Elliot-Murray- Lajpat Rai, Lala

Eden, earl of   Hastings, Francis         Kynynmound, 1st       Mir Jalar

Bentinck, Lord            Rawdon-Hastings,      earl of  Ram Singh

William            1st marquess of           Minto, Roy, Ram Mohun

Canning, Charles         Hastings, Warren        Gilbert John    Sankaran Nair,

John Canning, Hume, Allan    Elliot-Murray- Sir Chettur

Earl      Octavian          Kynynmound, Sapru, Sir Tej

Chelmsford,    Lansdowne, Henry     4th earl of        Bahadur

Frederic John  Charles Keith  Napier, Robert            Sastri, Srinivasa

Napier Thesiger,          Petty-Fitzmaurice,       Napier, 1st Baron        Shah `Alam II

1st Viscount    5th marquess of           Outram, Sir James       Tilak, Bal

Clive, Robert, 1st        Lawrence,       Ripon, George Gangadhar

Baron Clive of            Sir Henry         Frederick Samuel        other:

Plassey            Montgomery   Robinson, 1st  Albuquerque,

Coote, Sir Eyre           Lawrence, John           marquess of     Afonso de, the

Curzon, George           Laird Mair       Wellesley, Richard      Great

Nathaniel         Lawrence, 1st  Colley Wellesley,        Dupleix,

Curzon,           Baron  Marquess         Joseph-Francois

Marquess         Lytton, Robert            Younghusband, Sir     Gama, Vasco da

Dalhousie,       Bulwer-Lytton,           Francis Edward           Jung Bahadur

James Andrew            1st earl of        Indians:           La Bourdonnais,

Broun Ramsay,           Mayo, Richard            Banerjea, Sir    Bertrand-Francois

Marquess and  Southwell        Surendranath   Mahe, comte de

10th earl of      Bourke, 6th     Dalip Singh    

Ellenborough,  earl of  Das, Chitta Ranjan     

Edward Law,  Metcalfe,         Dogra dynasty           

earl of  Charles T.        Gandhi,          

Elphinstone,    Metcalfe, Baron          Mohandas      

Mountstuart                Karamchand   

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 969.         Southeast Asia Under the Influence of European Imperialism to c. 1920


A. The states and European colonies of mainland Southeast Asia from c. 1600 to c. 1920

     1. Myanmar (Burma) and Malaya from c. 1600 to c. 1920: the advent of British rule

          a. Myanmar from c. 1600 to c. 1920

            i. Renewed expansionism and wars with the Mons, Thais, and Chinese under the Alaungpaya dynasty from 1752: the First and Second Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824-26, 1852), traditional administration in Myanmar

            ii. The Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) and annexation to British India (1886), effects of British colonialism: destruction of traditional church-state relationship, impoverishment of the population

          b. Malaya from c. 1630 to c. 1920: loss of autonomy through Dutch and British intrusions

            i. Dutch intervention in the Malay states and seizure of Malacca (1641), immigration of Minangkabau from Sumatra and Buginese from Celebes (mid-17th-18th century)

            ii. British incursions into Malaya in the late 18th century, steady immigration of Chinese throughout the 19th century and resulting social unrest, British intervention and assumption of power from sultanates of Malaya from the 1870s

     2. Indochina and the development of French rule from c. 1516

          a. Portuguese and French missionary involvement in Vietnam and Vietnamese reaction (15161858), French intervention in Indochina and territorial acquisition of Cochinchina and Cambodia (1858-63)

          b. Period of colonization (1873-93); establishment of French protectorates in Annam, Tonkin, and Laos; French administration in Indochina

     3. Siam from c. 1620 to c. 1910

          a. Trade relations with China and other Asian countries, influence of Theravada Buddhism, Dutch and French intrusions and establishment of trade in the 1660s

          b. Invasion by Myanmar (1767) and end of Ayutthayan kingdom domination; political reunification and establishment of Chakkri dynasty (1782); social, cultural, and legal development in the early 19th century; Chinese immigration; expansion of trade with the U.S. and with European countries; reign of Mongkut (1851-68)

          c. Political, social, and economic reforms in the reign of Chulalongkorn (1868-1910): Anglo-French activity in Southeast Asia and acquisition of Siamese territory (1893-1909)

     4. Laos from c. 1600: establishment of separate kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane in 1707, Siamese domination from 1778, establishment of French protectorate in 1893


B. The states and European colonies of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippines from c. 1500 to c. 1920

     1. The Portuguese and the Spanish in Southeast Asia

          a. Portuguese naval and commercial activities, domination of the Strait of Malacca, and rivalry with the Spanish in the Spice Islands; collapse of Portuguese commercial empire with the defeat by the Dutch (1641)

          b. The Philippines to c. 1920

            i. The people and culture of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spanish

            ii. Spanish control of the Philippines (1571-1898): government administration and influence of the Roman Catholic Church, land policy and overseas trade, rise of nationalism in the 19th century

            iii. The Philippine Revolution of 1896-98, U.S. support in ousting the Spanish, subsequent U.S. takeover and administration to c. 1920

     2. The Dutch and other European powers in Indonesia from c. 1600 to c. 1920

          a. The Dutch East India Company (1602-1799): Coen's establishment of Dutch commercial supremacy, company rule in Java, decline and abolition of the company

          b. The French and British in Java (1806-15), Dutch rule in the 19th century

            i. The Culture System (Cultuur-stelsel) and its deleterious effects on Java (1830-70): the Liberal Policy

            ii. The Ethical Policy and the rise of nationalism: social and economic benefits, formation of nationalist organizations

Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:


MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Southeast Asia under the influence of European Imperialism to c. 1920


Manila Bay,     Philippine-       Spanish-American      

Battle of          American War War    

Manila galleon Philippine        Spooner          

Revolution      Amendment   

Biographies     Dewantoro, Ki            Bonifacio, Andres       Coen, Jan


Anu, Chao       Hadjar Burgos, Jose    Pieterszoon

Chan II            Dipo Negoro,  Mabini, Apolinario      Dewey, George

Chanthakuman            Pangeran         Osmeria Sergio            Dupre, Marie-Jules

Cuong De        Imam Bondjol Quezon, Manuel          Dupuis, Jean

De Tham         Iskandar Muda            Rizal, Jose       Gamier, Francis

Deo Van Tri    Kartini, Raden            Siam and Malaya:       Legazpi, Miguel

Duy Tan          Adjeng            Chakkri dynasty          Lopes de

Gia Long         Tjokroaminoto,            Chulalongkorn            Pavie, Auguste

Later Le dynasty         Omar Said       Damrong         Phaulkon,

Le Van Duyet Wahidin          Rajanubhab     Constantine

Minh Mang     Sudirohusodo, Devawongse   Phayre, Sir

Nguyen dynasty          Mas Ngabehi   Varsprakar,      Arthur Purves

Norodom         Myanmar..       Prince  Pigneau de

Oun Kham      Alaungpaya     Idris ibn Raja  Behaine,

Pêtrus Ky        Alaungpaya     Iskandar, Sultan          Pierre-Joseph-

Phan Boi Chau            dynasty           Mongkut         Georges

Phan Chau Trinh         Bagyidaw        Narai   Poivre, Pierre

Phan Thanh Gian        Bandula, Maha            Phetracha        Raffles,

Siribunyasan    Bodawpaya     Rama I            Sir Stamford

Tay Son brothers         Hsinbyushin    Vajiravudh      Rhodes,

Indonesian      Mindon           other:   Alexandre de

Archipelago:    Nanada Bayin Bonard,           Rigault de

Agung Pagan  Louis-Adolphe            Genouilly,

Dachlan, Kijai Toungoo dynasty        Brooke Raj      Charles

Hadji Ahmad  Philippine Islands:       Clifford, Sir Hugh     

            Aguinaldo, Emilio       Charles           

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 96/10. China from 1839 Until the Onset of Revolution (to c. 1911), and Japan from the Meiji Restoration to c. 1910


A. China under the late Ch'ing: the challenges of rebellion and Western penetration

     1. The Western challenge (1839-60) and the collapse of the tributary system: rebellion and the reestablishment of the Ch'ing government

          a. Problems created by the opium trade: British demands for trade advantages and diplomatic parity culminating in the Opium War (1839-42)

            i. The Opium War and its aftermath: granting of commercial privileges to Western powers

            ii. Reactions to foreign trade gains: antiforeign movements concentrated at Canton

          b. Popular uprisings of the Taiping and Nien and rebellions in western China, the effects of the rebellions

     2. Contending forces of westernization and Chinese tradition from c. 1850

          a. The "self-strengthening" movement: its effect on foreign relations and on domestic life

            i. Western attempts at treaty revision and the chilling of Sino-Russian relations, hostility toward Christian missionaries

            ii. Industrialization for self-strengthening: mining and the weapons industry, malpractice and corruption in business

          b. Increasing foreign encroachments (1870-95): loss of Central Asian territories, problems resulting from Chinese hesitancy to engage in regular diplomatic relations, Korea and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)

          c. The reform movement of K'ang Yu-wei, the conservative reaction, and the Boxer Rebellion (1900) as expressions of anti-foreign feelings: Western seizure of Peking (1900) and further Ch'ing concessions, U.S. Open Door policy

          d. Reformist and revolutionist movements at the end of the dynasty: Ch'ing reforms after 1901, the Republican movement and the 1911 Revolution

            i. Sun Yat-sen and the United League: constitutional movements after 1905

            ii. Peasant uprisings and the 1911 Revolution


B. The modernization of Japan and its emergence as a world power (1868-c. 1910)

     1. The Meiji Restoration and the process of modernization

          a. The fall of the Tokugawa, leadership and initial policies of the new government, samurai opposition and government countermeasures

          b. Beginning of Japanese modernization: abolition of feudalism; fiscal and economic policies; growth of zaibatsu (cartels); development of national loyalties; religious, educational, and cultural policies

          c. Politics in Meiji Japan: creation of political parties, oligarchic control and gradual development of representative institutions

     2. Foreign relations in Imperial Japan: dispute with China over Korea, success in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), annexation of Korea (1910), economic expansion in China


Suggested reading in the Encyclopxdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with China from 1839 until the onset of revolution (to c. 1911), and Japan from the Meiji Restoration to c. 1910

Asia     Japan   Shanghai         Tokyo-Yokohama

Canton            Korea  Taiwan            Metropolitan

China   Nanking          Tientsin           Area

Hong Kong     Peking


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

Biographies     Li Hung-chang            Tso Tsung t'ang           Fukuzawa Yukichi


Chang Chih-tung        Liang Ch'i-ch'ao          Tuan Ch'i-jui   Gota ShajirO,

Chang Ping-lin            Lin Tse-hsii     T'ung-chih       Hakushaku

Ch'i-ying         Sheng Hsiian-huai       Tz'u-hsi            Inoue Kaoru,

Huang Hsing   Soong family   Yang Hsiu-ch'ing        Kashaku

Hung Hsiu-ch'ilan       Sun Yat-sen    Japan:  Itagaki Taisuke,

K'ang Yu-wei  Sung Chiao-jen           Abe Isoo         Count

Kuang-hsii       Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei            EtO Shimpei   165 Hirobumi,

Kung Ch'in-wang        Tseng Kuo-fan            Fujita Tako      Koshaku

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 96/11. Southwest Asia and North Africa (c. 1800-1920), and Sub-Saharan Africa (1885—c. 1920)

Under the Influence of European Imperialism: the Early Colonial Period


A. The Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1920: European intervention and the continuation of westernization

     1. The empire under Mahmud II: internal reforms and centralization, the Greek revolt (1821-32): the Egyptian revolt (1831-41), Russian intrusions in Turkey

     2. Reaction, revolt, and further disintegration until World War I

          a. The era of the Tanzimat reforms (1839-76)

          b. Crisis of 1875-78 and the loss of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and most of Bulgaria; the constitution of 1876

          c. The growth of Turkish nationalism in the reign of Abdiilhamid II (1876-1909) and dissolution of the empire, domination by Germany in World War I


B. Egypt, the Maghrib, and the Arabian Peninsula: the development of Arab nationalism and Zionism

     1. The emergence of modern Egypt (1798-1922)

          a. Egypt under French (1798-1801) and British (1801-03) occupation, centralized administration of Muhammad `Ali and his successors (1805-82), construction of Suez Canal (1858-69), European financial and military intervention

          b. Egypt under British rule (1882-1922): reforms by Baring's (later 1st Earl Cromer) administration (1883-1907), revival of nationalism, World War I and independence (1922)

     2. The Maghrib from 1830 to c. 1930: European penetration into Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Morocco

          a. Algeria from 1830 to 1920: the French conquest (1830-71) and colonial settlements, national resistance movement under Abdelkader, suppression of the Muslim population

          b. Tunisia from 1830 to c. 1930: French influence to 1881 and status as a French protectorate from 1881

          c. Morocco from 1830 to 1920: growth of French, Spanish, and British influence and decline of the traditional government; establishment of French and Spanish zones and protectorates (1912)

          d. Libya (Tripolitania and Cyrenaica) from c. 1834 to 1920: subjection to direct Turkish rule (1835), growth of Italian influence resulting in conquest (1911-12)

     3. Arab nationalism from c. 1850 to 1920, emergence of Zionism as a factor in Middle Eastern affairs

          a. Origins, growth, and early accomplishments of Arab nationalism; British encouragement in World War I; the postwar settlement

          b. Origins of the Zionist movement and Jewish immigration to Palestine after 1880, World War I developments and the beginning of conflict between Zionists and Arab nationalists


C. Iran under the Qajar dynasty from 1779 to 1925, Afghanistan from 1809 to 1921

     1. Iran: the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan and the subsequent European penetration of Iran by the British and Russians, overthrow of the Qajar dynasty (1925)

     2. Afghanistan: the Barakzay dynasty, conflicts with the British government of India, British recognition of Afghan independence (1921)


D. Sub-Saharan Africa from c. 1885 to c. 1920

     1. The decline in the slave trade; European commercial, missionary, and exploratory activities in the 19th century; the imperialistic scramble for African colonies; the Berlin West Africa Conference (1884-85) and the European partition of Africa

     2. The establishment of European colonies in West Africa in the late 19th century

          a. French, British, and German rivalry: takeover of the Gold Coast, Senegal, Togo, the Cameroons, Dahomey, and the Ivory Coast

          b. Problems in establishing effective colonial regimes: military problems, control of the territories, reliance on Africans and development of indirect rule

     3. Northeast Africa: foreign influences and national movements

          a. The Mandist movement in the Sudan (1881-98) and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium from 1899

          b. The consolidation of central governmental power in Ethiopia: Tewodros II (1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-89), and Menilek II (1889-1913); struggles against Egypt, the Sudan, and Italy

     4. East Africa and Madagascar: German, British, French, and Italian conquests and establishment of colonies; relations with indigenous peoples

     5. European penetration into Central Africa during the 19th century and establishment of permanent colonies

          a. British explorations under Livingstone and Stanley: attempts to explore the interior

          b. King Leopold II's colonial enterprise in the Congo: establishment of the Belgian Congo (Congo Free State) and Belgium's Congo policies until World War I

          c. The French colonies and colonial administration until World War II

     6. The scramble for southern Africa, the British-Boer conflict and the establishment of the Union of South Africa (1910), curtailment of economic and political rights of Africans and Asians, the Botha (1910-19) and Smuts (1919-24) governments and National Party opposition under Hertzog


Suggested reading in the Encyclopeedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Southwest Asia and North Africa (c. 1800-1920), and sub-Saharan Africa (1885-c. 1920) under the influence of European imperialism: the early colonial period

Afghanistan    Eastern Africa North Africa   Transcaucasia

Africa  Egypt  Palestine          Turkey and

Arabia Iran      Southern Africa          Ancient Anatolia

Asia     Israel   Sudan, The      Western Africa

Central Africa Lebanon          Syria


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects

Arabian peninsula: `Abdali sultanate Al Bu Said dynasty Difiyah, Battle of adMulaydah, Battle of al-

Qu'aiti sultanate Wahhabi

Egypt and the Nilotic Sudan:

Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Fashoda Incident Khartoum,

Siege of Mandist Omdurman,

Battle ofWafd

North Africa: Algeciras Conference Husaynid dynasty Italo-Turkish War Moroccan crises Tripolitan War Young Tunisians

Ottoman Empire:


massacres Bulgarian Horrors canak, Treaty of capitulation Constantinople Agreement

Defense of Rights,      Pleven, Siege of          British East Africa      uitlander

Associations    Rumelia           British South   Vereeniging,

for the Saint-Jean-de- Africa Company         Peace of

Edirne, Treaty of         Maurienne,      British West Africa     Wadai

Greco-Turkish Agreement of  Buganda          Zanzibar Treaty

wars     San Stefano,    Congo Free State        other:

Greek  Treaty of         German East   Durand Line

Independence,            Serbo-Turkish War      Africa  King-Crane

War of Sevres, Treaty of         Moyen-Congo Corn mission

Halepa, Pact of           Straits Question          Mozambique   Mizrahi

Hilnk'dr Iskelesi,         Tanzimat         Conventions    Zionism

Treaty of         Young Ottomans        National Party of       

Italo-Turkish War        Young Turks   South Africa  

Mudros,           sub-Saharan Africa:    Somaliland     

Armistice of    Adowa, Battle of        South Africa Act       

Navarino, Battle of     Afrikaner Bond           South African War     

Ottoman Empire         Belgian Congo            Togoland        

Pan-Turanianism         Berlin West Africa      Tukulor empire           

Pan-Turkism    Conference      Ucciali, Treaty of       


Afghanistan:   Mehmed V      Loch (of Drylaw),       Tippu Tib

`Abdor Rahman          Mehmed VI    Henry  Wet, Christiaan

Khan   Midhat Pasa    Brougham       Rudolf de

DOst Mohammad       Resid Pasa,      Loch,   Yohannes IV

Khan   Mustafa           1st Baron         Sudan:

Habibollah Khan         Selim III          Lugard, F.D.   `Abd Allah

Shah Shoja:     Sevket Pasa,    Maxamed Cabdulle     Gordon, Charles

Shir 'All Khan Mahmud          Xasan  George

Egypt: sub-Saharan Africa:    Menilek II       Kitchener, Horatio

Cromer, Evelyn           Botha, Louis   Milner (of Saint           Herbert

Baring, 1st Earl of       Brazza,            James's and Cape        Kitchener, 1st

Ismail Pasha    Pierre-Paul-     Town), Alfred Earl

Kamil, Mustafa           Francois-Camille         Milner, Viscount         Mandi, al-

Muhammad 'All          Savorgnan de  Msiri    Osman Dinga

Nubar Pasha    Chilembwe, John        Rabiti as-Zubayr         other:

Said Pasha       De la Rey,       Rhodes, Cecil  Abdelkader

`Urdbi Pasha   Jacobus Hercules         Roberts, Joseph           Ibrahim Pasha

Iran:     Goldie,            Jenkins            Jamal ad-Din

Khaial Khan    Sir George       Robinson, Sir  al-Afghani

Naser od-Din Shah     Gungunhana    Hercules          Lawrence, T.E.

Qajar dynasty  Hofmeyr, Jan  Samory           

Taqi Khan       Jameson, Sir    Smuts, Jan      

Ottoman Empire:        Leander Starr, Stanley, Sir Henry      

Abdiilhamid II            Baronet           Morton           

Abdiilmecid I  Kagwa,            Steyn, Marthinus        

Enver Pasa      Sir Apolo         Theunis           

Mahmud II      Kruger, Paul               

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Division VII.       The World Since 1920


[For Part Nine headnote see page 343.]

The first of the eight sections in Division VII, reflecting the increasing internationalization since 1920,  broadly treats major developments in contemporary world history. The remaining seven sections deal separately with the histories, since 1920, of the several regions of the world.


Section 971. International Movements, Diplomacy, and War Since 1920 443

Section 972. Europe Since c. 1920 447

Section 973. The United States and Canada Since 1920 453

Section 974. Latin-American and Caribbean Nations Since c. 1920 457

Section 975. East Asia: China in Revolution, the Era of Japanese Hegemony, and the Influence of the United States in the 20th Century 461

Section 976. South and Southeast Asia: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations Since 1920 464

Section 977. Australia and Oceania Since 1920 468

Section 978. Southwest Asia and Africa: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations in the 20th Century 469


Section 971.         International Movements, Diplomacy, and War Since 1920


A. The period between the World Wars (1920-39)

     1. Immediate postwar problems (1920-24)

          a. Failure of attempts to establish socialist and new democratic governments in Europe: dictatorships in the new nations of central and eastern Europe

          b. Diplomacy after the Paris Peace Conference (1919-20): establishment of the League of Nations; U.S., Soviet, and German diplomatic isolation; crises concerning enforcement of the peace settlement

     2. The temporary amelioration of international relations by the Locarno (1925) and KelloggBriand (1928) agreements, European recovery and the rapprochement with Germany

     3. International affairs in the 1930s

          a. The upsurge of strife in Asia: civil conflict in China and the Japanese seizure of Manchuria (1931-32), rise of the militarists in Japan and the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

          b. The Popular Front and the Spanish Civil War (1936-39): unchecked Italian aggression against Ethiopia (1935-36), failure of the League of Nations and other diplomatic attempts (e.g., the Munich agreement) to avert war

          c. The European colonial empires and client states: increased demands for self-determination among subject peoples, realignment of colonial powers

     4. Economic developments in the postwar period (1920-39)

          a. Increased government control (1920-29): reconstruction, social welfare, and inflation

          b. Economic and political impact of the Great Depression of the 1930s: collapse of the world market and responses by various governments

          c. The establishment of Nazi Germany and economic recovery based on rearmament, Germany's alignment with Italy and Japan, the New Deal policy in the U.S., War Communism and the New Economic Policy in the Soviet Union


B. World War II (1939-45)

     1. German conquest of Poland (1939) and France (1940); the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (1939) and subsequent German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941); the Battle of Britain (1940-41) and the war in North Africa (1940-43)

     2. The war in Asia and the Pacific (1937-45)

          a. Further Japanese aggression in China from 1937: the clash between U.S. and Japanese interests in the Pacific, the attack on Pearl Harbor (1941) and U.S. entry into the war

          b. Japanese conquests in the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (1941-42); the Allied counteroffensive from 1942 and Japanese defeat (1945)

     3. The war in Europe and North Africa (1942-45)

444 Part Nine. The History of Mankind

          a. Beginning of U.S. active participation (1942), Allied progress against the Axis Powers in North Africa and Europe

          b. Collapse of the German Eastern Front (1944) and Soviet conquest of eastern Europe (194445), Allied invasions of Italy (1943) and France (1944) and the defeat of Germany (1945)

     4. The leadership, industrial strength, strategic plans and goals, and tactical and logistical procedures of the Axis Powers

     5. Allied wartime leadership and diplomacy: the Atlantic Charter; industrial strength, strategic plans and goals, and tactical and logistical procedures

     6. The burgeoning of military technology; e.g., developments in communications devices, naval ships and aircraft, ground weapons and missiles, atomic bombs


C. International relations

     1. International relations before and during World War II

          a. The Eurocentric world and its collapse

          b. Ideologies in World War II

            i. The Nazi-Soviet pact

            ii. Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Atlantic Charter

            iii. Soviet expansion, Stalin and the Nazis, annexations

     2. The postwar years (1945-57)

          a. The end of the war and the early United Nations (UN)

            i. The atomic and hydrogen bombs

            ii. Truman's fundamental principles

            iii. The UN as a Western organization

          b. Reconstruction and European political instability

          c. The beginnings of the Cold War

            i. Consolidation of Soviet power in eastern Europe: the Iron Curtain

            ii. The Cold War as Realpolitik and as ideology

            iii. The confrontation in Germany: the Berlin blockade

            iv. The formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

          d. East, South, and Southeast Asia, 1945-57

            i. The colonial territories of Asia

            ii. Civil war in China and communist rule

            iii. The Korean War: its meaning, course, and consequences

            iv. The transformation of the American role in Southeast Asia

          e. The Middle East (1945-57)

            i. The U.S. in the Middle East

            ii. The Iranian and Turkish cases

            iii. Palestine: Israel and the Arabs

            iv. Nasser and the Suez crisis

          f. The continuing Cold War

            i. The U.S. policy of containment

            ii. The late Truman administration

            iii. The Eisenhower years and McCarthyism

            iv. De-Stalinization in the Soviet Union

            v. Unrest among the satellites

            vi. NATO and European economic recovery

            vii. Soviet responses

            viii. The problem of nuclear energy: the balance of terror, France as a nuclear power

ix. The Austrian treaty and the German problem 3. The period since 1957

          a. The Great Powers and the world

            i. Postwar economic growth: U.S. economic dominance

            ii. Decolonization

            iii. The Soviet Union and "national liberation"

            iv. The new states: nonalignment and domestic problems, aid programs

            v. The Third World as a zone of conflict in the Cold War

            vi. Latin America in the Cold War: Fidel Castro

            vii. The Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis: consequences

            viii. Sino-Soviet relations: the consequences of their rift

ix. Peaceful coexistence and détente

x. Resolution of the German problem, the two Germanys

xi. The Helsinki conference (1973)

xii. Arms buildup and deterioration of superpower relations

xiii. Disintegration of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War

          b. The lesser powers

            i. Peace in postwar Europe

            ii. Integration movements in western Europe

            iii. Eastern Europe under the Soviet variety of imperialism

            iv. The new Europe after the collapse of the Iron Curtain; Eastern Europe's struggle for economic and political integration with the West, movements toward democracy and free markets, renewed ethnic conflicts

          c. Areas of conflict

            i. Southeast Asia: the Indochina War

            ii. The Middle East: the Arab-Israeli wars, the new role of petroleum, the Iranian revolution, the Persian Gulf War

            iii. Sub-Saharan Africa: superpower involvement, civil warfare D. Economic developments from 1940

Suggested reading in the Encyclopiedia Britannica:


MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with international affairs since 1920

European History and Culture

Central Treaty International    Stalinism         Leyte Gulf,

Organization   Investment Bank         Strategic Arms            Battle of

CERN International    Limitation Talks          Manhattan Project

Cold War        Monetary Fund           Strategic Arms            Midway, Battle of

Colombo Plan iron curtain      Reduction Talks          Normandy

Cuban Missile Korean War     terrorism          Invasion

Crisis   Maoism           Truman Doctrine         Pearl Harbor

Economic        Marshall Plan  U-2 Affair       Attack

Cooperation and         Mutual Economic        United Nations           Philippine Sea,

Development,  Assistance,      Vietnam War   Battle of the

Organisation for          Council for      Warsaw Treaty            Potsdam

Eisenhower     North Atlantic Organization   Conference

Doctrine          Treaty  Western European       Quebec

Eurocommunism         Organization   Union  Conferences

Europe, Council of      Nuclear Test-Ban        World War II: resistance

European Coal and     Treaty  Alamein, battles          Stalingrad,

Steel Community        Nurnberg Trials           of el-    Battle of

European         Outer Space Treaty     Atlantic, Battle           Tehran

Community     Palestine          of the   Conference

European Court of      Liberation        Atlantic Charter          Ultra

Justice Organization   Bataan Death  Wake Island,

European Defense       Persian Gulf War        March  Battle of

Community     Petroleum        Bretton Woods           Warsaw Ghetto

European Free Exporting        Conference      Uprising

Trade Association       Countries,        Britain, Battle of         Warsaw Uprising

European         Organization of           Bulge, Battle of the    World War II

Parliament       San Francisco  Cairo conferences       Yalta Conference

European Union          Conference      Casablanca     

General            Security and    Conference     

Agreement on Cooperation    Coral Sea, Battle        

Tariffs and Trade        in Europe,        of the  

Geneva Accords         Conference on Dumbarton Oaks        

Helsinki Accords        Southeast        Conference     

Indochina wars           Asia Treaty      Free French    

International Bank      Organization   Guadalcanal,  

for Economic  Southern African        Battle of         

Cooperation    Development   Holocaust       

International    Coordination   Kursk, Battle of         

Finance            Conference      lend–lease      

Corporation                 Leningrad, Siege of   


Adenauer, Konrad      Eisenhower,    Khrushchev,    Nehru, Jawaharlal

Ben-Gurion, David     Dwight D.       Nikita  Peron, Juan

Brezhnev, Leonid       Franco, Francisco        Marshall,         Roosevelt,

Ilich     Gandhi, Mohandas     George C.        Franklin D.

Chamberlain,   Karamchand    Montgomery,  Schuman, Robert

Neville Gaulle, Charles de       Bernard Law   Spaak, Paul-Henri

Chou En-lai     Gromyko, Andrey       Montgomery, 1st         Stalin, Joseph

Churchill, Sir   Andreyevich   Viscount          Sun Yat-sen

Winston           HammarskjOld, Dag   Mussolini,        Truman, Harry S.

Dulles, John    Hitler, Adolf   Benito Wilson, Woodrow

Foster  Ho Chi Minh   Nasser, Gamal

            Kennedy, John F.        Abdel 

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 972.         Europe Since c. 1920


A. The nations of western Europe since c. 1920

     1. Great Britain and Ireland

          a. Developments in Great Britain

            i. Economic depression and labour unrest in the interwar period: formation of the first Labour government under MacDonald (1924), Baldwin's government (1924-29) and the General Strike of 1926, the National Government (1931-39)

            ii. British colonial and Commonwealth relations (1920-39): division of Ireland (1922), the Indian problem

            iii. Interwar foreign policy (1931-39), Churchill's government (1940-45) and Britain's stand against the Axis Powers in World War II

            iv. The Labour government (1945-51) and the welfare state, role in NATO and relationship to the European Economic Community (Common Market), the Conservative government (1951-64), disintegration of the British Empire, Labour government (1964-70), Conservative government (1970-74), Labour government (1974-79), entrance into the Common Market (1973), Conservative government under Thatcher (1979-90) and denationalization of state-owned enterprises, Falklands war with Argentina (1982), Conservative government of Major (1990-97), Labour government of Blair (elected 1997), European Community/European Union issues

          b. Developments in Ireland since c. 1920

            i. Division of Ireland and establishment of the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (1922), the Cosgrave and De Valera governments, entrance into the Common Market (1973), death of De Valera (1975), Jack Lynch as prime minister (1966-73 and 197779), the governments of Haughey, FitzGerald, Reynolds, and Bruton

            ii. Northern Ireland since 1922: growing antagonism between Roman Catholics and Protestants, economic stagnation, continuing violence, negotiations between republicans and British government

     2. France since 1920

          a. From 1920 to the end of World War II

            i. Developments in the interwar period: internal financial crises and German reparations, collective security, the Great Depression, political instability and conflicts between right and left in the 1930s

            ii. Social, cultural, and economic developments under the Third Republic

            iii. World War II: defeat by Germany (1940) and the Vichy government; de Gaulle, the Free French, and Resistance movements; French participation in the Allied victory (1944-45)

          b. The postwar period

            i. The Fourth Republic (1946-58): constitution of the Fourth Republic; the realignment of parties; colonial independence movements; the French Indochina War, the Algerian War, and the crisis of 1958; de Gaulle's return to power

            ii. The Fifth Republic: settlement of the Algerian question, independence of the French African colonies, Common Market, the student revolt of 1968, de Gaulle's retirement and continued rule by the Gaullist coalition, government of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, election of Francois Mitterrand and socialist government in 1981, cohabitation government (1986-88), reelection of Mitterand in 1988, election of the neo-Gaullist Jacques Chirac (1995)

     3. Germany since 1920

          a. From 1920 to the end of World War II

            i. The Weimar Republic (1919-33): the Weimar Constitution, reaction to the Treaty of Versailles and reparations payments, opposition from the left and the right, attempts to stabilize the republic and reestablish Germany's international position, the rise to power of National Socialists (Nazis) and the end of the republic

            ii. The Third Reich (1933-45): the Nazi revolution and establishment (1934-39) of the totalitarian police state by Hitler; persecution of the Jews; rearmament, expansion in eastern Europe, and formation of Axis alliance; World War II conquests throughout Europe; defeat by Allies (1945)

          b. The postwar period

            i. Germany after World War II (1945-49): occupation by the Allies, partition between west and east zones

            ii. Formation of the Federal Republic of Germany and the leadership of Konrad Adenauer, role in NATO, economic recovery, continued Christian Democratic Union rule under Erhard and Kiesinger, Social Democratic chancellors Willy Brandt and Helmut Schmidt, success of Ostpolitik, return to power of Christian Democrats under Helmut Kohl (1982)

            iii. The German Democratic Republic: the Ulbricht government, the Berlin Wall, economic hardship, political repression, the flight of the East Germans to the West, the beginning of rapprochement with the West, collective leadership under Erich Honecker (1971), formal relations between the two Germanys (1972), admission to UN (1973), fall of the communist regime (1990)

            iv. Reunification of Germany (1990), reelection of Kohl (1990 and 1994)

     4. Italy since 1920

          a. The Fascist era

            i. The postwar cabinets, foreign relations and the Fiume affair, the Fascist Party's rise to power (1922), Mussolini and the Fascist dictatorship

            ii. Rapprochement with Germany, conquest of Ethiopia, effects of the Great Depression, Italian participation in World War II, the fall of Mussolini

          b. Postwar Italy: the politics of the republic, the De Gasperi era (1945-53), ministerial instability, economic recovery, struggle against terrorism in the late 1970s and early 1980s, parliamentary shift to the centre-left, declining strength of the Christian Democrats, first Socialist premier (1983), political and constitutional crises in the 1990s

     5. Spain and Portugal

          a. Spain since 1920

            i. The military government of Primo de Rivera and establishment of the republic: the Civil War, German and Italian intervention, and Franco's victory; Spain's neutralism in World War II

            ii. Rapprochement with the NATO powers in the postwar era: the Franco regime

            iii. Last years of the Franco regime, government under King Juan Carlos, constitution of 1978, Basque separatism, moves toward regional self-government, development of closer ties with western Europe

          b. Portugal: military revolt (1926), the Salazar regime (1928-68), the constitution of 1933, neutralism in World War II, the effort to maintain the Portuguese colonial empire in the 1950s and 1960s, revolution of 1974, end of colonial involvement, constitution of 1976, minority and coalition governments

     6. Scandinavia since c. 1900

          a. Denmark since c. 1900

            i. Foreign policy, World War I, and economic effects of the war; the Great Depression; German occupation

            ii. The postwar period: 1953 constitution; military, economic, and social policies; coalition governments

          b. Sweden since c. 1900

            i. Political reforms and defense policies prior to World War I, neutrality during the war

            ii. Politics in the interwar period: economic reforms and foreign policy, neutrality in World War II

            iii. Social and political reforms and establishment of the welfare state, neutralist foreign policy, new constitution (1975), defeat (1976) and return to power (1982) of the Social Democrats, second defeat (1991) of the Social Democrats and formation of nonsocialist coalition government

          c. Norway since c. 1900

            i. Separation from Sweden (1905); World War I, the Great Depression, and gradual economic recovery; foreign policy and German occupation during World War II

            ii. Political and social developments in the postwar period, foreign policy, economic effects of North Sea petroleum discoveries

          d. Finland and Iceland since c. 1900

            i. Finland: liberation from Russia (1918), parliamentary government, agrarian reform, growth of political parties, language problems, foreign policy and activities during World War II, domestic and foreign policies in the postwar period, presidency of Urho Kekkonen (1956-81), neutrality and relations with the Soviet Union, economic recession and recovery since 1991

            ii. Iceland: political developments (in union with Denmark) in the interwar period, aid to the Allies in World War II, establishment as an independent republic (1944), foreign relations, economic dependence on fishing, "cod wars" with Britain (1975-76)

     7. The Low Countries since 1920: Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg in the interwar period; German occupation in World War II; postwar loss of colonial possessions and integration in the European Economic Community; Benelux membership in NATO; Dutch industrialization and development of North Sea gas; Walloon-Fleming division in Belgium and federalization along communal lines

     8. Switzerland since 1920: Swiss neutrality in World War II, immigration and economic policies, dependence on alien workers and resulting tension, postwar neutrality policy


B. Eastern and central Europe

     1. The states of eastern Europe

          a. The Soviet Union from the establishment of the communist state (1917) to the end of World War II

            i. The governments of 1917; the October Revolution and establishment of the Soviet government; Civil War, War Communism, and the New Economic Policy; the struggle for succession after Lenin's death (1924) and the rise of Stalin

            ii. Foreign policy, society, and culture under the New Economic Policy: purges and consolidation of Stalinism, Soviet foreign policy in the 1930s

            iii. World War II: consolidation in eastern Europe, the German offensive (1941) and the Battle of Stalingrad, Soviet advance into Europe, resurgent nationalism and strengthening of the regime, Soviet military and political position in 1945

          b. The postwar period in the Soviet Union

            i. Economic recovery after the war: Stalin's monopoly of power until his death (1953), Cold War relations with the U.S. and other countries, deterioration of relations with the People's Republic of China

            ii. De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era (1957-64): ideological disputes with China, economic problems

            iii. The Brezhnev-Kosygin era (1964-82) and collective leadership: agricultural problems and achievements in industrial production, foreign policy and space exploration, continued censorship and discontent among intellectuals

            iv. Short rule of Andropov (1982-84) and Chernenko (1984-85), efforts to alleviate economic stagnation, deterioration of relations with the U.S.

            v. Succession of Gorbachev (1985), introduction of glasnost and perestroika; economic crisis and plans for a market economy; moves toward independence by Soviet republics and resurgence of ethnic tensions; failure of hard-line communist coup and dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1991)

          c. Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus since 1991; the Commonwealth of Independent States

          d. Transcaucasia: Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia under Soviet rule (from 1920), full independence after collapse of Soviet Union (1991), ethnic unrest

     2. The states of central Europe a. Austria since 1918

            i. Establishment of the First Republic (1918), economic reconstruction and political strife, association with Italy, authoritarian rule of the Dollfuss and Schuschnigg governments, the Anschluss (annexation by Germany) and participation in World War II

            ii. The Second Republic: independence in 1945, Allied occupation to 1955, restoration of sovereignty and establishment as a neutral state (1955), relative economic and political stability, controversy surrounding presidency of Waldheim (1986), coalition government, questions concerning Austrian neutrality

          b. Hungary since 1918

            i. Establishment of the republic (1918); Bela Kun's "soviet republic"; loss of Transylvania, Slovakia, and Croatia by the Treaty of Trianon (1920); the Horthy regency (1920-44); financial crisis and the rise of the radical right; reacquisition of Slovakian territory in partnership with Germany; restoration of the Trianon frontiers (1947)

            ii. Establishment of the People's Republic (1949): the reaction against Soviet domination in the Revolution of 1956, suppression of the revolt, the Kaddr regime, introduction of the New Economic Mechanism (1968)

            iii. Deterioration of the economy in the 1980s, establishment of opposition parties, voluntary abandonment of political monopoly by the communists, proclamation of the Republic of Hungary (1989), movement toward a market economy

          c. Czechoslovakia since 1914

            i. The struggle for independence under Tomas Masaryk, establishment of the republic (1918), consolidation of internal affairs

            ii. Discontent among Sudeten German and Slovak minorities; attempts at rapprochement with Germany, the Munich agreement (1938) and German occupation (1938-39); liberation by the Soviet Union (1945); communist rule from 1948

            iii. Developments since 1948: the People's Republic (1948-60), collectivization of land and adjustments to the Soviet pattern; attempts at liberalization and reform ("Prague Spring") under Dube& (1968), invasion by five Warsaw Pact countries, return to orthodox communist rule and repression of political dissent; emergence of the dissident Charter 77 movement (1977); antigovernment demonstrations, resignation of communist government, election to presidency of dissident Vaclav Havel (1989); dissolution of Czechoslovak federation and creation of Czech and Slovak republics

          d. Poland since 1918

            i. Establishment of the Second Polish Republic (1918), the "Polish Corridor," Russo-Polish War of 1919-20, the Pilsudski regime, social and economic problems, German invasion and joint German-Soviet partition (1939), permanent loss of territory to the Soviet Union and annexation of German territory (1945)

            ii. Postwar developments under communist rule: conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, agricultural and industrial growth, the 1956 uprising, the Gomulka and Gierek governments, labour unrest and the formation of Solidarity, the Kania and Jaruzelski governments, imposition of martial law (1981-83) and suppression of Solidarity, relations with the Roman Catholic Church under John Paul II

            iii. Renewal of negotiations with Solidarity, political and economic reform and landslide victory of Solidarity candidate Lech Walesa (1989); defeat of Walesa (1995)

          e. The establishment (1918) of Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania as independent states following the breakup of the Russian Empire; political and economic development in the interwar period; incorporation into the Soviet Union (1940); German occupation (1941-44); collectivization and industrialization in the postwar period; full independence (1991)

     3. The Balkans: Greece, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania since c. 1920

          a. The Balkans from c. 1920 to c. 1945

            i. Settlement of the borders of Balkan states (1919-26), continued dislocation of nationality groups, civil unrest, growth of peasant political parties and communism, land reform and industrialization, police repression and political instability

            ii. German invasion and Axis occupation (1941-45): resistance movements and communist leadership of the Partisans

          b. Postwar developments in the Balkans

            i. Greece: civil war and the defeat of communist forces (1946-49), military dictatorship (1967-74), return to civilian rule and repudiation of the monarchy (1974), leftist government under Papandreou (1981-89), entry into the European Economic Community (1981), election of conservative government under Mitsotakis (1990), return of Papandreou (1993-96)

            ii. Establishment of communist governments in Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania, and Bulgaria; Yugoslav break with the Soviet Union (1948), establishment of collective presidency after the death of Tito (1980); Albanian alignment with the Soviet Union (1948-61) and China (1961-78); independent Romanian foreign policy under Ceausescu's rule (1965-89); Bulgaria's firm affiance with the Soviet bloc; Yugoslavian unrest

            iii. Political changes since the late 1980s: political disintegration of Yugoslavia and emergence of separatist and ethnic conflicts in the region; popular revolt against Communist regime in Romania (1989); multiparty parliamentary elections in Romania (1990), Bulgaria (1990), and Albania (1992), escalation of hostilities among Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians and intervention of the UN and Western Allies


C. The arts and intellectual life in Europe since 1920: increasing concern with the problems of alienation and despair, the importance of popular culture


Suggested reading in the Encyclopmdia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and biographies dealing with Europe since c. 1920

Amsterdam     Edinburgh       Kiev    Rome

Antwerp          European History        Lenin   Russia

Athens and Culture     Lisbon Saint Petersburg

Austria            Finland            London           Spain

Balkan States  Florence          Luxembourg    Stalin

Baltic States    France Madrid            Sweden

Barcelona        Geneva            Malta   Switzerland

Belarus            Germany         Manchester      Ukraine

Belgium           Greece Marseille          Union of Soviet

Berlin  Hamburg         Milan   Socialist

Brussels           Hitler   Moscow          Republics

Budapest         Hungary          Naples United Kingdom

Churchill         Iceland            Netherlands, The         Venice

Cologne           International    Norway           Vienna

Czech and Slovak       Relations,        Paris    Warsaw

Republics        20th-Century   Poland

Denmark         Ireland Portugal

Dublin Italy     Prague


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

France:            Christian Social           National Socialism      Democratic Party

Action Francaise         Union  Nazi Party       of the Left

Bloc National  concentration  Nurnberg Rally           Italian Popular

Foreign Legion            camp    Nurnberg trials            Party

Free French     Dawes Plan     Oder-Neisse Line        Italian Socialist

French Drang nach Osten       Odessa            Party

Communist Party        East Prussia     Polish Corridor            Italo-Ethiopian

Gauches,         extermination  Red Army Faction      War

Cartel des        camp    Reichstag fire  Lateran Treaty

Maginot Line  Free Democratic          SA       Rome,

Popular            Party    Social Democratic       March on

Republican      Freikorps         Party of Germany       Poland:

Movement       fiihrer  SS        Auschwitz

Radical-Socialist         German National         Sudetenland    Curzon Line

Party    People's Party  Wannsee          Katy n Massacre

Rally for the    German-Soviet            Conference      Korfanty Line

Republic          Nonaggression            Young Plan     Oder-Neisse Line

Republican Party         Pact     Ireland:            Polish Corridor

Stavisky affair Gestapo           Black and Tan Poznan Riots

Vichy France   Hitler Youth    Fianna Fail      Russo-Polish War

Germany:        Holocaust        Fine Gael         Solidarity

Anschluss        IG Farben        Home Rule      Vilnius dispute

Baby Yar         July Plot          Irish Republican          Warsaw Ghetto

Beer Hall Putsch         Kristallnacht    Army   Uprising

Berlin blockade           Lausanne         Labour Party   Warsaw Uprising

and airlift        Conference      Sinn Fein        

Christian          Mein Kampf    Italy:   

Democratic      Memel dispute            Blackshirt       

Union  Munich agreement      Fiume question           

Russia and the kulak   Workers'          Ulster Volunteer

U. S.    Left Communist          Opposition      Force

Afghan War    Leningrad Affair         Spain:  Westminster,

April Theses    Leninism         Civil Guard     Statute of

Bolshevik        Lenin's Testament       ETA    other:

Brest-Litovsk, New Economic           Falange            Anti-Fascist

treaties of        Policy  International    Council for

Chernobyl accident     purge trials      Brigades          the National

Cold War        Russian Civil War       Rif War           Liberation of

collectivization            Russian            Spanish Civil War       Yugoslavia

Cominform      Revolution      Spanish Socialist         Arrow Cross Party

Communist Party        of 1917            Workers' Party            Balkans

of the Soviet Union    Russo-Finnish War      United Kingdom:        Baltic states

Democratic      Russo-Polish War        Britain, Battle of         Bulgarian Agrarian

Centralist         samizdat          Conservative   National Union

Doctors' Plot   soviet   Party    Chetnik

German-Soviet            sovkhoz           general strike   Commonwealth of

Nonaggression            Stalinism         Labour Party   Independent

Pact     Strategic Arms            Liberal Party   States

Gosplan           Limitation Talks          Munich agreement      Czechoslovakia

Gulag  Trotskyism      Plaid Cymru    EAM-ELAS

July Days        Twentieth        Scottish National        EDES

Karakhan         Congress of the           Party    Iron Guard

Manifesto        Communist Party        Social Democratic       Serbs, Croats,

KGB   of the Soviet Union    Party    and Slovenes,

kolkhoz           War Communism        Ulster Defence            Kingdom of

Kronshtadt      Warsaw Pact   Association     Ustaga

Rebellion                                 Zveno Group


Balkans:          Briand, Aristide          Poujade, Pierre            Rathenau, Walther

Alexander I     Chaban-Delmas,          Reynaud, Paul Ribbentrop,

(Yugoslavia)    Jacques            Satan, Raoul    Joachim von

Alia, Ramiz     Coty, Rene      Schuman, Robert        Rohm, Ernst

Boris III          Couve de Murville,     Soustelle, Jacques       Rommel, Erwin

Constantine II Maurice           Tardieu, Andre            Rosenberg, Alfred

(Greece)          Daladier, Edouard      Thorez, Maurice          Rundstedt,

George II (Greece)      Debre, Michel Germany and  Gerd von

Hoxha, Enver  Decoux, Jean   Austria:           Schacht, Hjalmar

Metaxas, Ioannis         Doumergue,    Adenauer, Konrad      Schleicher,

Papagos,          Gaston Brandt, Willy  Kurt von

Alexandros      Faure, Edgar   Bruning, Heinrich       Schmidt, Helmut

Papandreou,    Gaulle, Charles de       Dollfuss, Engelbert     Schuschnigg,

Andreas           Giscard d'Estaing,       Ebert, Friedrich           Kurt von

Papandreou,    Valery Eichmann, Adolf        Seyss-Inquart,

Georgios          Lattre de Tassigny,     Erhard, Ludwig          Arthur

Tito, Josip Broz           Jean de            Goebbels, Joseph        Speer, Albert

Zhivkov, Todor           Laval, Pierre    Goring, Hermann        Strasser, Gregor,

Zog I   Mendês-France,          Guderian, Heinz          and Strasser,

Czechoslovakia:          Pierre   Hess, Rudolf   Otto

Beneg, Edvard            Millerand,        Himmler, Heinrich      Strauss, Franz

Dubéek, Alexander     Alexandre       Hindenburg,    Josef

Gottwald, Klement     Mitterrand,      Paul von          Stresemann,

Havel, Vaclav Francois           Hitler, Adolf   Gustav

Husak, Gustav            Mollet, Guy     Honecker, Erich          Ulbricht, Walter

Masaryk, Jan   Monnet, Jean   Hugenberg, Alfred      Hungary:

Masaryk, Tomas          Painleve, Paul  Kapp, Wolfgang         Bethlen, Istvan,

Zfipotock.r,   Main, Philippe Kesselring, Albert       Count

Antonin           Pleven, Rene   Kiesinger, Kurt           Horthy, Miklos

France:            Poincare,         Georg  Kadar, Janos

Beaufre, Andre           Raymond        Kohl, Helmut  Nagy, Imre

Bidault, Georges         Pompidou,       Ludendorff, Erich       Rakosi, Mat*

Blum, Leon     Georges           Papen, Franz von        Ireland:

                                    Cosgrave, Liam

Cosgrave, William       Brezhnev, Leonid       Yeltsin, Boris  Chamberlain,

Thomas            Ilich     Nikolayevich   Neville

Costello, John A.        Bukharin, Nikolay       Yezhov, Nikolay         Charles, Prince of

de Valera, Eamon       Ivanovich        Ivanovich        Wales

FitzGerald, Garret       Bulganin, Nikolay       Zhukov, Georgy          Churchill, Sir

Griffith, Arthur           Aleksandrovich           Konstantinovich          Winston

Haughey, Charles        Chernenko,      Zinovyev, Grigory      Curzon, George

James   Konstantin      Scandinavia and          Nathaniel

Lemass, Sean F.          Ustinovich       Baltic states:    Curzon, marquess

Lynch, John    Dzerzhinsky,   Bernadotte, Folke,      Douglas-Home,

Italy:    Feliks   Greve  Sir Alec

Andreotti, Giulio        Edmundovich Erlander, Tage Eden, Anthony

Badoglio, Pietro          Gorbachev,      Hammarskjiild,            Edward VIII

Berlinguer, Enrico       Mikhail            Dag     Elizabeth II

Ciano, Galeazzo          Gromyko, Andrey       Hansson,         George V

De Gasperi, Alcide     Andreyevich   Per Albin         George VI

Moro, Aldo     Kaganovich, Lazar      Kekkonen, Urho         Halifax, Edward

Mussolini, Benito        Moiseyevich    Kaleva Frederick Lindley

Togliatti, Palmiro        Kamenev, Lev Palme, Olof     Wood, 1st earl of

Umberto II      Borisovich       Quisling, Vidkun        Heath, Edward

Victor  Khrushchev,    Smetona, Antanas       Henderson, Arthur

Emmanuel III  Nikita  Ulmanis, Karlis           Hoare, Sir Samuel

Low Countries:           Kosygin, Aleksey        Wallenberg,     Kinnock, Neil

Albert II          Nikolayevich   Raoul   Law, Bonar

(Belgium)        Kravchuk, Leonid       Spain and Portugal:     Linlithgow, Victor

Baudouin I      Makarovich     Alfonso XIII   Alexander John

Bernhard (The Lenin, Vladimir           Azaiia y Diaz, Hope, 2nd

Netherlands)   Ilich     Manuel            marquess of

Juliana Litvinov, Maksim        Franco, Francisco        Lloyd George,

Leopold III     Maksimovich   Gil Robles, Jose          David

Spaak, Paul-Henri       Molotov,         Maria   MacDonald,

Wilhelmina (The          Vyacheslav      Juan Carlos      Ramsay

Netherlands)   Mikhaylovich  Primo de Rivera,         Macmillan, Harold

Poland:            Ordzhonikidze,           Miguel Major, John

Gierek, Edward          Grigory            Salazar, Antonio         Montgomery,

Gomulka,        Konstantinovich          de Oliveira      Bernard Law

Wladyslaw      Rykov, Aleksey          United Kingdom:        Montgomery, 1st

Jaruzelski,        Ivanovich        Attlee, Clement           Viscount

Wojciech Witold         Shevardnadze,            Baldwin, Stanley        Mountbatten, Louis

Pilsudski, JOzef          Eduard            Beaverbrook,   Mountbatten, 1st

Sikorski,          Stalin, Joseph  Sir Maxwell     Earl

Wladyslaw      Suslov, Mikhail           Aitken, 1st Baron        Nicolson, Sir

Walcsa, Lech   Andreyevich   Benn, Tony     Harold

Russia, Ukraine, and   Trotsky, Leon  Bevan, Aneurin           Samuel, Herbert

the former U.S.S.R.:   Voroshilov,     Bevin, Ernest  Louis Samuel, 1st

Andropov, Yury         Kliment           Birkenhead,     Viscount

Vladimirovich Yefremovich   Frederick Edwin         Strachey, John

Beria, Lavrenty           Vyshinsky,      Smith, 1st earl of         Thatcher,

Pavlovich        Andrey            Blair, Tony      Margaret

            Yanuaryevich  Callaghan, James         Wilson, Harold

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 973.         The United States and Canada Since 1920


A. The United States since 1920

     1. The post-World War I Republican administrations

          a. Politics and economics under Harding and Coolidge (1921-29): favouritism toward big business, restriction of immigration, "Coolidge prosperity"

          b. Social conditions in the 1920s: prohibition, growth of organized crime, and the jazz age

          c. Hoover's administration (1929-33) and the Great Depression: the stock market crash, domestic and international repercussions, Hoover's attempts to effect economic recovery

     2. The effects of the New Deal and World War II: the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-45)

          a. Comprehensive New Deal measures for economic recovery, relief, and reform

          b. Reform measures of the second New Deal

            i. Judicial invalidation of New Deal legislation: power struggle between Supreme Court and President

            ii. Labour legislation and union activity: strengthening of the Democratic coalition

          c. Foreign policy between the World Wars: isolationism and neutrality, opposition to Japanese expansionism in Asia and economic sanctions against Japan, lend-lease aid to Britain (1940-41), the "Good Neighbor Policy" in Latin America

          d. The U.S. in World War II: wartime mobilization, regulation of production and manpower, the role of U.S. forces in defeating the Axis powers in Europe and the Pacific, U.S. military occupation of Japan and participation with the Allies in occupation of Germany

     3. The beginning of the Cold War: the U.S. from the end of World War II to 1961

          a. The Truman administration (1945-53)

            i. Foreign policy aimed at the containment of Communism: the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, the Point Four Program, the creation of NATO, U.S. support of Nationalist China

            ii. Programs of the Fair Deal: the conversion to a peacetime economy, labour disputes and inflation, the Taft-Hartley Act (1947), social and economic legislation

            iii. McCarthyism and the "Red Scare"

            iv. The Korean War (1950-53): wartime mobilization of the U.S. economy, peace and bilateral security treaties with Japan (1951)

            v. Maintenance of a large postwar military establishment: collaboration of science and industry

          b. The Eisenhower administrations (1953-61)

            i. Intensification of the civil rights movement and innovative decisions of the Warren court, passage of the Civil Rights acts of 1957 and 1960

            ii. Foreign policy during the Eisenhower years: sponsorship of military coups in Iran (1953) and Guatemala (1954), the Suez crisis (1956), U.S. entry into the space race (1958), intervention in Lebanon (1958), continued support of Nationalist China, the U-2 affair

            iii. Social and economic problems: recessions (1953-54 and 1957-58), growing racial unrest, unemployment, labour strikes and the Landrum-Griffin Act (1959)

     4. The U.S. in the late 20th century: continuation of East-West hostilities, detente, the end of the Cold War

          a. The Kennedy administration (1961-63): the Cuban missile crisis (1962), the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (1963), military aid to South Vietnam, the assassination of John F. Kennedy

          b. The Johnson administrations (1963-69)

            i. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Medicare and other social welfare legislation, inflation and increased governmental economic activity

            ii. Increasing alienation among the youth and minority groups: protests in cities and on campuses, the assassinations of Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968), the anti-Vietnam War movement

            iii. Foreign policy: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) and subsequent expansion of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, invasion of the Dominican Republic (196566), commencement of Paris peace talks (1968), military and economic aid to Middle Eastern and Latin-American countries

          c. The Nixon administrations (1969-74)

            i. Foreign policy: the continuing Vietnam War and the Paris peace talks, the invasion of Cambodia (1970), rapprochement with the People's Republic of China, Vietnam War cease-fire agreement (1973)

            ii. Inflation, high unemployment, and temporary price and wage controls; cabinet reorganization; antiwar demonstrations

            iii. The Watergate scandal, the resignation (1973) of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew and appointment of Gerald R. Ford, the resignation (1974) of Nixon

          d. The Ford administration (1974-77): presidential pardon of Nixon (1974), détente with the Soviet Union, conclusion of the Vietnam War (1975), continuing Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), celebration of the bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence (1976)

          e. The Carter administration (1977-81): foreign policy emphasis on human rights, Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel (1978), Panama Canal treaties (1977), Iranian hostage crisis; attempts to alleviate the energy crisis and to reform electoral, welfare, and Social Security bureaucracies; poor relations between president and Congress

          f. The Reagan administrations (1981-89)

            i. Increased military spending, cuts in social welfare programs, reduction and simplification of personal income tax rates, rapid growth of federal deficit, Supreme Court shift to the right, Iran-Contra Affair

            ii. Anticommunist foreign policy stance, sponsorship of Contra insurgency in Nicaragua and support for government forces in Salvadoran civil war from 1981, invasion of Grenada (1983), initial decline in U.S.-Soviet relations and improvement during Gorbachev era from 1985

     5. The U.S. from the end of the Cold War (c. 1989)

          a. The Bush administration (1989-93): continuation of conservative economic policies, the "war on drugs," savings and loan institutions crisis, invasion of Panama (1989), Persian Gulf War (1991), economic recession

          b. The Clinton administration (1993- ): ratification of North American Free Trade Agreement (1993), economic recovery


B. Canada since 1920

     1. Canada between the World Wars

          a. The Liberal government under King (1921-30): Commonwealth relations, nationalism and the return to isolationism

          b. The Great Depression and relief measures of the Conservative government (1930-35): return of Liberal government (1935); foreign trade, welfare legislation, financial reforms, minor political parties

     2. Canadian participation in World War II: mobilization of manpower and production, development of armed forces

     3. Canada since 1945

          a. Postwar foreign policy: North American continentalism and collective security: participation in NATO, the UN, and the Korean War; leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts; U.S.-Canadian economic relations and free-trade agreement

          b. Involvement in British Commonwealth affairs: relations with Third World nations

          c. Franco-Canadian relations and French separatism in Quebec: conflicts between French- and English-speaking Canadians

          d. Postwar prosperity: expansion of manufacturing and mining industries; economic nationalism; relations with Indians, Eskimo, and Metis

          e. Internal politics since 1945: Liberal Party control (1945-57), the Progressive Conservative coalition (1957-63), Liberal government after 1963 and the Trudeau years (1968-79, 1980-84), patriation of Canada's constitution (1982), election of Progressive Conservative government and the Mulroney administration (1984-93), return of Liberals to power under Jean Chretien (1993)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with the United States and Canada since 1920

Arctic, The      Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Canada            United States of America North America


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information; see also Sections 965 and 971

General subjects                                 

Canada:           Brain Trust      Peace Corps    Cold War

Canada Act     Brown v. Board          Progressive Party        Cuban missile

Co-operative   of Education of           Public Works   crisis

Commonwealth           Topeka            Administration            Eisenhower

Federation       Christian Front            Republican Party         Doctrine

Liberal Party of           Civil Rights Act          Sacco-Vanzetti            Good Neighbor

Canada            Civil Rights     case     Policy

New Democratic         Movement       Scopes Trial     Gulf of Tonkin

Party    Civilian            Scottsboro case           Resolution

Parti Quebecois           Conservation   Social Security Act     Intermediate-Range

Progressive      Corps   Stock Market  Nuclear Forces

Conservative   Democratic Party        Crash of 1929 Treaty

Party of Canada          Dixiecrat         Taft–Hartley Act        Korean War

Social Credit Party      Fair Deal         Teapot Dome  lend-lease

U.S. domestic affairs  Farmer–Labor Scandal           Marshall Plan

and social programs:   Party    Tennessee Valley        Nuclear Test-Ban

Adkins v.        Hoover            Authority        Treaty

Children's        Commission    Three Mile Island        Pentagon Papers

Hospital           Indian  Wagner Act     Pueblo Incident

Agricultural     Reorganization            Warren            Strategic Arms

Adjustment     Act      Commission    Limitation Talks

Administration            Landrum-Griffin         Watergate Scandal      Truman Doctrine

American Civil            Act      Works Progress           Vietnam War

Liberties Union           Liberal Party   Administration            other:

black nationalism        National Recovery      U.S. foreign relations: German-American

Black Panther  Administration            America First  Bund

Party    New Deal        Committee      John Birch Society

Bonus Army    Nisei    Bay of Pigs     Manhattan Project

bootlegging     Ohio Gang      invasion          


Canadians:      Foster, William Z.       Mansfield,       Brennan, William

Bennett, Richard         Fulbright, J.     Michael J.        J., Jr.

Bedford Bennett,        William            Moley, Raymond        Burger, Warren E.

Viscount          Garner, John    Morgenthau,    Cardozo, Benjamin

Campbell, Kim            Nance  Henry, Jr.        Nathan

Diefenbaker,   Hobby, Oveta Moses, Robert Darrow, Clarence

John G.            Culp    Norris, George W.       Dewey, Thomas E.

King, W.L.      Hoover, J. Edgar         Perkins, Frances          Douglas,

Mackenzie       Hopkins, Harry L.       Rayburn, Sam William 0.

Lesage, Jean    Hull, Cordell   Rockefeller,     Fortas, Abe

Mulroney, Brian          Humphrey,      Nelson Aldrich            Frankfurter, Felix

Saint Laurent, Hubert H.        Smith, Alfred E.         Goldberg,

Louis   Hurley, Patrick J.        Stevenson,       Arthur J.

Trudeau, Pierre            Ickes, Harold L.          Adlai E.           Hand, Learned

Elliott  Jones, Jesse H.            Stimson, Henry L.       Holmes, Oliver

U.S. government and  Kellogg, Frank B.       Taft, Robert A.           Wendell, Jr.

diplomatic figures:      Kennan, George F.      Vance, Cyrus  Hughes, Charles

Acheson, Dean            Kennedy,        Vandenberg,   Evans

Borah, William E.       Robert F.         Arthur H.        Marshall,

Bundy, McGeorge      Kissinger,        Wagner, Robert F.      Thurgood

Byrnes, James F.         Henry A.         Walker, James J.          O'Connor,

Curley, James M.        Long, Huey     Wallace, George C.     Sandra Day

Daugherty, Harry        McCarthy,       Wallace, Henry A.      Stone, Harlan

Micajah           Eugene J.         Weaver, Robert C.      Fiske

Dawes, Charles G.      McCarthy,       Willkie,            Vinson, Fred M.

Dirksen, Everett          Joseph R.         Wendell L.      Warren, Earl

McKinley        McGovern,      U.        jurists and        U.S. military leaders:

Dulles, John    George S.        lawyers:           Bradley, Omar N.

Foster  McNamara,     Black, Hugo    Buckner, Simon

Farley, James A.          Robert S.         Brandeis, Louis           Bolivar, Jr.

Carlson, Evans            Mitscher, Marc A.       Clinton, William J.      U.S. social and

Clark, Mark     Nimitz, Chester W.     Coolidge, Calvin         religious figures:

Clay, Lucius D.           Patton, George S.        Eisenhower,    Addams, Jane

Doolittle,         Rickover,         Dwight D.       Du Bois, W.E.B.

James H.          Hyman G.       Ford, Gerald R.           King, Martin

Eichelberger,   Ridgway,        Harding,          Luther, Jr.

Robert L.         Matthew B.     Warren G.       Malcolm X

Halsey, William           Smith, Walter  Hoover, Herbert          Rankin, Jeannette

F., Jr.   Bedell  Johnson,          Roosevelt, Eleanor

Leahy, William D.       Spaatz, Carl     Lyndon B.       Sanger, Margaret

LeMay, Curtis E.        Stilwell, Joseph W.     Kennedy, John F.        Thomas, Norman

MacArthur,     Taylor, Maxwell          Nixon, Richard M.      other:

Douglas           Davenport       Reagan,           Hiss, Alger

McAuliffe,      Wainwright,    Ronald W.       Oswald, Lee

Anthony C.     Jonathan M.    Roosevelt,       Harvey

Marshall,         U.S. presidents:           Franklin D.      Rosenberg, Julius

George C.        Bush, George  Truman, Harry S.        and Ethel

Mitchell, William        Carter, Jimmy             

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 974.         Latin-American and Caribbean Nations Since c. 1920


A. Mexico since 1920

     1. ObregOn's coup and Carranza's execution (1920), reforms during the regimes of ObregOn (1920-24) and Calles (1924-28), rule by Calles' National Revolutionary Party (1928-34)

     2. Cardenas' Six-Year Plan (1934-40): social and economic reforms, reorganization of the National Revolutionary Party, expropriation of foreign petroleum industry (1938), election of Avila Camacho (1940)

     3. Mexico during World War II: economic and military cooperation with the United States, wartime industrialization

     4. Mexico since 1945

          a. Political, economic, and social developments: dominance of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI); woman suffrage (1958); industrialization and urbanization; emergence as a major oil and gas producer; oil boom of the 1970s and debt crisis of the early 1980s; economic crises and reforms in the 1980s and early 1990s; revolt of the Zapatista National Liberation Army in Chiapas state, assassination of PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio and election of Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon (1994), currency devaluation (1995) and severe recession, economic recovery

          b. Relations with the U.S. and other countries: tensions over illegal immigration to the U.S., influx of Central American refugees and efforts at peacemaking in the region, foreign trade and the North American Free Trade Agreement (1992)


B. Central America and the Caribbean since c. 1920

     1. The Central American republics since c. 1920

          a. Guatemala since 1920

            i. Successive presidential governments in the 1920s, Ubico's dictatorship (1931-44), social reforms of Arevalo's regime (1945-51)

            ii. Land-redistribution schemes of the Arbenz regime (1951-54) and expropriation of United Fruit Company holdings (1952), U.S.-sponsored military coup (1954), cancellation of land reform and suppression of labor and peasant unions under Castillo Armas (1954-57), succession of military-dominated governments, growth of rural guerrilla insurgencies from 1962, civilian administration of Mendez Montenegro (1966-70), increased repression under Arana Osorio (1970-74)

            iii. Formation of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (UNRG; 1981) and increased guerrilla activity; large-scale "scorched-earth" counterinsurgency campaigns under Lucas Garcia (1978-81), Rios Montt (1982-83), and Mejia Victores (198385); return of civilian government under Cerezo Arevalo (1986); intermittent government-UNRG peace negotiations from 1987 and peace accord (1996); constitutional reforms (1993-94)

          b. Honduras since 1920: political unrest in the 1920s; Carias Andino's dictatorship (193249); administrations of Galvez (1949-54), Lozano Diaz (1954-56), Villeda Morales (195763), and successive military governments; return to civilian rule in 1982; involvement in regional conflicts

          c. El Salvador since 1920: military dictatorships to 1944, interim governments (1945-48), junta rule and PRUD domination (1948-60), continued military government thereafter, civil war from the 1970s and U.S. involvement, civilian presidency of Duarte (1984-89) and election of Cristiani (1989), accord (1992) ending long period of guerrilla warfare

          d. Nicaragua since 1920: continued U.S. military intervention until 1933, Sacasa's regime (1933-36), Somoza family's dominance (1937-79), popular uprising and Sandinista rule (1979-90), U.S. sponsorship of Contra insurgency (1980s), presidential elections of Sandinista leader Ortega (1984) and opposition leader Chamorro (1990)

          e. Costa Rica since 1920: border disputes with Panama until 1941, orderly presidential succession, industrialization and urbanization, economic problems of the early 1980s, regional peace efforts of Arias Sanchez (1986-90)

          f. Panama since 1920: unstable local politics and U.S. intervention, economic development, National Guard rule under Omar Torrijos (1968-78), the Panama Canal treaties with the U.S. (1977), U.S. invasion of Panama and overthrow and arrest of de facto ruler Noriega

          g. Belize since 1920: progress toward independence, government of George Price, achievement of independence in 1981

     2. The island states of the Caribbean since the end of U.S. occupation

          a. Haiti since 1934: internal struggle for power (1934-57); dictatorial presidency of Francois Duvalier (1957-71) and political terror of the Tontons Macoutes, succession by Duvalier's son, Jean-Claude (1971), popular unrest and exile of Jean-Claude (1986); successive military governments and continued repression; election of Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1990 and military coup (1991); occupation by U.S. troops and restoration of civilian government (1994)

          b. Dominican Republic since 1930: Trujillo's dictatorship (1930-61) and assassination (1961), reformist government of Bosch and military coup (1963), popular revolution and U.S. military intervention (1965-66), conservative regimes of Balaguer (1966-78), cautious reforms under Guzman Fernandez (1978-82) and Jorge Blanco (1982-86), Balaguer's return (1986-94) and disputed reelection (1994)

          c. Cuba since 1934

            i. Fulgencio Batista's dictatorships (1933-44; 1952-59), growth of the military and middle classes, foreign control of the economy and widespread rural poverty

            ii. The Cuban Revolution of 1959: Fidel Castro's program for Cuban Socialism

            iii. Cuba under Castro: nationalization of foreign-owned property, alignment with the Soviet bloc, attempts to foment revolution in other Latin-American states in the 1960s, improvements in education and medical care, extensive civilian foreign-assistance missions, military involvement in Africa and renewed support of leftist movements in Central America, collapse of the Soviet bloc and ensuing political isolation and economic hardship

            iv. Relations with the U.S.: nationalization of U.S.-owned property and U.S. trade embargo from 1960, emigration of Cubans to the U.S., the Bay of Pigs invasion (1961), the Cuban missile crisis (1962), second wave of emigration at Mariel (1981), confrontation with U.S. troops at Grenada (1983), broadcasts of Radio Marti from 1985, tightening of trade embargo (1992) and third wave of emigration (1994)

          d. The new nations of the Caribbean region: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Christopher and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago; efforts toward development and regional cooperation; U.S. involvement in the region; U.S. invasion of Grenada (1983)

          e. U.S. and European territories and possessions in the Caribbean region: Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Bermuda and other British insular possessions, French Guiana and French insular possessions, Netherlands Antilles


C. Venezuela and Colombia since c. 1930

     1. Venezuela since 1935

          a. Abortive attempts at democratic government amid renewed military dictatorships (1935-58), inception of civilian rule, economic reforms of the Democratic Action (AD) party, political stabilization and economic development under governments of the AD and the Social Christian Party (COPEI) in the 1960s

          b. Oil-based economic boom in the 1970s, nationalization of the oil industry (1976), declining oil revenues and economic stagnation and foreign-debt crises from the late 1970s, efforts at industrial diversification and austerity measures provoking civil unrest, election of National Convergence (CN) candidate Caldera Rodriguez (1993), continued economic difficulties

     2. Colombia since 1930

          a. Liberal Party rule (1930-46): social and land reforms during the Lopez administrations (1934-38 and 1942-45)

          b. Reemergence of Conservative rule under Ospina Perez (1946-50), La Violencia era of widespread civil unrest and political violence (1948-62), military dictatorship of Rojas Pinilla (1953-57), formation of National Front coalition of Conservatives and Liberals (1957)

          c. Uneven economic development under Lleras Restrepo (1966-70) and Pastrana Borrero (1970-74), dissolution of the National Front (1974), increasing political violence by left-wing guerrillas and the military's "dirty war" from the late 1970s, growth of drug trafficking and associated corruption, Conservative administration of Betancur Cuartas (1982-86), short-lived peace agreements with guerrilla groups amid continued violence (1980s and early 1990s), increasing drug-related terrorism and government efforts to subdue drug cartels


D. Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia since c. 1930

     1. Ecuador since 1925

          a. Economic development and participation in World War II, loss of territory to Peru (1942)

          b. Various administrations of Velasco Ibarra and other presidents and military coups after 1945, constitution of 1979 and return to civilian rule, economic and social effects of the exploitation of petroleum after 1972

     2. Peru since 1930

          a. The overthrow of Leguia (1930); Sanchez Cerro's administration (1931-33); the Aprista uprising and Sanchez Cerro's assassination; Benavides' administration (1933-39), social reforms, and the outlawing of the Apristas

          b. Prado's first administration (1939-45); wartime cooperation with the U.S. and economic prosperity, legalization and re-outlawing of the Apristas during Bustamante's administration (1945-48), Odria's military dictatorship (1948-56) and suppression of Apristas

          c. Re-legalization of Apristas and economic prosperity during Prado's second term (1956-62), military seizure of power (1962), social reforms of Belafinde Terry's administration (1963-68), military takeover in 1968, restoration of civilian rule (1980) and return of Belatinde as president, economic difficulties of the early 1980s, rise of Sendero Luminoso guerrillas, left-of-centre government under Garcia Perez (1985-90), election (1990) and reelection (1995) of Fujimori

     3. Bolivia since 1930

          a. The revolt of 1930, Salamanca's presidency (1930-36), the effect of the Great Depression on the mining industry, the Chaco War (1932-35) and loss of territory to Paraguay

          b. Military coup (1936), rise of MNR and PIR political parties, 1943 military coup and the Villaroel dictatorship (1943-46), political instability to 1951, military junta (1951-52)

          c. The Bolivian National Revolution (1952), nationalization of the tin industry, electoral and land reforms, Paz Estenssoro's administrations (1952-56 and 1960-64), U.S. economic aid, civil disorders, alternating military and civilian governments in the 1960s and 1970s, return to civilian rule under Siles Zuazo (1982), foreign debt and other economic problems, effects of drug trafficking, return of Paz Estenssoro as president (1985-89), relative political stability in the late 1980s and early 1990s, civil unrest in the mid-1990s


E. Chile since 1920

     1. Chile from 1920 to 1938

          a. The presidency of Alessandri Palma (1920-24, 1925), military coup (1924), return to civilian rule (1925), constitution of 1925, political instability, military dictatorship under Ibanez del Campo (1927-31)

          b. Economic crises during the 1930s: brief return to civilian rule under Montero Rodriguez, military coup and 100-day rule of Socialist Republic, Alessandri Palma's second administration (1932-38)

     2. Chile from 1938 to 1952: the era of the Radical Party presidencies

          a. The administrations of Cerda (1938-41) and Rios (1942-46): agrarian reforms, Chilean neutrality until 1942, economic prosperity

          b. Gonzalez Videla's administration (1946-52): strengthened economic ties with the U.S., return of Conservative Party influence

     3. Chilean politics since 1952

          a. Ibanez del Campo's administration (1952-58) and strong presidential leadership, administration of Alessandri Rodriguez (1958-64), social and economic problems, proliferation of leftist political parties and realignment of conservative parties

          b. Frei's administration (1964-70) and nationalization of the economy, Allende's Marxist administration (1970-73), military coup (1973) and military rule under Pinochet (1973-90), political repression, continued economic difficulties, presidential election of Aylwin (1990)


F. Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay since c. 1930

     1. Argentina since 1930

          a. The conservative restoration (1930-43): economic ties with Great Britain, electoral fraud and violence in the 1930s, neutrality in World War II

          b. The Peron era (1943-55): his rise to and fall from power, economic policies

          c. Argentina since 1955: attempts to restore constitutionalism, military dictatorships, civil wars and Peronista resurgence, return (1973) and death (1974) of Perim, military coup (1976), excesses and economic failures of military rule, invasion of the Falkland Islands and defeat by Britain (1982), return to civilian rule under Alfonsin (1983), foreign-debt problems, election (1989) and reelection (1995) of Peronist Carlos Saul Menem

     2. Uruguay since 1929

          a. The Great Depression, dictatorship of Gabriel Terra (1933-38), election of Alfredo Baldomir (1938), Uruguayan neutrality in World War II, economic boom and political reforms

          b. Post-World War II developments: the constitution of 1951 and the plural executive, recession (1954-58), 1958 election of Nationalists (Blancos), return of Colorado Party and return to presidential system (1966), Tupamaro guerrilla insurgency, dismissal of Congress (1973) and assumption of effective control by the military, severe recession of the early 1980s, restoration of civilian government (1985) and amnesty for the military

     3. Paraguay since 1924

          a. The Great Depression, victory over Bolivia in Chaco War (1932-35), Allied alignment in World War II

          b. Political instability and economic retardation: Stroessner's dictatorship from 1954 to his overthrow in 1989, democratic reforms and new constitution of 1992


G. Brazil since 1930: the Second Republic

     1. The Getfilio Vargas dictatorship (1930-45): the revolution of 1930, the constitutions of 1934 and 1937, Vargas' consolidation of power (1937), social and economic legislation, Allied participation in World War II, Vargas' forced resignation (1945)

     2. Political, social, and economic developments in Brazil since 1945

          a. Election of Eurico Gaspar Dutra (1945) and the constitution of 1946, reelection of Vargas (1950), Vargas' forced resignation and suicide (1954), economic development and inflation in the 1950s

          b. Election of Janio Quadros as president (1960), Quadros' resignation (1961), parliamentary experiment and figurehead presidency of Joao Goulart (1961-63), 1963 plebiscite giving Goulart full presidential powers, social and economic unrest and nationalization of oil refineries, revolution and exile of Goulart and the beginning of military rule (1964)

          c. Presidency of Castelo Branco (1964-67): legislative restrictions on civil liberties and political rights, suspension of existing political parties and creation of artificial two-party system, enhancement of executive power, the constitution of 1967

          d. Presidencies of Costa e Silva, Medici, Geisel, and Figueiredo after 1967: continued repression amid increasing opposition to military rule, end of artificial two-party system and formation of new parties (1979), gains by opposition parties in 1982 elections, inflation and foreign-debt problems from the early 1980s

          e. Return to civilian rule with presidency of Jose Sarney (1985-90), liberalized constitution of 1988, presidential election of Collor de Mello (1989), Collor's impeachment and resignation (1992), presidential election of Cardoso (1994)


H. Development of Latin-American literature, music, and visual arts in the 20th century: the intermingling of European, Indian, and African cultures


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Latin-American and Caribbean nations since c. 1920

Argentina        Colombia         Lima    Sao Paulo

Bolivia Ecuador           Mexico            South America

Brazil   Guyana            Mexico City    Suriname

Buenos Aires   Havana            Paraguay         Uruguay

Central America          Latin America,            Peru     Venezuela

Chile    The History of Rio de Janeiro West Indies


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information

General subjects                                 

Central America and   Communist Party        Mexico:           Estado Novo

the Caribbean: of Cuba           Indigenismo    Falkland Islands

Bay of Pigs     Cuban missile  Institutional     War

invasion           crisis    Revolutionary Peronist

Canal Zone      Sandinista       Party    Rio de Janeiro,

Central American        26th of July     Sinarquism      Protocol of

Common         Movement       South America:           Shining Path

Market West Indies     Chaco War      Tupamaro


Central America and   Noriega, Manuel         Lopez Mateos,            Menem, Carlos

the Caribbean: Somoza family            Adolfo            Saul

Arias Sanchez,            Torrijos, Omar ObregOn, Alvaro        Peron, Eva

Oscar   Trujillo, Rafael            South America:           Peron, Juan

Batista, Fulgencio       Ubico, Jorge    Allende, Salvador       Rojas Pinilla,

Bosch, Juan     Mexico:           Belatinde Terry,          Gustavo

Castro, Fidel   Aleman, Miguel          Fernando         Vargas, Getillio

Duvalier, Francois       Calles, Plutarco           Frei, Eduardo 

Guevara, Che  Elias    Haya de la Torre,       

Guzman           Cardenas, Lazaro        Victor Raul    

Fernandez,      Echeverria       Ibanez del Campo,     

Antonio           Alvarez, Luis   Carlos 

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 975.         East Asia: China in Revolution, the Era of Japanese Hegemony, and the Influence of the United States in the 20th Century


A. China since 1912

     1. The development of the republic (1912-20)

          a. Early power struggles: Chinese involvement in World War I

            i. Japanese gains in the early part of the war, Yuan Shih-k'ai's attempts to become emperor

            ii. Conflict over entry into the war, formation of a rival southern government, changes brought about by the war

          b. Modernization and the growth of nationalism: the new intelligentsia, riots and protests

     2. The interwar years (1920-37)

          a. The beginnings of a national revolution: the Kuomintang, the Chinese Communist Party, cooperation between the two parties

          b. Reactions to warlords and foreigners: militarism in China, the continued presence of foreign interests, reorganization of the Kuomintang

          c. Struggles within the two-party coalition

            i. Outbreak of clashes with foreigners, Kuomintang opposition to the radicals

            ii. The Northern Expedition: peasant uprisings leading to the expulsion of the Communists from the Kuomintang, Communist movement into the hills and plains of central China

          d. The Nationalist government from 1928 to 1937: Chiang Kai-shek's attempts to eliminate the Communists

            i. Improvements in infrastructure and education in the cities, decline of the rural economy, economic competition with the Japanese in Manchuria

            ii. Renewal of Japanese aggression, war between the Communists and Nationalists, the Long March, formation of the United Front against Japan

     3. The war against Japan (1937-45)

          a. Communist-Nationalist cooperation in the early stages of the war, renewed conflict between the two groups

          b. International alliance against Japan: U.S. military aid, internal conflicts, the crisis of 1944 and Nationalist deterioration, Communist growth and international efforts to prevent civil war

     4. The development of Kuomintang and Chinese Communist ideologies

          a. Origins and background of modern ideologies: social and political conditions, China's ideological heritage

          b. The political ideas of Sun Yat-sen: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood

          c. The political ideas of Chiang Kai-shek: idealization of Chinese tradition

          d. The development of Maoist ideology: the role of peasants, the "people's war," the border regions

     5. Emergence of the People's Republic of China

          a. The Civil War (1945-49): the race for territory, Communist successes and ultimate victory

          b. Economic reforms and reforms in the traditional Chinese social structure (1949-57)

            i. Reconstruction and consolidation of power (1949-52): participation in the Korean War, agrarian reform

            ii. The transition to socialism (1953-57): rural collectivization, urban nationalization

          c. The period of the Great Leap Forward and the transition to the Cultural Revolution

            i. New directions in national policy (1958-61): literature and arts for the masses, rural communes

            ii. Readjustment and reaction (1961-65): restoration of order, China as a nuclear power

            iii. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-76): attacks on cultural leaders and party members, resistance to Peking

            iv. Mao's "Reconstruction" (1969-71): the Chinese challenge to Soviet Communism, the Ninth Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (April 1969)

          d. International relations: UN representation (1971), rapprochement with the U.S. and Japan (1972), friction with the Soviet Union, U.S. diplomatic relations with China (1979), increased cultural and economic contacts overseas, Hong Kong agreement with Great Britain (1984), trade and human-rights disputes with the U.S. in the 1990s

          e. Internal affairs: factional struggles of the early 1970s, deaths of Zhou Enlai (January 1976) and Mao Zedong (September 1976), ascendancy of Deng Xiaoping and purge of Maoist Gang of Four, new party and national constitutions (1982), changes in economic structure and introduction of economic incentives, forcible repression of pro-democracy movement (1989), social changes resulting from rapid economic growth, death of Deng and restoration of Chinese rule in Hong Kong (1997)

     6. The Nationalist government in Taiwan since 1949: initial repression and consolidation; leadership of Chiang Kai-shek until his death; alliance with the U.S. and economic growth; loss of UN representation (1971); Taiwanese separatism; loss of diplomatic support from most nations, including U.S. (1979); end of martial law (1987) and gradual democratization


B. Japan since c. 1910

     1. Japan's political, economic, and social developments in the early 20th century

          a. Constitutional government: party politics, participation by bureaucrats and business elites

          b. Social and economic changes: attempts to organize labour, cultural trends, growth of educated classes

     2. The rise and fall of Imperial Japan (c. 1920-45)

          a. The rise of the militarists, growth of antigovernment sentiment, the seizure of initiative in foreign policy by the military, the outbreak of war with China (1937), Axis leanings

          b. Japan's proclamation of the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere (1938), official alignment with the Axis Powers (1940), and deterioration of relations with the other Western powers: Miffs cabinet and outbreak of war with the U.S. (1941)

          c. Initial Japanese successes in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific, the Allied counterattack culminating in the fire and atomic bombing of Japanese cities, Japan's unconditional surrender (1945)

          d. Postwar Japan: political reform, economic and social changes, international relations and cultural developments

            i. Japan under U.S. military occupation (1945-52): democratization of Japanese society; constitutional, land, and labour reforms; increased rights for women

            ii. International relations and politics; loss of Korea and other territories, relations with China and the U.S., radical political movements in the 1960s, politics of moderation

            iii. Restoration of Japanese independence (1952): great economic growth, admission to the UN (1956), return of the Bonins and Ryukyus, Japan as a major world trader, economic tensions with U.S. and the European Community, rapprochement with China (1978), overtures toward Southeast Asia and Korea, long dominance of Liberal-Democratic Party and intra-party factionalism, government-corruption scandals, coalition governments since 1993


C. Korea since 1910

     1. Japanese rule (1910-45): military control, the March 1st independence movement and formation of a provisional Korean government in exile (1919), resistance movements and the end of Japanese rule

     2. Korea since 1945

          a. Division into South and North Korea (1948): U.S. and Soviet military aid to and disputes over the two Korean republics

          b. North Korean invasion (1950) of South Korea and the Korean War (1950-53): U.S. and UN intervention, Chinese participation, armistice (1953)

          c. South Korea since the armistice: the regimes of Syngman Rhee (1948-60) and Park Chung Hee (1961-79), the assassination of Park and military coup (1979), the Kwangju uprising and its violent suppression (1980), the regime of Chun Doo Hwan (1980-88), economic growth and development, constitutional reforms and direct presidential elections of Roe Tae Woo (1987) and Kim Young Sam (1992)

          d. North Korea since the armistice: consolidation of Communist government power under Kim Il-sung, relations with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, military and industrial growth, death of Kim Il-sung (1994)


Suggested reading in the Encydopwdia Britannica:

MAcR0PAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with East Asia: China in revolution, the era of Japanese hegemony, and the influence of the United States in the 20th century

Asia     Japan   Nanking          Tientsin

Canton            Korea  Peking Tokyo-Yokohama

China   Mao Zedong   Shanghai         Metropolitan

Hong Kong     Mongolia         Taiwan            Area


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information; see also Sections 96/10 and 971

General subjects          May Thirtieth  kamikaze         Singanhoe


Chinese           Incident           Keidanren       38th parallel

Communist      Nationalist Party         Liberal-Democratic     Sino-Japanese

Party    Open Door policy       Party    relations:

Cultural           Red Guards     MinseitO         Lytton

Revolution      Sian Incident   Rikken Seiyfilai          Commission

Eighth Route   Sun-Joffe        State Shinto    Marco Polo Bridge

Army   Manifesto        Twenty-one     Incident

Gang of Four  Three Principles of      Demands         Mukden Incident

Great Leap      the People       zaibatsu           Nanking Massacre

Forward          warlord            Korea: Shantung question

Karakhan         Japan:  Korean Provisional      Sino-Japanese

Manifesto        Clean Government      Government    War (1937-45)

Kiangsi Soviet Party    Korean War     Twenty-one

Long March    Democratic      March First      Demands

Maoism           Socialist Party Movement       United Front

May Fourth     Japan Communist        Pueblo Incident          

Movement       Party               

Biographies     Soong, T.V.     Inukai Tsuyoshi           Yamamoto


Chang Kuo-t'ao           Soong  Ishibashi Tanzan         GonnohyOe

Chang Ping-lin            Ch'ing-ling      Kato Takaaki   Yamamoto

Chen Boda      Sun Yat-sen    Kawakami Hajime      Isoroku

Chen Duxiu     Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei            Kishi Nobusuke          Yoshida Shigeru

Chiang Ching-kuo       Tuan Ch'i-jui   Konoe Fumimaro        Yoshino Sakuz6

Chiang Kai-shek         Wang Ching-wei         Miki Takeo      Korea:

Deng Xiaoping            Yuan Shih-k'ai            Minobe Tatsukichi      Chun Doo Hwan

Feng Yii-hsiang           Zhao Ziyang    Miyazawa Kiichi         Kim Chong Il

Guo Moruo     Zhou Enlai      Nagano Osami            Kim Dae Jung

Hu Han-min    Zhu De            Nosaka Sanzei Kim 11-sung

Hu Shih           Japan:  Okawa Shamei            Kim Young Sam

Hu Yaobang    Akihito            Okuma Shigenobu      Park Chung Hee

Hua Guofeng  Araki Sadao    Sato Eisaku     Rhee, Syngman

Jiang Qing       D'Aquino, Iva Shidehara Kijfird        Roh Tae Woo

Kang Sheng    Toguri  Taisho  other:

Kuo T'ai-ch'i    Hamaguchi Osachi      Tanaka Giichi  Hurley, Patrick J.

Li Dazhao       Hatoyama IchirO        Tanaka Kakuei            MacArthur,

Lin Biao          Hirohito           TOjei Hideki   Douglas

Liu Shaoqi       Hosokawa       Ugaki  Reischauer,

Mao Zedong   Morihiro          Kazushige       Edwin 0.

Qu Qiubai       Ikeda Hayato  Yamagata Aritomo     Stilwell, Joseph W.

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 976.         South and Southeast Asia: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations Since 1920


A. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Tibet, and Nepal since 1920

     1. India c. 1920 to 1947

          a. Intensified agitation for Indian independence and Gandhi's satyagraha movement of nonviolent resistance; Round Table Conference (1930-32), British offers of constitutional reform, the Government of India Act (1935)

          b. Increased strength of the Muslim League, movement for a separate Muslim state (Pakistan), the political and economic effects of World War II, partition and independence (1947)

     2. India since 1947

          a. Domestic affairs: establishment of a parliamentary system and reorganization of the states

under Nehru and the Congress Party (1947-64); administrations of Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964-66), Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 1980-84), and Morarji Desai (1977-79); continued communal unrest; suppression of Sikh extremists in Punjab and assassination of Indira Gandhi (1984); administrations of Rajiv Gandhi (1984-89), V.P. Singh (1989-90), and Chandra Shekhar (1990-91); assassination of Rajiv Gandhi (1991); election of P.V. Narasimha Rao (1991)

          b. Foreign policy: Nehru's policy of nonalignment, conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir (1947-49 and 1965-66) and over East Pakistan (Bangladesh) in 1971, border conflict with China and Chinese incursion (1962), Indian peace-keeping troops in Sri Lanka (1987-1990)

     3. Pakistan since 1947

          a. National consolidation (1947-51) under Mohammed Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, economic and political instability

          b. Military government of Ayub Khan (1958-69); economic and political reforms; border conflict with India; administration of Yahya Khan (1969-71); civil war between East and West Pakistan, secession of East Pakistan (since 1971, Bangladesh); administrations of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1971-77), Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq (1977-88), Benazir Bhutto (1988- 90,1993-96), and Nawaz Sharif (1990-93, 1997- )

     4. Bangladesh since 1971: emergence of nation, government of Mujibur Rahman (1972-75), adoption of presidential form of government (1975), martial-law administrations of Zia ur-Rahman (1975-81) and Hossain Mohammad Ershad (1982-90), election of Begum Khaleda Zia ur-Rahman as prime minister and return to parliamentary system (1991)

     5. Ceylon since 1920 (after 1972, Sri Lanka)

          a. Nationalism and demands for constitutional reform (1920-31), the 1931 constitution and the granting of universal franchise

          b. Dominion status (1947); parliamentary rule by United National Party (1947-56, 1960, 1965-70, and 1977-78) and by Sri Lanka Freedom Party (1956-60, 1960-65, and 1970-77); the constitution of 1972 and the establishment of a presidential system in the constitution of 1978; presidency of J.R. Jayawardene (1978-89) and succession by Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989); insurgent campaign for an independent Tamil state and protracted civil war; assassination of Premadasa (1993); election of Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994)

     6. Tibet since 1920: defense of frontier against China; Chinese invasion (1950) and the reestablishment of Chinese hegemony, complete Chinese government control after 1959; suppression of violent protests against Chinese rule (1987)

     7. Nepal since 1920: British withdrawal (1947) and revival of Nepalese royal control under Tribhuvan (1951-55), Mahendra (1955-72), and Birendra (crowned 1975); nationwide political unrest (1990) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy (1990)


B. Mainland Southeast Asia since 1920

     1. Myanmar (Burma) since 1920

          a. Emergence of Burmese nationalism and the British response (1920-37), limited constitutional government (1937-42), the Japanese occupation (1942-45)

          b. Postwar independence of Burma (1948) under U Nu, adoption of leftist-neutralist position, internal conflict and military government under U Ne Win (1962-81), continued economic problems, socialist state and new constitution (1974), minority insurgencies, military coup (1988), adoption of the name Myanmar (1989), victory of National League for Democracy in multiparty elections (1990), continued military repression

     2. Malaya (Malaysia) and Singapore since 1920

          a. Malaya and Singapore from 1920 to 1965: British economic policies in Malaya, Japanese occupation (1942-45), British return to power (1945) and progress toward self-government, suppression of Communist insurgents (1948-60), creation of Federation of Malaya (1948) and reestablishment as Malaysia (1963), Singapore's withdrawal (1965) and creation of independent Republic of Singapore

          b. Malaysia since 1965: dominance of United Malays National Organization, communal tension and nationwide state of emergency (1969-70), introduction of New Economic Policy (1971), industrialization and exploitation of timber and oil resources, resignation of Prime Minister Datuk Hussein Onn and succession by Mahathir bin Muhammed (1981), the New Development Policy (1991)

          c. Singapore since 1965: People's Action Party (PAP) regime of Lee Kuan Yew (1965-90), rapid economic growth and sustained prosperity, authoritarian style of government and lack of effective political opposition, resignation of Lee and succession by PAP member Goh Chok Tong (1990)

     3. Thailand since 1920

          a. Post-World War I escape from unequal treaties, problems of kingship and repression, the coup d'etat of 1932 and the establishment of constitutional monarchy, militaristic and pro-Japanese nationalism, the Japanese occupation during World War II

          b. Loss of wartime gains and political instability, military domination (1947-68, 1971-73, and 1976-92), border incursions from Cambodia and influx of refugees; constitutional reforms and return to civilian government (1992)

     4. Indochina since 1920: emergence of independent states and continued strife

          a. French administration of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos: Vietnamese nationalist movements and formation of the Indochina Communist Party (1930), Japanese occupation in World War II, postwar French administration in southern Vietnam and Cambodia

          b. Ho Chi Minh's government in northern Vietnam and the French attempt to reconquer the north (1946-54), the Geneva Accords and legal temporary division of Vietnam (1954), French withdrawal and limited U.S. intervention

          c. Vietnam from 1955 to 1975

            i. North Vietnam: industrialization, relations with other communist and other Asian countries, war with South Vietnam, U.S. military intervention, cease-fire agreement (1973), conquest of South Vietnam (1975)

            ii. South Vietnam: civil war and formation of National Liberation Front (1960), U.S. military intervention, cease-fire agreement (1973), end of regime of Nguyen Van Thieu, conquest by North Vietnam (1975)

          d. Socialist Republic of Vietnam: establishment of united Vietnamese government (July 2, 1976), political and economic problems, invasion (1978) and occupation of Cambodia, exodus of ethnic Chinese refugees and border war with China (1979), withdrawal from Cambodia (1989), economic reforms in the 1980s and early 1990s, improved relations with Asian and Western nations, economic growth

          e. Laos since 1950: civil war to 1954, Geneva Conference (1954) and creation of Laos as a neutral state, domestic instability and continued civil war between Pathet Lao and rightists, military involvement of the U.S. and North Vietnam, Pathet Lao victory and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (from 1975), domination by Vietnam in the 1980s, first parliamentary elections (1989) and new constitution of 1991

          f. Cambodia since independence (1953): Sihanouk's domestic politics and severing of relations with the U.S. (1965); deposition of Sihanouk (1970) and Lon Nol and pro-Western realignment; capture of Phnom Penh by communist Khmer Rouge forces (1975); establishment of Democratic Kampuchea (1976); brutal collectivization and resettlement campaign and political persecution, resulting in large-scale deaths; invasion of Cambodia by Vietnamese forces and establishment of Vietnamese-dominated regime (1978-79); formation of coalition government-in-exile (1982), return of Sihanouk and the monarchy (1993)


C. Indonesia and the Philippines

     1. Indonesia since 1920

          a. Dutch administration of Indonesia from 1920 to independence in 1949

            i. Dutch suppression of nationalist and communist revolts in the 1920s and 1930s, accommodation with moderate nationalist parties, Japanese occupation in World War II

            ii. Sukarno's proclamation of Indonesian independence (1945), Dutch attempt to regain control and UN intervention, formal granting of independence in 1949

          b. Constitutional democracy (1950) and Guided Democracy (1957-65) under Sukarno; military coup (1965), mass executions of communists and Sukarno's loss of influence; administration of Suharto (from 1966); invasion and occupation of East Timor (since 1975); massive depopulation of East Timor due to starvation and military action; economic effects of the oil boom

     2. The Philippines since 1920

          a. Economic and social policies of U.S. administration in the 1920s and 1930s, growth of nationalist political parties, establishment as a commonwealth (1935), Japanese occupation (1941-45), return of U.S. control and commonwealth status

          b. Establishment of the Republic of the Philippines (1946), political developments under successive presidents, U.S.-Philippine relations, administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-86), communist and Muslim insurgencies, rule under martial law (1972-81), assassination of Benigno Aquino (1983) and resulting unrest, exile of Marcos (1986), administration of Corazon Aquino (1986-1992), election of Fidel Ramos (1992)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAED1A: Major articles and a biography dealing with South and Southeast Asia: the late colonial period and the emergence of new nations since 1920

Asia     Delhi   Indonesia        Philippines

Bangkok          Gandhi            Jakarta             Southeast Asia

Bangladesh     Hong Kong     Manila             Sri Lanka

Bombay           India    Nepal  

Calcutta                       Pakistan          


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information; see also Sections 968, 969, and 971

General subjects

Indian subcontinent:   Rowlatt Acts

Delhi Pact       Servants of India

Donoughmore Society

Commission    Sinhala Maha

dyarchy           Sabha

Government of            Sinhala Only Bill

India Acts       Tashkent

hartal   Agreement

Indian National           Indochina:

Congress         Dien Bien Phu,

Lee Commission         Battle of

Muslim League           Hoa Hao

Non-cooperation         Indochina

Movement       Khmer Rouge

Poona Pact      National

Red Shirt         Liberation Front

Movement       Pathet Lao

Round Table   seventeenth

Conference      parallel


Indian subcontinent: Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad Ayub Khan, Mohammad Bandaranaike, S.W.R.D.

Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto,

Zulfikar Ali Bose, Subhas Chandra

Desai, Morarji Fateh Singh, Sant Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Rajiv Ghaffar Khan, Abdul

Giri, Varahagiri Venkata

Jinnah, Mohammed Ali Kamaraj, Kumaraswami Liaquat Ali Kahn Menon, V.K. Krishna

Naidu, Sarojini Narayan, Jaya Prakash

Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Motilal Osman Ali

Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi

Patel, Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Prasad, Rajendra Rao, P.V.

Narasim ha Sankaran Nair, Sir Chettur

Sastri, Srinivasa Tara Singh

Yahya Khan, Agha Mohammad Indochina:

Bao Dai

Chu Van Tan Cuong De

Ho Chi Minh Huynh Tan Phat Katay Don Sasorith

Ngo Dinh Diem Nguyen Cao Ky

Viet Cong

Viet Minh

Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang Vietnam War


Hague Agreement Linggadjati Agreement Pancasila Peranakan


Agreement Sarekat Islam Sutardjo Petition Volksraad


Bell Trade Act

Nguyen Huu Tho Nguyen Van Thieu Norodom Sihanouk

Phan Boi Chau Phetsarath Ratanavongsa, Prince Pol Pot Souphanouvong Souvanna Phouma Truong Chinh

Vo Nguyen Giap


Hatta, Mohammad Malik, Adam Sjahrir, Sutan Suharto


Tan Malaka, Ibrahim Datuk

Myanmar and Thailand: Aung San

Aung San Suu Kyi Ba Maw

Khuang Aphaiwong

Ne Win, UHare-HawesCutting Act Hukbalahap Rebellion Tydings-

McDuffie Act other:

Burma Road Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army

Promoters Revolution Stilwell Road Straits Settlements

Nu, U Phibunsongkhram, Luang

Pridi Phanomyong San, Saya

Sarit Thanarat Saw, U

Thanom Kittikachorn Thant, U

Philippines: Aguinaldo, Emilio Aquino, Benigno

Simeon, Jr. Aquino, Corazon Garcia, Carlos

Polestico Macapagal, Diosdado Magsaysay,



Ferdinand E. Quezon, Manuel Quirino, Elpidio Ramos, Fidel Recto, Claro Mayo Roxas, Manuel

other:   Brooke            Linlithgow, Victor      Niir al-Hilmi,

Birendra Bir    Decoux, Jean   Alexander John           Burhanuddin bin

Bikram Shah   Lee Kuan Yew            Hope, 2nd       Muhammad

Dev                 'marquess of    Tan Cheng Lock

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 977.         Australia and Oceania Since 1920


A. International developments in the Pacific and the disposition of the dependent territories in Oceania since 1920

     1. The post-World War I situation of the occupying powers in Oceania: the League of Nations mandate system

     2. World War II in the Pacific: the rise and fall of Japanese power, effects of the war on indigenous peoples

     3. Post-World War II reorganization: economic and social effects of UN trusteeship administrations, movements toward autonomy among the indigenous peoples, independent island states, dissolution of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1986)


B. Australia since 1920

     1. Developments to 1945: decline of the Labor Party and the Nationalist-Country coalition, industrial and rural development, the Great Depression, formation of the United Australia Party and Lyons' administrations (1931-39), military role in World War II, effects of the war on the economy

     2. Political and economic developments from 1945: Labor government of Chifley (1945-49), growing prosperity and educational development under Liberal-Country coalition of Menzies (1949-66), Liberal-Country rule under Gorton (1968-71) and McMahon (1971-72), expansion of social services and development of Aboriginal and women's programs under Labor government of Whitlam (1972-75), constitutional crisis and dismissal of Whitlam (1975), Liberal-National Country coalition of Fraser (1975-83), return of Labor government under Hawke (1983-91) and Keating (1991-96), coalition under Howard (from 1996), deregulation of the economy and privatization of state-owned enterprises, Aboriginal land-claims legislation (1993)

     3. International relations from 1945: participation in regional security alliances and military involvement in the Korean and Vietnam wars, recognition of China (1972) and North Vietnam (1973), independence of Papua New Guinea (1975), strengthening of economic and political ties to Asian and Pacific nations, opposition to French nuclear testing in the South Pacific

     4. Social developments from 1945: growing urban affluence, Aboriginal-rights issues, demographic and cultural changes resulting from large-scale European and Asian immigration, feminism and the women's movement, the environmental movement


C. New Zealand since c. 1920

     1. Developments to 1945: United (Liberal)-Reform coalition governments, the Great Depression, Labour Party victory (1935) and social welfare programs, participation with Allies in World War II

     2. New Zealand since 1945: National and Labour governments, increased participation in Pacific and Asian affairs, Maori nationalism, cuts in social welfare programs


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles dealing with Australia and Oceania since 1920

Australia          Pacific Islands

Melbourne       Sydney

New Zealand  United States of America: Hawaii


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information; see also Section 967 General subjects

Australian Democrats New Zealand National Party Australian Labor Party

Biographies     Hawke, Robert            New Zealand: Lange, David


Bruce, Stanley Howard, John Bolger, James  Muldoon, Robert

Melbourne Bruce,       Winston           Brendan          Nash, Sir Walter

Viscount          Keating, Paul  Forbes, George            Ngata, Sir Apirana

Chifley, Joseph           Lyons, Joseph William            Turupa

Benedict          Aloysius          Fraser, Peter    Savage, Michael

Curtin, John    Menzies, Sir    Holland, Sir     Joseph

Fraser, Malcolm          Robert Gordon            Sidney

Gorton, Sir John          Page, Sir Earle Holyoake, Sir 

Grey    Whitlam, Gough         Keith Jacka    

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above

Section 978.         Southwest Asia and Africa: the Late Colonial Period and the Emergence of New Nations in the 20th Century


A. Turkey since 1919 and Cyprus since 1920

     1. The war for independence (1919-23) and the development of the Turkish nation under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk

     2. Atatiirk's one-party government: secularization, social and economic reforms

     3. Turkey since 1938: World War II and the postwar period, the republic since 1961

          a. Wartime neutrality until alignment (1945) with the Allies: postwar problems with the Soviet Union, political developments

          b. Turkey under the Democrats (1950-60): economic growth and political repression, the army coup (1960)

          c. New constitution (1961) and government under the Republican Peasants' and Justice parties, period of martial law (1971-73), military coup (1980) and return to civilian government (1983), urbanization and industrialization, economic growth, mixed relations with East and West and with the Arab world, increasing violence of Kurdish separatist guerrillas and government counterinsurgency campaigns from the early 1990s

     4. Cyprus since 1920: British administration to 1960, the Republic of Cyprus, political disunity over the question of union with Greece, Turkish invasion (1974) and division of island, unilateral declaration of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983)


B. Development of the Arab states and Israel in Southwest Asia and Egypt

     1. The Arab lands of Southwest Asia under the mandate system

          a. Lebanon and Syria under the French mandate (1920-41): Arab demands for independence, the Druze revolt in Syria (1925-27), establishment of the Lebanese Republic (1926) and internal crises, the Franco-Syrian Treaty (1936), Allied occupation in World War II, Syrian and Lebanese independence

          b. Iraq from 1918 to 1945: British occupation and mandate, independence (1932), political unrest and the role of the military, World War II and British intervention (1939-45)

          c. Palestine and Transjordan under the British mandate (1920-48): the Balfour Declaration and the acceleration of Jewish settlement and conflicts with the Arabs, the Arab revolt (1936-39) and the Peel Commission, the Biltmore Resolution (1942), the partition of Palestine and the emergence of Israel (1948) and Jordan (1946)

     2. Egypt from 1922 to 1945: Wafd-led opposition to the continued British presence, politics in the early reign of Farouk I, participation in World War II

     3. The Arab states in the Fertile Crescent, Egypt, and Israel since 1945

          a. Lebanon: the multireligious political system, the Khuri regime (1943-52), the presidency of Chamoun and the 1958 crisis, later regimes and the civil war of 1975-76, Syrian military intervention (1976) and subsequent occupation of central and eastern territories, Syrian predominance in Lebanese affairs, the Israeli invasion of 1982 and establishment of Israeli-occupied "security zone" (1983), renewed civil war, de facto division into spheres of influence, government of national unity (1984), continuing civil disorder, cross-border raids by Hezbollah guerrillas and Israeli forces from the early 1990s

          b. Syria: political instability in the postwar decade, temporary union with Egypt (1958-61), the secessionist regime (1961-63), the Ba`thist coup of 1963, conflicts with Israel, role in the Lebanese civil wars, relations with Palestine Liberation Organization, domestic unrest

          c. The Arab League (1945), the partition of Palestine, and the establishment of Israel (1948) and Jordan (1946)

            i. The establishment of Israel (1948) and resultant conflicts with the Arabs: immigration and politics, foreign aid and economic development, renewed hostilities with the Arab states in the Suez War (1956), the Six-Day War (1967) and the diplomatic stalemate, the war of October 1973, role in the Lebanese civil war, treaty with Egypt (1979), invasion of Lebanon (1982) and withdrawal (1985), Palestinian intifada (from 1987), expansion of Jewish settlements in occupied territory and massive immigration of Soviet Jews, peace talks with Palestinians and Arab states (from 1992), extension of self-government to Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza Strip (from 1995)

            ii. Economic and political problems in Jordan under King Hussein: annexation of the West Bank (1950), ambivalent foreign policy, formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1964), Israeli annexations (1967), Jordan's expulsion of the PLO (1971), renunciation of claims and ties to West Bank (1988), peace treaty with Israel (1994)

          d. Iraq: postwar reconstruction and social upheavals (1945-58), the revolution of 1958, politics under the republic, military coups (1963-68), oil and the economy, the Ba`th revolution of 1968, the Kurdish question, Iran-Iraq war (1980-88 [officially ended 1990]), invasion of Kuwait (1990) and defeat in Persian Gulf war (1991)

          e. Radicalization of Egyptian politics in the last years of Farouk's reign, the Egyptian revolution (1952) and Nasser's rise to power, the Suez crises (1956), the Six-Day War (1967), Sadat's presidency (1970-81), and assassination (1981), Mubarak's presidency, rise of Islamic fundamentalism

     4. The Arabian Peninsula since c. 1920: the political, economic, and social effects of the discovery of oil and the resultant influx of wealth; British and other great-power influences

          a. Emergence of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under Ibn Sa`fid (1924); oil discoveries and exploitation; the government under Faysal (1964-75), Khalid (1975-82), and Fand; increasing control of oil resources; rise as a dominant Arab power; participation in Persian Gulf War (1991)

          b. The other Arabian states: Bahrain and Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Aden), Yemen (San'a'); Yemeni wars and union negotiations; formation of Gulf Cooperation Council (1981), unification of Yemen (1990) and subsequent civil war (1994), Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and ensuing Persian Gulf War (1990-91)


C. Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia since c. 1920

     1. Iran since 1925

          a. The regime of Reza Shah (1925-41): economic and social reforms, relations with Germany and invasion by Allies during World War II

          b. The regime of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1941-79), premiership of Mohammad Mosaddeq (1951-53) and nationalization of oil resources (1951), ouster of Mosaddeq by U.S.-sponsored military coup (1953) and consolidation of power by Reza Pahlavi, land reform (from 1962), expansion of economy from petroleum revenues

          c. Revolution of 1978-79, establishment of the Islamic Republic (1979) under Ruhollah Khomeini, political and religious persecution and suppression of Western influence in the early republican regime, support of Muslim fundamentalist movements, Iran-Iraq war (1980-88 [officially ended 1990])

     2. Afghanistan since independence (1921): civil disorders, attempts at reform, and economic improvements; constitutional revisions; Soviet invasion of 1979 and guerrilla resistance; Soviet withdrawal, establishment of provisional Islamic republic, continued unrest

     3. The Central Asian republics of Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan: Soviet rule from 1917 and independence after collapse of Soviet Union (1991)


D. North Africa since 1920

     1. The final decades of European rule

          a. French colonial policies, the French protectorate and the Spanish Zone in Morocco, the administration of Algeria and the Algerian War of Independence, Tunisian nationalist movements

          b. Libya under the domination of the Fascist Italian government (1922-42)

     2. Establishment of independent states in the Maghrib

          a. Postwar British and French occupation of Libya, independence (1951), establishment of the republic and emergence of Qaddafi (1969), disruptive role in world affairs, treaty of union with Morocco (1984) abrogated in 1986

          b. The emergence of independent Tunisia (1956): formation of republic (1957), Tunisia under Bourguiba's presidency (1957-87); rise of Islamic fundamentalists from the mid-1980s

          c. The emergence of independent Morocco (1956): government under Muhammad V (d. 1961) and Hassan II, the Spanish Zone and its reduction to Ceuta and Melilla, dispute over Spanish (now Western) Sahara, treaty of union with Libya (1984-86)

          d. The Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), French evacuation, and the emergence of independent Algeria (1962): government under Ben Bella (overthrown 1965), Boumedienne (1965-78), and Bendjedid (1979-92); adoption of socialist and Islamic National Charter (1976); support for the Polisario Front in Western Sahara; growing influence of Islamic fundamentalism; military takeover (1992)

          e. Mauritania and Spanish (Western) Sahara: independent Mauritania (from 1960), Polisario revolt in Western Sahara from the mid-1970s, division of Western Sahara between Mauritania and Morocco and Moroccan takeover of Mauritanian zone (1979)


E. The maturation of the European colonial system and the nationalist movements in sub-Saharan Africa since 1920

     1. Completion of effective occupation by the European powers: the post-World War I division of former German colonies among other colonial powers, the mandate system

     2. Administrative policies and attitudes of each colonial power: economic development, effects of colonialism on the societies and institutions of the African peoples

     3. World War II and postwar changes in colonial policies: decline of the colonial system and rise of African nationalist parties, establishment of independent African countries from 1957, the Organization of African Unity from 1963, the assertiveness of white-settled Africa

     4. West Africa since c. 1920

          a. Colonial rule from c. 1920 until independence, independent Liberia's economic ties to the U.S.

            i. Economic developments in French West Africa: Senegal, French Guinea, the Ivory Coast, French Sudan, Upper Volta

            ii. Economic developments in British colonies: The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Nigeria

          b. Decolonization and independence

            i. Emergence of African leaders: rise of a new class of educated Africans

            ii. Formation of African independence movements, independence for all the former colonies between 1957 and 1975, the countries of Western Africa after independence, problems of economic development, political instability, military coups and emergence of one-party states

     5. Ethiopia and the Nilotic Sudan since c. 1917

          a. Ethiopia and Eritrea since 1917: internal division and the rise of Haile Selassie, the Italian conquest (1936), Eritrea under Italian rule, federation (1952) and union (1962) with Ethiopia, establishment of military government and abolition of the monarchy (1974), death of Haile Selassie (1975), Eritrean revolt and Somali invasion of the Ogaden, development of Socialist state under Mengistu, fall of Mengistu regime (1991), Eritrean independence (1993)

          b. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: growth of national consciousness and creation of the independent republic (1956), military coup (1958) and the Abbud government (1958-64), revolt in the southern provinces, return to civilian rule, government of Nimeiri (196985) and temporary resolution of the southern problem, renewed war in the south following introduction of Islamic law (1983) and administrative decentralization, military coups (1985 and 1989) and continued civil war

     6. East Africa and Madagascar since c. 1920

          a. The European colonies in East Africa from c. 1920 to the beginning of independence (1960)

            i. The colonial economics: growth of export trade (cotton, cloves, coffee), extension of the railroads

            ii. Somalia as an Italian trust territory (1950), problems in British Somaliland

            iii. Crises of colonial rule in the 1950s: Mau Mau resistance in Kenya; independence movements in Uganda, Tanganyika, and Zanzibar

          b. Developments since independence

            i. Somalia: independence (1960), internal tensions and territorial disputes, conflict with Ethiopia, military takeover (1969) and regime of Siyad Barre, break with the Soviet Union (1977), war with Ethiopia (1977-78) and continued unrest in the Ogaden, influx of refugees, overthrow of Siyad (1991), clan-based civil war, famine and multinational intervention in the early 1990s

            ii. Economic cooperation among the formerly British East African nations: the East African Community and its end (1977)

            iii. Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika and Zanzibar): revolt against Arab control in Zanzibar (1964), Nyerere and introduction of ujamaa socialism, tension with Uganda and invasion in support of revolt against Amin (1979), economic difficulties and subsequent reforms beginning in the late 1980s

            iv. Uganda: independence (1962) and economic growth, the Obote and Amin governments, reign of terror and economic decline, deposition of Amin (1979), reinstatement (1980) and overthrow (1985) of Obote, government of Museveni from 1986, constitution of 1995

            v. Kenya: independence (1963) and presidency of Kenyatta (1964-78), death of Kenyatta and succession of arap Moi (1978), establishment of one-party state (19821992)

          c. Madagascar: the French administration, independence (1960) and subsequent domestic politics and foreign relations

     7. Central Africa after World War II: the intensification of nationalist movements and the acquisition of independence by the former European colonies

          a. The emergence of French and Belgian colonies as republics: internal divisions and the fate of the republics

            i. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Republic of Zaire since 1971): the Congolese nationalist movement and independence (1960), secession of Katanga province and UN intervention (1960-64), regime of Mobutu Sese Seko (1965-97)

            ii. Central African Republic: independence (1960); regimes of Bokassa (1965-79), Dacko (1979-81), and Kolingba (1981-93); presidential election of Patasse (1993)

            iii. Republic of the Congo: independence (1960), ethnic rivalries, domestic politics and foreign relations

            iv. Gabon: independence (1960), subsequent domestic politics and foreign relations

            v. Burundi and Rwanda: independence (1962), warfare between Tutsi and Hutu

          b. Republic of Equatorial Guinea: the Spanish administration, independence (1968), repressive regime of Macias Nguema, military coup (1979)

     8. Southern Africa since c. 1920

          a. Southern Africa from c. 1920 to c. 1945

            i. Political and economic developments in white-settler-controlled Union of South Africa: the Hertzog administration (1924-33) and the Hertzog-Smuts coalition (193339), political disunity and Allied participation in World War II

            ii. White-settler control of Southern Rhodesia: relations with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland and economic, social, and political discrimination against black Africans; Portuguese rule in Angola and Mozambique

            iii. Indian, Coloured, and black African responses to discrimination: growth of local political organizations, separatist church movements, and mass nationalist movements

          b. Southern Africa since 1945: political developments in white-controlled colonies and nations, emergence of black nations

            i. Republic of South Africa (formerly the Union of South Africa): Afrikaner National Party administrations from 1948, government-sanctioned apartheid, establishment of Bantu Homelands (1959), antiapartheid movements and growing international isolation, Soweto riots (1976), constitutional reforms (1983), increasing political dissent, legalization of African National Congress (1990), repeal of major apartheid laws, establishment of black majority rule with victory of African National Congress in first all-race elections (1994)

            ii. Namibia (formerly known as South West Africa): international and internal resistance to South African rule, revocation of UN mandate (1966) and international efforts toward independence, independence of Namibia (1990)

            iii. Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland: British administration of the High Commission Territories, independence (1966, 1968), subsequent relations with South Africa

            iv. British Central Africa: postwar economic development in Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland; the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-63); rise of black nationalist movements; independence of Zambia and Malawi (1964), governments of Kaunda (1964-91) in Zambia and Banda (1964-94) in Malawi

            v. Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia): Rhodesian Front governments of Ian Smith (1964-79), the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI; 1965), civil war, establishment of Zimbabwe (1980), rule of Mugabe from 1980

            vi. Developments in the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique: economic advances, nationalist movements, and independence in the mid-1970s; civil war in Angola and intervention by South African and Cuban troops, prolonged guerrilla warfare in Angola and Mozambique in the 1980s; Mozambique-South Africa nonaggression pact (1984); short-lived peace agreements in Angola and withdrawal of Cuban troops (1991); multiparty Angolan elections (1992) and resumption of conflict; end of guerrilla war in Mozambique (1992)


Suggested reading in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

MACROPAEDIA: Major articles and a biography dealing with Southwest Asia and Africa: the late

colonial period and the emergence of new nations in the 20th century


MICROPAEDIA: Selected entries of reference information; see also Section 96/11

General subjects          Camp David    United Arab    Lausanne,

central Africa:                        

Belgian Congo            Accords           Republic          Treaty of

Moyen-Congo Druze revolt    Wafd   Moscow,

Ruanda-Urundi           Fatah   Zionism           Treaty of

Rwanda           Gaza    North Africa:  southern Africa:

eastern Africa: Gaza Strip       Algerian Reformist     African National

Buganda          Haganah          Ulama, Congress

German East   Hashimite        Association of apartheid

Africa  Ikhwän            Cyrenaica        banning

Italian East Africa       Iran-Iraq War  Democratic      Frelimo

Mau Mau         Irgun Zvai Leumi        Constitutional National Party of

Somaliland      Israel Labour Party     Rally    South Africa

Ethiopia and the          Jewish Agency            Destour           New Republic

Nilotic Sudan: Likud  National Action          Party

Anglo-Egyptian          Mapam            Bloc     Pan-Africanist

Condominium Muslim            National          Congress of

Italian East Africa       Brotherhood    Liberation Front          Azania

Italo-Ethiopian War    Palestine          Polisario          Progressive Federal

Mandist           Palestine          Rif War           Party

Middle East:   Liberation        Tripolitania      Rhodesia and

Anglo-Egyptian          Organization   Ottoman Empire and  Nyasaland,

Treaty  Peel Commission         Turkey:            Federation of

Arab Legion    Sinai Peninsula            Ankara, Treaty of        South African

Balfour            Stern Gang      Greco-Turkish Party

Declaration      Suez Crisis      wars    

Ba`th Party                             

South West

Africa People's Organization United Party


central Africa: Boganda, Barthelemy Bokassa, Eddine Ahmed

Eboue, Felix Kasavubu, Joseph Lumumba, Patrice M'ba, Leon Mobutu Sese Seko Mutesa II

Nyerere, Julius Obote, Milton Tshombe, Moise

eastern Africa:

Amin, Idi

Haile Selassie Kenyatta, Jomo Mboya, Tom Mengistu

Haile Mariam Odinga, Oginga Iran:

Khomeini, Ruhollah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mosaddeq, Mohammad Rafsanjani, Hashemi

Reza Shah Pahlavi Middle East—Egypt: Farouk I

Fuld I

Lutfi as-Sayyid, Ahmad

Whir Pasha, 'Ali Mubarak, Hosni Naguib,

Muhammadwestern Africa:


British West Africa

Nahhas Pasha, Mustafa an-Nasser, Gamal Abdel

Mat, Anwar elZaghlul,

Middle East—Israel and Zionism:

Ahad Ha'am Begin, Menachem Ben-Gurion, David Ben-Zvi, Itzhak Dayan, Moshe Herzl, Theodor Jabotinsky, Vladimir

Meir, Golda

Peres, Shimon Rabin, Yitzhak Shamir, Yitzhak Sharon, Ariel Weizmann, Chaim

Middle East—other Arab:

`Aflaq, Michel `Arafat, Yasir Assad, Hafiz alChamoun, Camille Chehab, Fuad Fand

Faysal I

Gemayel family Hawrani,

Akram alHusayni, Amin al-Hussein

Hussein, Saddam Ibn Saud


Nun as-SaidFrench West


Mali Federation Togoland

Qasim, `Abd al-Karim

North Africa:

Abbas, Ferhat Abd el-Krim

Ben Bella, Ahmed Boumedienne, Houari

Bourguiba, Habib Idris I

Muhammad V Qaddafi,

Muammar al-southern Africa:

Banda, Hastings


Biko, Stephen Buthelezi, Mangosuthu G. de Klerk, F.W. Hertzog, J.B.M. Kaunda, Kenneth Lutuli, Albert Malan, Daniel F. Mandela, Nelson Mugabe, Robert Neto, Agostinho Nkomo, Joshua Nujoma, Sam Smith, Ian

Smuts, Jan Sobhuza II Strijdom, Johannes Gerhardus

Tutu, Desmond Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch

Vorster, John Welensky, Sir Roy Turkey:

Atatiirk, Kemal

other: EOKA

Bayar, Celal cakmak, Fevzi Demirel, Sfileyman Ecevit, Biilent

Ismet Menderes, Adnan Ozal, Turgut

western Africa: Awolowo, Obafemi Azikiwe, Nnamdi Balewa, Sir Abubaker Tafawa Daddah, Moktar Ould

Danquah, J.B. Doe, Samuel K. Gowon, Yakubu Gueye, Lamine Houphouet-Boigny, Felix

Jawara, Sir Dawda Kairaba

Keita, Modibo Margai, Sir Milton Nkrumah, Kwame Ojukwu, Odumegwu Olympio, Sylvanus Rawlings, Jerry J. Senghor, Leopold Toure, Sekou Tubman, William V.S.

Zinsou, Emile Derlin


Amanollah Khan Makarios III Zahir Shah, Mohammad

INDEX: See entries under all of the terms above