Bridgid Finn
Senior Research Scientist

I am a Senior Research Scientist in the Cognitive Science division at Educational Testing Services, an educational non-profit, in Princeton, NJ.

My primary research interests are in the processes that regulate learning and memory.  I explore these topics by examining the cognitive and metacognitive processes underlying student's learning and assessment behaviors.


Gjicali, K., Finn, B. & Hebert, D. (in press). Effects of belief generation on cross-cultural concept learning in a game-based social simulation. Computers and Education.

Halderman, L.*, Finn, B.*, Long, N. M. Lockwood, J.R. & Kahana, M. J. (in press). EEG correlates of engagement during assessment. (ETS RR). Educational Testing Service. *indicates shared first authorship

Finn, B. (in press). What more can we learn from teaching evaluations? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.


Finn, B., Arslan, B. & Walsh, M. (in press). Applying cognitive theory to the human essay rating scoring process. Applied Measurement in Education.


Finn, B., Wendler, C., Pedley, K., & Arslan, B. (2018). Does the time between scoring session impact scoring accuracy? (ETS RR 18-31). Educational Testing Service.

Rikoon, S., Finn, B., Jackson, T., & Inglese, P. (2018). Crosscutting Literature on STEAM Ecosystems, Expectancy-Value Theory, and Social Emotional Learning: A Metadata Synthesis. (ETS RR). Educational Testing Service.


Finn, B. (2018). Metacognitive evaluations during science simulations: How do ratings of confidence and understanding relate to science assessment inquiry processes? Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6, 117-129.


Carniero, P., Lapa, A., & Finn, B. (2018). The effect of unsuccessful retrieval on children’s subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166 400-420.


Finn, B., Thomas, R., & Rawson, K.A. (2018). Learning more from feedback: Elaborating feedback with examples enhances concept learning. Learning and Instruction, 54, 104-113.


Hoogerheide, V., Vink, M., Finn, B., Raes, A., Paas, F. (2018) How to bring the news… Peak-end Effects in Children’s Affective Responses to Peer Assessments of Their Social Behavior. Cognition and Emotion, 32, 1114-1121


Finn, B. (2017). A framework of episodic updating: An account of memory updating after retrieval. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol 67,  173-211. Academic Press.

Ling, G., Attali, Y. & Finn, B. (2017). Is a Computerized Adaptive Test More Motivating Than a Fixed Item Test? Applied Psychological Measurement, 7, 495-211.


Finn, B. & Miele, D. B. (2016). Hitting a high note on math tests: Remembered success influences test preferences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 42, 17-38.

Kornell, N. & Finn, B. (2016). Self regulated learning: An overview of theory and data. Self-regulated learning: An overview of theory and data. In J. Dunlosky & S. Tauber (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Metamemory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Thomas, R. C., Finn, B., & Jacoby, L.L. (2016). Metacognitive judgments at the category level predict test performance with educational concepts. Metacognition and Learning, 11, 257-274.


Finn, B. (2015). Measuring motivation in low stakes assessment. (ETS RR-15-19). Educational Testing Service.

Finn, B. (2015).  Retrospective utility of educational experiences:  Opportunities to broaden motivation theory and classroom applications. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 388-390.

Finn, B. (2015).  Retrospective utility of educational experiences: Converging research from education and decision making. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 374-380.

Finn, B. & Tauber, S.K. (2015). When confidence is not a signal of knowing: How students' experiences and beliefs about processing fluency can lead to miscalibrated confidence.  Educational Psychology Review, 27, 567-586.


Finn, B. & Metcalfe, J. (2014). Overconfidence in children’s multi-trial judgments of learning. Learning and Instruction, 32, 1-9.


Finn, B. & Roediger, H.L. (2013). Interfering effects of retrieval in learning new information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 1665-1681.

Metcalfe, J. & Finn, B. (2013). Metacognition and control of study choice in children. Metacognition and Learning, 8, 19-46.


Finn, B., Roediger, H. L., & Rosenzweig, E. (2012). Reconsolidation from negative emotional pictures: Is successful retrieval required? Memory & Cognition, 40, 1031-1035.

Wahlheim, C. N., Finn, B., & Jacoby, L. L. (2012). Multiple bases for category learning judgments: Effects of repetition and family size. Memory & Cognition, 49, 703-716.

Metcalfe, J., & Finn, B. (2012). Hypercorrection of high confidence errors in children. Learning and Instruction, 22, 253-261.

Roediger, H. L., Finn, B., & Weinstein, Y. (2012). Applications of cognitive science for education. In Della Sala & Anderson (Eds.), Neuroscience in Education: The good the bad and the ugly (pp. 128-154). Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Son, L., Kornell, N., Finn, B., & Cantlon, J. (2012). Metacognition and the social animal. In Briñol & DeMarree (Eds.), Social Metacognition. Frontiers of Social Psychology: New York, Psychology Press.



Finn, B. & Roediger, H.L. (2011).  Enhancing retention through reconsolidation:  Negative emotional arousal following retrieval enhances later recall. Psychological Science, 22, 781-786.


Metcalfe, J. & Finn B.  (2011).  People’s correction of high confidence errors:  did they know it all along? Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory and Cognition, 37, 437-448.


Miele, D., Finn, B., Molden, D. (2011).  Does easily learned mean easily remembered? It depends on your beliefs about intelligence.  Psychological Science, 22, 320-324.


Schwartz, B., Son, L.K., Kornell, N. & Finn, B. (2011).  Four principles of memory: A guide to improving learning efficiency. International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 21, 7-15.




Finn, B. (2010). Ending on a high note: Adding a better end to difficult study. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 1548-1553.

Finn, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2010).  Scaffolding feedback to maximize long-term error correction. Memory & Cognition, 38, 951-961.




Metcalfe, J., Kornell, N. & Finn, B. (2009).  Delayed versus immediate feedback in children's and adults' vocabulary learning.  Memory & Cognition, 37, 1077-1087.


Finn, B. (2008).  Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control.  Memory & Cognition, 36, 813-821.


Finn, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2008). Judgments of learning are influenced by memory for past test. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 19-34.


Metcalfe, J. & Finn, B. (2008a). Familiarity and retrieval processes in delayed judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, 34, 1084-1097.


Metcalfe, J. & Finn, B. (2008b).  Evidence that judgments of learning are causally related to study choice. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 174-179.


Finn, B. & Metcalfe, J. (2007). The role of memory for past test in the underconfidence with practice effect.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33, 238-244.

Reviews and Commentary

  • Finn. B. (2012). What is metacognition? (Review of the book The Taxonomy of Metacognition).  PsycCritiques.
  • Finn. B. & Weinstein, Y. (2010).  Eric Kandel and the new science of mind. (Review of the motion picture In Search of Memory, With the Neuroscientist Eric Kandel, Winner of the Nobel Prize).  PsycCritiques. Contemporary Psychology, 55.