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Contributors


Editors, Contributors, etc

 

Board of Editors (1974-98)

MORTIMER J. ADLER. Chairman (ret. 1995), Board of Editors. Philosopher, author, editor, and lecturer. Director, Institute for Philosophical Research, Chicago, 1952-95.

PHILIP W. GOETZ. Executive Vice-Chairman, Board of Editors. Editor in Chief Encyclopedia Britannica, 1979-91.

FRANK B. GIBNEY. Vice-Chairman, Board of Editors. Vice-Chairman, TBS-Britannica Company Ltd., Tokyo.

JACQUES BARZUN. University Professor Emeritus, Columbia University; Dean of Faculties and Provost, 1958-67.

WENDY DONIGER. Mircea Eliade Professor of the History of Religions, University of Chicago.

CLIFTON FADIMAN. Writer and editor. Chief Editorial Adviser, Book-of-the-Month Club.

WILLIAM H. McNEILL. Robert A. Millikan Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of History, University of Chicago.

MARTIN MEYERSON. President Emeritus and University Professor of Public Policy Analysis and City and Regional Planning, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

CHRISTOPHER D. NEEDHAM. Principal Lecturer in Library and Information Studies, Polytechnic of North London, 1973-85.

WALTER PERRY, BARON PERRY OF WALTON. Vice-Chancellor, Open University, Milton Keynes, England, 1969-80.

WARREN E. PREECE. The Editor, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1964-75.

ANTHONY QUINTON, BARON QUINTON. Chairman of the British Library Board, 1985-90. President, Trinity College, University of Oxford, 1978-87.

ROGER C. SCHANK. Director, Institute for the Learning Sciences; John Evans Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Professor of Psychology and of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Advisers

Members of University Advisory Committees

BRIAN D.O. ANDERSON. Chairman of the Australian Universities Advisory Committee. Professor of Systems Engineering and Director, Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra.

MARC AUGE. Professor of Social Anthropology, School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, Paris.

WARREN A. BEBBINGTON. Ormond Professor and Dean, Faculty of Music, University of Melbourne.

JOHN L. BERGGREN. Professor of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.

JACQUES BERSANI. Secretary of the European Universities Advisory Committee. Managing Editor, Encyclopaedia Universalis, Paris.

GEOFFREY BLAINEY. Chancellor, University of Ballarat, Australia. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Melbourne.

ROBERT EUGENE BOGNER. Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Australia.

MAURO CAPPELLETTI. Shelton Professor of International Legal Studies, Stanford University, California. Professor of Law, University of Florence.

HANS DAALDER. Chairman of the European Universities Advisory Committee. Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.

FRANCOIS DUCHESNEAU. Professor of Philosophy, University of Montreal.

MANFRED EIGEN. Director, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany. Cowinner, Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1967.

DAVID R. FRASER. Professor of Animal Science and Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney.

WILLIAM E. FREDEMAN. Cochairman of the Canadian Universities Advisory Committee. Emeritus Professor of English, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

FERNANDO GIL. Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge, New University of Lisbon. Professor of Epistemology, School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, Paris.

CALVIN C. GOTLIEB. Emeritus Professor of Computer Science, University of Toronto.

ERIC L. JONES. Emeritus Professor of Economics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia. Professorial Associate, Melbourne Business School, University of Melbourne. Professor of Economics, University of Reading, England.

PETER KENNEDY. Professor of Economics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.

UWE KITZINGER. Visiting Scholar, Harvard University, 1993-96. President, Templeton College, 1984-91; Emeritus Fellow of Nuffield College, University of Oxford.

DAME LEONIE JUDITH KRAMER. Chancellor and Emeritus Professor of Australian Literature, University of Sydney.

KURT LIPSTEIN. Emeritus Professor of Law, University of Cambridge; Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge.

F. GRAHAM LITTLE. Reader in Political Science, University of Melbourne.

H. CHRISTOPHER LONGUET-HIGGINS. Emeritus Professor, University of Sussex, Brighton, England; Royal Society Research Professor, 1968-88.

SIR JOHN LYONS. Master of Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge.

FREDERICK R.W. McCOURT. Professor and Chairman, Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Ontario.

DONALD GUNN MAcRAE. Martin White Professor Emeritus of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London.

EDWARD McWHINNEY. Queen's Counsel. Member of Parliament, House of Commons, Ottawa. Emeritus Professor of Constitutional and International Law, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.

524

Advisers 525

OTFRIED MADELUNG. Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Marburg, Germany.

DAVID A. MARTIN. Emeritus Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London. Honorary Professor, Department of Religious Studies, University of Lancaster, England.

DONALD M. NICOL. Koraes Professor Emeritus of Byzantine and Modern Greek History, Language, and Literature, King's College, University of London. Director, Gennadius Library, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1989-92.

CHARLES E. OXNARD. Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology; Director, Centre for Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands.

SIR BRIAN PIPPARD. Chairman of the British Universities Advisory Committee. Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Cambridge; Cavendish Professor,

1971-82.

JOHN DOUGLAS RITCHIE. General Editor, Australian Dictionary of Biography; Professor, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University,

Canberra.

A. EDWARD SAFARIAN. Cochairman of the Canadian Universities Advisory Committee. Emeritus Professor of Economics; Professor of International Business, University of Toronto.

JOHN T. SAYWELL. University Professor and Director, Graduate Program in History, York University, North York, Ontario.

PEDRO SCHWARTZ. Professor of the History of Economic Doctrines, Autonomous University of Madrid.

IAN G. STEWART. Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Edinburgh.

C. ANTHONY STORR. Emeritus Fellow, Green College, Oxford; Clinical Lecturer in Psychiatry, University of

Oxford, 1974-84. Consultant Psychotherapist, Oxford Health Authority, 1974-84.

GRANT STRATE. Emeritus Professor of Dance, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.

SIR KEITH THOMAS. President, Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford.

A. DOUGLAS TUSHINGHAM. Emeritus Professor of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto. Head, Division of Art and Archaeology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, 1955-64: Chief Archaeologist, 1964-79; Member, Board of Trustees, 1984-90.

DONOVAN W.M. WATERS. Queen's Counsel. Scholars Professor of Law, University of Victoria, British Columbia. Associate Counsel, Douglas, Symes & Brissenden, Vancouver.

GUNTHER WILKE. Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of the Ruhr, Bochum. Emeritus Director, Max Planck Institute fin- Coal Research, Miilheim an der Ruhr, Germany.

Outline of Knowledge

Staff

MORTIMER J. ADLER (d. 2001). Editor.

CHARLES VAN DOREN. Associate Editor. Vice President, Editorial, Encyclop&dia Britannica, Inc., 1973-82.

WILLIAM J. GORMAN (d. 1982). Associate Editor. Senior Fellow, Institute far Philosophical Research.

•Indicates persons who served as contributors to or consultants on the Outline of Knowledge.

 

Part One. Matter and Energy

EDWARD ANDERS. Horace B. Horton Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Chemistry, University "of Chicago.

•A.G.W. CAMERON. Professor of Astronomy, Harvard University.

EDWARD U. CONDON (d. 1974). Professor of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1963-70.

•FARRINGTON DANIELS (d. 1972). Professor of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1928-59.

RAYNOR L. DUNCOMBE. Professor of Aerospace Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.

•           MORTON HAMERMESH. Professor of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1975-86.

JOSEPH J. KATZ. Emeritus Distinguished Senior Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Senior Chemist, 1946-82.

MALCOLM H. MAcFARLANE. Professor of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington.

•           VINCENT E. PARKER. Emeritus Professor of Physics, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Dean, School of Science, 1967-77.

SIR BRIAN PIPPARD. Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Cambridge; Cavendish Professor, 1971-82.

LOCKHART B. ROGERS (d. 1992). Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, 1974-86.

RUPERT WILDT (d. 1976). Professor of Astrophysics, Yale University, 1957-73.

•           MARK W. ZEMANSKY (d. 1981). Professor of Physics, City College, City University of New York.

 

Part Two. The Earth

•           R.J. CHORLEY. Professor of Geography, University of Cambridge; Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.

BERNHARD KUMMEL (d. 1980). Professor of Geology, Harvard University, 1962-80.

PAUL EDWIN POTTER. Professor of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio.

•WILLIAM STELLING VON ARX. Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, 1968-78.

BRIAN F. WINDLEY. Professor of Geology, University of Leicester, England.

•PETER J. WYLLIE. Professor of Geology and Chairman, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

 

Part Three. Life on Earth

•           N.J. BERRILL. Strathcona Professor of Zoology, McGill University, Montreal, 1946-65.

JOHN TYLER BONNER. George M. Moffett Professor Emeritus of Biology, Princeton University.

•V.G. DETHIER (d. 1993). Gilbert L. Woodside Professor of Zoology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 1975-93.

PETER W. FRANK. Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene.

CARL GANS. Professor of Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

ERNEST M. GIFFORD. Emeritus Professor of Botany, University of California, Davis.

526 Advisers

•LOUIS S. GOODMAN, M.D. Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

•GARRETT HARDIN. Emeritus Professor of Human Ecology, University of California,  Santa Barbara.

EMANUEL MARGOLIASH. Owen L. Coon Professor Emeritus of Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Professor of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago.

•           ERNST WALTER MAYR. Alexander Agassiz Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Harvard University.

•JOHN ALEXANDER MOORE. Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of California, Riverside.

•THEODORE T. PUCK. Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Genetics and Distinguished Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver; Director, Eleanor Roosevelt Institute 'Or Cancer Research.

G. LEDYARD STEBBINS. Emeritus Professor of Genetics, University of California, Davis.

JOHN W. THIERET. Professor of Botany, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights; Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, 1973-80.

•BIRGIT VENNESLAND. Head, Vennesland Research Laboratory, Max Planck Society, 1970-81; Director, Max Planck Institute for Cell Physiology, Berlin, 1968-70.

•PAUL B. WEISZ. Professor of Biology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

•RALPH H. WETMORE. Emeritus Professor of Botany, Harvard University.

•EMIL H. WHITE. D. Mead Johnson Professor of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

 

Part Four. Human Life

DONNA BERGEN, M.D. Associate Professor of Neurological Sciences, Rush University, Chicago.

WILLIAM CAMERON BOWMAN. Professor of Pharmacology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

•SIR WILFRID EDWARD LE GROS CLARK (d. 1971). Professor of Anatomy, University of Oxford.

ELIZABETH B. CONNELL, M.D. Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

HARVEY J. DWORKEN, M.D. Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

•           RUSSELL S. FISHER, M.D. (d. 1985). Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland, Baltimore. Professor of Forensic Pathology, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore.

MARK C. FISHMAN, M.D. Former Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard University.

CECIL A. GIBB. Emeritus Professor of Psychology, Australian National University, Canberra.

ROY R. GRINKER, SR., M.D. (d. 1993). Professor of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, 1969-85. Director, Institute for Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training, Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, 1951-76.

NORMAN K. HOLLENBERG, M.D. Professor of Radiology, Harvard University.

•F. CLARK HOWELL. Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

JOHN H. HUMPHREY, M.D. (d. 1987). Professor of Immunology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, University of London, 1976-81.

HOWARD F. HUNT. Clinical Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry, Cornell University Medical College, New York City.

AINSLEY IGGO. Professor of Veterinary Physiology, 1962-90; Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 1974-77 and 1985-90, University of Edinburgh.

JEROME P. KASSIRER, M.D. Sara Murray Jordan Professor of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston.

WILLIAM KESSEN. Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology; Professor of Pediatrics, Yale University.

•GREGORY A. KIMBLE. Emeritus Professor of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

•ERICH KLINGHAMMER. Associate Professor of Psychology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

LOUIS LASAGNA, M.D. Dean, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences; Dean far Academic Affairs, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts.

•WARREN STURGIS McCULLOCH, M.D. (d. 1969). Neurophysiologist, cyberneticist. Staff Member, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1952-69.

•WILLIAM J. McGUIRE. Professor of Psychology, Yale University.

W. BRYAN MATTHEWS, M.D. Emeritus Professor of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford.

•SIR PETER MEDAWAR (d. 1987). Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College, London, 1951-62. Director, National Institute, Mill Hill, London, 1962-71. Member, Scientific Staff Medical Research Council, England, 1971-84. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, 1960.

MICHAEL FRANCIS OLIVER, M.D. Professor, National Heart and Lung Institute, London. Duke of Edinburgh Professor of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, 1979-89.

D. KEITH PETERS. Regius Professor of Physic, University of Cambridge.

KEN RAWNSLEY (d. 1992). Professor and Head, Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff 1964-85.

DRUMMOND RENNIE, M.D. Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Deputy Editor (West), The Journal of the American Medical Association.

JAMES SCOTT ROBSON, M.D. Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Edinburgh.

FRED S. ROSEN, M.D. James L. Gamble Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard University.

IRVING SARNOFF. Emeritus Professor of Psychology, New York University, New York City.

WILFRED SIRCUS, M.D. Senior Consultant Physician, Gastrointestinal Unit; former Reader in Medicine, University of Edinburgh.

WILLIAM H. TALIAFERRO (d. 1973). Eliakim Hastings Moore Distinguished Service Professor of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 1954-60. Senior Immunologist, Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 1960-69.

ILZA VEITH. Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry and the History of Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco.

MAXWELL M. WINTROBE, M.D. (d. 1986). Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 1943-70.

 

Part Five. Human Society

FRANCIS A. ALLEN. Huber C Hurst Professor Emeritus of Law, University of Florida, Gainesville. Edson R. Sunderland Professor Emeritus of Law, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

CLEVELAND AMORY. Author and lecturer. President of The Fund for Animals.

Advisers 527

'WILLIAM J. BAUMOL. Professor of Economics, New York University, New York City. Emeritus Professor of Economics, Princeton University.

•DANIEL BELL. Henry Ford II Professor Emeritus of Social Science, Harvard University.

•GIULIANO H. BONFANTE. Former Professor of Linguistics, University of Turin, Italy.

•KENNETH E. BOULDING (d. 1993). Distinguished Professor of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1977-80.

TIMOTHY J. COLTON. Morris and Anna Feldberg Professor of Government and Russian Studies; Director, Russian Research Center, Harvard University.

•LEWIS A. COSER. Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Sociology, State University of New York at Stony Brook.

MAURICE CRANSTON (d. 1993). Professor of Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, 1969-85.

            SIGMUND DIAMOND. Giddings Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Columbia University.

            CARL J. FRIEDRICH (d. 1984). Eaton Professor of the Science of Government, Harvard University, 1955-71.

DAVID A. GOSLIN. President, American Institutes for Research in Behavioral Sciences, Washington, D.C.

ANDREW HACKER. Professor of Political Science, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing.

JOHN HACKETT. Consultant, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris; Director for Financial, Fiscal, and Enterprise Affairs, 1979-89.

ERIC P. HAMP. Robert Maynard Hutchins Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, of Psychology, and of Slavic Languages, University of Chicago.

JEROME HOLTZMAN. Author and journalist. Baseball Columnist, Chicago Tribune. Elected to the Writers' Wing, National Baseball Hall of Fame, 1990.

EDMUND JAMES KING. Emeritus Professor of Education, King's College, University of London.

JOHN RICHARD KRUEGER. Managing Editor, publications of the Mongolia Society, Indiana University, Bloomington; former Professor of Uralic and Altaic Studies.

SIR JOHN LYONS. Master of Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge.

DONALD GUNN MACRAE. Martin White Professor Emeritus of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London.

RUSSELL L. MATHEWS. Emeritus Professor of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra.

JEANNETTE R. MIRSKY (d. 1987). Visiting Fellow, Department of East Asian Studies, Princeton University, 1970-74.

HANS J. MORGENTHAU (d. 1980). Leonard Davis Distinguished Professor of Political Science, City College, City University of New York, 1968-74. Albert A. Michelson Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science and Modern History, University of Chicago, 1963-68.

•PAUL MUNDY. Professor of Sociology; Chairman, Department of Criminal Justice, Loyola University, Chicago.

ALEXANDER NOVE (d. 1994). Professor of Economics, University of Glasgow, 1963-82.

            KENYON E. POOLE (d. 1988). Professor of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

•C. HERMAN PRITCHETT. Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, and University of Chicago.

ALBERT J. REISS, JR. William Graham Sumner Professor of Sociology; Lecturer in Law, Yale University.

CHARLES SZLADITS (d. 1986). Adjunct Professor of Comparative Law, Columbia University.

•           SOL TAX (d. 1995). Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 1948-76. Director, Center for the Study of Man, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1968-76.

•CHARLES RAYMOND WHITTLESEY. Emeritus Professor of Finance and Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

AARON B. WILDAVSKY (d. 1993). Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 1965-93.

TURRELL V. WYLIE (d. 1984). Professor of Tibetan Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, 1972-84.

 

Part Six. Art

•RUDOLF ARNHEIM. Emeritus Professor of Psychology of Art, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University.

JOHN ELY BURCHARD (d. 1975). Professor of Humanities and Dean, School of Humanities and Social Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1948-64.

ALBERT BUSH-BROWN (d. 1994). Chancellor, Long Island University, Greenvale, New York, 1971-85.

•          ROBERT JESSE CHARLESTON (d. 1994). Keeper, Department of Ceramics, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1963-76.

•CLIFTON FADIMAN. Writer and editor. Member, Board of Editors, Encyclowedia Britannica.

•           FRANCIS FERGUSSON (d. 1986). Professor of Comparative Literature, Princeton University, 1973-81. Professor of Comparative Literature, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1953-69.

HELMUT GERNSHEIM (d. 1995). Photo-historian and author. Founder of the Gernsheim Collection. Regents Professor of Art, University of California, Riverside, 1984. Guest Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1985 and 1989.

•JOHN GLOAG (d. 1981). Novelist and writer on architecture and industrial design.

OLEG GRABAR. Professor, School of Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. Aga Khan Professor of Islamic Art, Harvard University, 1981-90.

•           RICHARD GRIFFITH (d. 1969). Lecturer on Motion Pictures, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 1967-69. Curator, Museum of Modern Art Film Library, New York City, 1951-65.

•           RICHARD HOGGART. Warden, Goldsmiths' College, University of London, 1976-84. Professor of English, University of Birmingham, England, 1962-73.

HANS HUTH (d. 1977). Curator of Painting, 1944-57,

Art Institute of Chicago; Curator of Decorative Arts, 1958-63.

ARTHUR KNIGHT (d. 1991). Professor of Cinema, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1967-85.

                        EDWARD LOCKSPEISER (d. 1973). Officier d'Academie, Paris. Writer and broadcaster on music.

DENNIS K. McINTIRE. Music historian and lexicographer. Editor, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Contributor to The New Grove Dictionary of American Music and others.

•           ROY McMULLEN (d. 1984). Author, critic, and art historian.

WILLIAM W. MELNITZ (d. 1989). Professor of Theater Arts, University of California, Los Angeles, 1956-67; Dean, College of Fine Arts, 1961-67.

•           LEONARD B. MEYER. Benjamin Franklin Professor of Music and Humanities, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

528 Advisers

•MICHAEL MORROW (d. 1994). Music Editor, Encyclopxdia Britannica. Director, Musica Reservata, London.

RAY NASH (d. 1982). Professor of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1949-70.

BRUNO NETTL. Professor of Music and of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

•BEAUMONT NEWHALL (d. 1993). Visiting Professor of Art, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1971-84. Director, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, 1958-71.

DOROTHY MARGARET PARTINGTON (d. 1990). Literary critic and historian.

•SIR HERBERT READ (d. 1968). Poet and critic. Watson Gordon Professor of Fine Art, University of Edinburgh, 193133. Editor, The Burlington Magazine, 1933-39. Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry, Harvard University, 1953-54.

•RICHARD ROUD (d. 1989). Film critic, The Guardian, Manchester, 1963-69. Program Director, London (1959-63) and New York (1963-87) Film Festivals.

•GEORGE SAVAGE (d. 1982). Art consultant. Author of Porcelain Through the Ages; Pottery Through the Ages; and others.

NICOLAS SLONIMSKY (d. 1995). Conductor, composer, writer, and editor. Lecturer in Music, University of California, Los Angeles, 1964-67. Editor, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 1949-93.

•WOLFGANG STECHOW (d. 1974). Professor of Fine Arts, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, 1940-63.

•JOSHUA C. TAYLOR (d. 1981). Director, National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1970-81. William Rainey Harper Professor of Humanities and Professor of Art, University of Chicago, 1963-74.

WALTER TERRY (d. 1982). Dance critic and editor, Saturday Review magazine; New York Herald Tribune; and others.

•EVERARD M. UPJOHN (d. 1978). Professor of Fine Arts, Columbia University, 1951-70.

•PIERRE VERLET. Chief Curator of Art Objects from the Middle Ages to the Modern Period, Louvre Museum, Paris, 1945-65. Chief Curator, National Museum of Sevres Porcelain, Sevres, France, 1945-65. Chief Curator, Cluny Museum, Paris, 1945-65.

•RENE WELLEK (d. 1995). Sterling Professor of Comparative Literature, Yale University, 1952-72.

•GLYNNE WILLIAM GLADSTONE WICKHAM. Emeritus Professor of Drama, University of Bristol, England; Dean, Faculty of Arts, 1970-72.

•RAYMOND (HENRY) WILLIAMS (d. 1988). Professor of Drama, University of Cambridge, 1974-83; Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, 1961-88.

C. BARRIE WILSON (d. 1995). Senior Vice-Principal, University of Edinburgh, 1990-95; Professor of Architectural Science, 1968-95.

•PAUL S. WINGERT (d. 1974). Professor of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University.

•BRUNO ZEVI. Professor of Architectural History, University of Rome, 1963-79.

 

Part Seven. Technology

BRIAN D.O. ANDERSON. Professor of Systems Engineering and Director, Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra.

GRACE ROGERS COOPER. Museum consultant. Curator, Division of Textiles, National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1946-76.

•CONSTANTINE APOSTOLOS DOXIADIS (d. 1975). Chairman, Doxiadis Associates International, Athens; Chairman, Board of Directors, Doxiadis Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. Chairman, Board of Directors, Athens Technological Organization. President, Athens Center of Ekistics.

•EUGENE S. FERGUSON. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Delaware, Newark. Curator of Technology, Hagley Museum, Greenville, Delaware, 1969-79.

NEAL FITZSIMONS. Principal, Engineering Counsel, Kensington, Maryland.

S. PAUL JOHNSTON (d. 1985). Director, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1964-69.

•MELVIN KRANZBERG (d. 1995). Callaway Professor of the History of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 1972-88.

WARREN PERRY MASON (deceased). Senior Research Associate, Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, 1969-77. Head of Mechanics Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, 1948-65.

•HARVEY G. MEHLHOUSE. Chairman of the Board, Western Electric Company, New York City, 1971-72; President, 1969-71; Vice President, 1965-69.

HARRY F. OLSON (d. 1982). Staff Vice President, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, New Jersey, 1966-67; Director, Acoustical and Electromechanical Laboratory, 1942-66.

•ROBERT SMITH WOODBURY (d. 1983). Professor of the History of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.

 

Part Eight. Religion

CHARLES JOSEPH ADAMS. Emeritus Professor of Islamic Studies, McGill University, Montreal. Editorial Board, Encyclopaedia of Religion.

SALO WITTMAYER BARON (d. 1989). Professor of Jewish History, Literature, and Institutions, Columbia University, 1930-63; Director, Center of Israel and Jewish Studies, 1950-68.

THE REV. COLMAN J. BARRY, O.S.B. (d. 1994). Regents Professor of History, Saint John's University, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1951-94; Director, Institute for Spirituality, 1977-83.

•ARTHUR LLEWELLYN BASHAM (d. 1986). Professor of Asian Civilizations, Australian National University, Canberra.

•THE REV. JAMES T. BURTCHAELL. Professor of Theology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana; Provost, 1970-77.

P. JOSEPH CAHILL, S.J. (d. 1995). Professor of Religious Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

•THE REV. J.V. LANGMEAD CASSERLEY (d. 1978). Professor of Apologetics, Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois, 1959-77.

EDWARD J.D. CONZE (d. 1979). Visiting Professor of Religious Studies, University of Lancaster, England, 1973-75.

H. BYRON EARHART. Professor of Religion, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo.

GEORGE WOLFGANG FORELL. Carver Professor Emeritus of Religion, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

JUDAH GOLDIN. Emeritus Professor of Post-Biblical Hebrew Literature, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

HERBERT V. GUENTHER. Emeritus Professor of Far Eastern Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.

Advisers 529

•ICHIRO HORI (d. 1974). Professor of the History of Religions, Seijo University and Kokugakuin University, Tokyo.

THORKILD JACOBSEN (d. 1993). Professor of Assyriology, Harvard University, 1962-74.

CHARLES H. LONG. Professor of Religious Studies; Director, Center for Black Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.

THE REV. GEORGE W. MAcRAE, S.J. (d. 1985). Stillman Professor of Roman Catholic Theological Studies, Divinity School, Harvard University, 1973-85.

MARTIN E. MARTY. Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Service Professor, Divinity School, University of Chicago. Senior Editor, The Christian Century.

THE REV. JOHN MEYENDORFF (d. 1992). Dean,

St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, Tuckahoe, New York, 1984-92; Professor of Church History and Patristics, 1959-92. Professor of Byzantine and East European History, Fordham University, New York City, 1967-92.

HAJIME NAKAMURA. Founder-Director, Eastern Institute, Inc., Tokyo. Emeritus Professor of Indian and Buddhist Philosophy, University of Tokyo.

•JAROSLAV JAN PELIKAN. Sterling Professor of History, Yale University. President, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

•RABBI JAKOB JOSEF PETUCHOWSKI (d. 1991). Sol and Arlene Bronstein Professor of Judeo-Christian Studies, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1981-91.

J. COERT RYLAARSDAM. Emeritus Professor of Old Testament Theology, Divinity School, University of Chicago. Emeritus Professor of Theology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

R.J. ZWI WERBLOWSKY. Emeritus Professor of Comparative Religion, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Part Nine. The History of Mankind

FREDERICK B. ARTZ (d. 1983). Professor of History, Oberlin College, Ohio, 1934-62.

•JACQUES BARZUN. University Professor Emeritus, Columbia University; Dean of Faculties and Provost, 1958-67.

DAVID BIRMINGHAM. Professor of Modern History, University of Kent at Canterbury, England.

JOHN F. CADY. Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History, Ohio University, Athens.

AINSLIE T. EMBREE. Emeritus Professor of History, Columbia University.

JOSEPH FLETCHER (d. 1984). Professor of Chinese and Central Asian History, Harvard University, 1972-84.

HERBERT S. KLEIN. Professor of History, Colurnbia University.

PHILIP A. KUHN. Professor of History; Director, John King Fairbank Center for East Asian Research, Harvard University.

DONALD P. LITTLE. Professor, Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University, Montreal.

DONALD M. LOWE. Emeritus Professor of History, San Francisco State University.

JAMES G. LYDON. Professor of History, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh.

PAUL T. MASON. Professor of History, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh.

HERBERT GEORGE NICHOLAS. Rhodes Professor Emeritus of American History and Institutions, University of Oxford; Fellow of New College, Oxford, 1951-78.

DONALD MAcGILLIVRAY NICOL. Koraes Professor Emeritus of Byzantine and Modern Greek History, Language, and Literature, King's College, University of London. Director, Gennadius Library, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1989-92.

RICHARD E. PIPES. Frank B. Baird, Jr., Professor of History, Harvard University.

GORDON R. WILLEY. Bowditch Professor Emeritus of Mexican and Central American Archaeology, Harvard University.

GEORGE MACKLIN WILSON. Professor of History and of East Asian Languages and Cultures, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Part Ten. The Branches of Knowledge

MONROE C. BEARDSLEY (d. 1985). Professor of Philosophy, Temple University, Philadelphia, 1969-84.

•OTTO ALLEN BIRD. Emeritus Professor of Arts and Letters, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.

PETER G. BROWN. Professor of Public Policy; Director, Environmental Policy Programs, University of Maryland, College Park.

•WING-TSIT CHAN (d. 1994). Anna R.D. Gillespie Professor of Philosophy, Chatham College, Pittsburgh, 1966-82. Professor of Chinese Philosophy and Culture, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1942-66.

RODERICK M. CHISHOLM. Andrew Mellon Professor Emeritus of the Humanities and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

JAMES DANIEL COLLINS (d. 1985). Professor of Philosophy, St. Louis University, Missouri.

ALAN DONAGAN (d. 1991). Professor of Philosophy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,

1984-91.

•WILLIAM H. DRAY. Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and of History, University of Ottawa.

ELDON DYER (d. 1993). Distinguished Professor of Mathematics, Graduate School, City University of New York, 1971-92.

•NORWOOD HANSON (d. 1967). Professor of Philosophy, Yale University, 1963-67.

•J.H. HEXTER (d. 1996). Distinguished Historian in Residence, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 197886. Charles L. Stille Professor of History, Yale University, 1967-78.

•THE REV. ERNAN V. McMULLIN. Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.

•KARL MENGER (d. 1985). Professor of Mathematics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, 1946-71.

•ARTHUR NORMAN PRIOR (d. 1969). Fellow, Balliol College, University of Oxford. Professor of Philosophy, Manchester University, 1959-66.

•NICHOLAS RESCHER. University Professor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh. Editor, American Philosophical Quarterly.

MARK A. RONAN. Mason Professor of Pure Mathematics, University of Birmingham, England.

PAUL ARTHUR SCHILPP (d. 1993). Professor of Philosophy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1950-65. Distinguished Professor, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1965-77.

•SEYMOUR SCHUSTER. Professor of Mathematics, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota.

JULIUS R. WEINBERG (d. 1971). Vilas Professor of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

530 Authors of Propxdia Essays

Geography

NATHANIEL 0. ABELSON. Former Map Librarian, Dag Hammarskjiild Library, United Nations, New York City.

IBRAHIM A. ABU-LUGHOD. Vice President, Birzeit University, West Bank. Professor of Political Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1967-93.

GEORGE I. BLANKSTEN. Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

NORTON S. GINSBURG. Emeritus Professor of Geography, University of Chicago.

CHAUNCY D. HARRIS. Samuel N. Harper Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Geography, University of Chicago.

HELVI A. KALMAN. Writer and Editor, Department of Public Information, United Nations, New York City, 1958-79.

C.W. MINKEL. Associate Vice-Chancellor; Dean, Graduate School, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

HANS E. PANOFSKY. Curator of Africana, Northwestern University Library, Evanston, Illinois, 1959-91.

G. ETZEL PEARCY (d. 1980). Professor of Geography, California State University, Los Angeles, 1969-73.

JOSEPH E. SCHWARTZBERG. Professor of Geography, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

IVOR G. WILKS. Melville J. Herskovits Professor of African Studies, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

 

Authors of Propaedia Essays

Part One

NIGEL CALDER. Physicist and science writer. Science Correspondent, New Statesman, 1966-71. Editor, New Scientist, 1962-66. Author of Robots; Technopolis: Social Control of the Uses of Science; and others.

Part Two

PETER J. WYLLIE. Petrologist, educator, and author. Professor of Geology and Chairman, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Author of Ultramafic and Related Rocks; The Dynamic Earth; and others.

Part Three

RENE DUBOS (d. 1982). Microbiologist, pathologist, and author. Professor of Pathology, Rockefeller University, New York City, 1957-71. Author of So Human an Animal; Mirage of Health; A God Within; and others.

Part Four

LOREN EISELEY (d. 1977). Anthropologist, poet, and essayist. Benjamin Franklin Professor of Anthropology and the History of Science, University of Pennsylvania, 1961-77; Curator of Early Man, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 1948-77. Author of The Immense Journey; The Invisible Pyramid; and others.

Part Five

HAROLD D. LASSWELL (d. 1978). Political scientist and author. Professor of Law, 1946-70, and of Political Science, 1952-70, Yale University. Author of Psychopathology and Politics; Politics: Who Gets What, When, How; A Pre-View of Policy Sciences; and others.

Part Six

MARK VAN DOREN (d. 1972). Poet, critic, and teacher. Professor of English, Columbia University, 1920-59. Author of lyric and narrative poems, novels, stories, plays, and works of criticism and biography.

Part Seven

PETER RITCHIE RITCHIE-CALDER, BARON RITCHIE-CALDER (d. 1982). Author, journalist, and educator. Senior Fellow, Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Santa Barbara, California, 1972-75. Montague Burton Professor of International Relations, University of Edinburgh, 1961-67. Author of Birth of the Future; Medicine and Man; The Evolution of the Machine; and others.

Part Eight

WILFRED CANTWELL SMITH. Educator and author. Emeritus Professor of the Comparative History of Religion, Harvard University. Author of Islam in Modern History; The Meaning and End of Religion; Questions of Religious Truth; and others.

Part Nine

JACQUES BARZUN. Historian, educator, and author. University Professor Emeritus, Columbia University; Dean of Faculties and Provost, 1958-67. Author of Berlioz and the Romantic Century; Darwin, Marx, and Wagner; The House of Intellect; On Writing, Publishing, and Editing; and others.

Part Ten

MORTIMER J. ADLER (d. 2001). Philosopher and editor. Director of the Institute for Philosophical Research, 1952-95. Editor of the Syntopicon of Great Books of the Western World; Director of Planning, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fifteenth Edition; Chairman, Board of Editors, 1974-95. Author of The Idea of Freedom; The Conditions of Philosophy; The Common Sense of Politics; and others.

 

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