Water in fuel Emulsions

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History of Water in Fuel Emulsions 

Water in fuel blends are still relatively unknown and unaccepted by the  majority of people.  Introducing water into the combustion chamber has been around for some time, through water injection systems and emulsification of water into fuel. Although water injection is a worthy subject, we will focus on emulsification technology as it is a method of substantially reducing greenhouse emissions that could be rapidly implimented as a fuel,  in conventional autos, without the need for major  engine modifications.

Rumours exist that Germany experimented with water in fuel emulsions and synthetic  fuels after much of their fuel supply was destroyed during WWII. For the sake of  demonstrability we will stick to more  easily available documented sources.


Directory of Emulsified Fuels History

1931 Joseph Vance -  liquid fuel of hydrocarbon and 40 to 60% water

1935 Autoxygen Inc. - Up to 50% water and gasoline mix

1935 Autoxygen Inc. - 10 to 50% water and gasoline mix

1943 The Bristol Aeroplane Company Limited -  Mechanical Emulsion prior to injection

1944 Sol B. Wiezer and Vaman R. Kokatnur  - Up to 50% water in hydrocaron fuels

1951 Bernard Magui and  Andre Gerard - apparatus to emulsifiy water into fuel

1971 Eric C. Cottell - aparatus to emulsify up to 50% water into hydrocaron fuels

1974 Access to Energy article on Mr. Cottell's emulsified fuels

1974 "A Solution to Air Pollution" Newsweek

1979 "Fire Resistant Diesel Fuel" Southwest Research Institute (SwRI)

1987 Gerold Kunz of Zurich, Switzerland, Assignor for Zugol AG files patent for water in fuel oil emulsions.

1991 Rudolf W. Gunnerman filed a U, S. Patent for 2o to 80% water emuslified into hydrocarbon fuels.

1994 "Engines That Run on Water" Business Week

1994 Gunnerman's A-55 Limited Partnership linked up with Caterpillar's Engine Division to form Advanced Fuels LLC, a joint venture to test and promote water in fuel emulsions

1995 Nevada certifies Advanced Fuels water in fuel emulsions as a "Clean Alternative Fuel"

1997 "Burning water"  World Mining Equipment

1997 A-55 and Caterpillar dissolve joint venture to pursue different programmes and better capitalise on business opportunities.

1997 Lemelson-MIT Program name Dr. Gunnerman the inventor of the week

2001 California Air Resources Board (ARB) verifies PuriNOx  as Alternate diesel fuel

2002 California Air Resources Board (ARB) verifies Aquazole as Alternate diesel fuel

2002 PuriNOx receives EPA fuel registration

2003 European Emulsion Fuels Manufacturers Association (EEFMA) formed

2003 "Retail diesel/water emulsion may become common in Italy" Diesel Fuel News

2004 The Sacramento Emergency Clean Air Transportation (SECAT) Program names diesel/water emulsion projects as eligable for funds

2005 Environmental Defense Fund includes overview of diesel/water emulsions in the "Cleaner Diesel Handbook"

2006 Federal fuel tax reductions for diesel-water fuel emulsions.



On June 24, 1931 Joseph A. Vance of Ontario, California filed for a U. S. Patent
Title:
Liquid Fuel
excerpts:
"This application relates to a process for making liquid fuel for use in heating apparatus or combustion engines and the like, and it is a continuation in part of the application of Joseph A. Vance, serially numbered 223,491, for liquid fuel and method of making same, filed October 1, 1927.

The purpose of my invention is to form a liquid fuel by combining in intimate relationship water and any suitable hydrocarbon, such as crude petroleum, gasoline, or other byproduct of crude petroleum under certain pressures and at certain temperatures so that the compound resulting from the process is rendered stable and possessive of properties beyond those characteristic of ordinary emulsions, and is well adapted for use as a liquid fuel for ordinary purposes.

In practicing my invention, I intimately mix the water and the hydrocarbon by means of any suitable mixing apparatus, such as a churn or similar structure, The quantity of water utilized may vary from twenty to ninety per cent, while the quantity of hydrocarbon, depending upon the nature thereof, may vary from ten to eighty per cent of the resulting solution. In practice, I have found the use of forty per cent water and sixty per cent crude petroleum to form a solution best adapted, when certain crude oils are used for forming the fuel.

In some cases in putting my invention into practice, I have placed in the above solution a minute quantity of quince seed solution, although stable fuel oil has been obtained by my process without the addition of this substance.

The next step in my process consists in placing the above solution under a pressure of from 7,000 to 20,000 pounds per square inch at a temperature of approximately 98 Fahrenheit.

In practice I have found that the use of an initial pressure of 9,000 pounds per square inch with a subsequent reduction of the pressure to 8,000 pounds per square inch, forms a high-grade and stable fuel. Any suitable pressure-exerting apparatus may be used for the above operation."

"My product has been found upon analysis to produce upon combustion a number of heat units equal to and in some cases greater than that provided by combustion of the hydrocarbon used in the process."

U. S. Patent # 1,926,071 Sept, 12, 1933

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On August 26, 1935 Vaman R. Kokatnur, assignor for Autoxygen Inc. a New York corporation applied for  a patent.

excerpts:

"Various fuels have also been proposed heretofore which consist of emulsions of water and gasoline or other hydro-carbon oils, these emulsions having usually been made by mixing the oil and water in the presence of an emulsifying or dispersing agent such as metal soap, an alkali metal soap, or as suggested in my copending application.. a compound alkali soap such as an amonia soap or a soap made from an organic amino compound, such as a primary, secondary or tertiary amine. "

"I have disclosed a motor fuel consisting esentially of a hydro-carbon oil with which there is emulsified anywhere up to 50% by weight of water by the use of a compound alkali emuslsifying agent used in small quantities, say  1 to 3%."

Patent # 2,111,100  March 15, 1938

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On October 1, 1935 Vaman R. Kokatnur, assignor for Autoxygen Inc. a New York corporation applied for  a patent. 

excerpts:

 "While it is within the scope of the present invention to provide various types of standard fuels having water intimately incorporated in them in various percentages,  a preferred form of the invention involves the use of an oil and water emulsion such for instance as a gasoline and water emulsion, wherein the amount of water incorporated in the gasoline ranges from 10 to 50% by weight of the latter."

"I have made certain discoveries upon which the present invention is largly based and as will be later discussed in detail, have established by scientific tests made be disinterested experts, that an oil and water emulsion made in accordance with these  principles will give anywhere from 25 to 60% more power than a corresponding amount of gasoline, will permit much higher compression ratios to be used without increasing the temperature in the combustion chamber and is capable of use with standard internal combustion engines without any alteration in the present types of carburetion apparatus or in any other part of the engine or its associated mechanism."

Patent # 2,152,196  March 28, 1939

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On February 8, 1943 George Oswald Anderson and Alfred Cyril Pitt of Bristol, England
assignors to The Bristol Aeroplane Company Limited also of Bristol, England, filed a patent.
title:
Supercharged Internal-Combustion Engine

excerpts:
"The present invention concerns improvements in or relating to supercharged internal-combustion engines and is of particular advantage for use in aircraft engines although not limited thereto.The invention will, however, be described with reference to aircraft engines.


At the higher pressures of supercharge which are used in such engines (for example during take-off and all-out level flight) there is a tendency to detonation even though additional fuel is passed to the engine to act as an internal cylinder coolant. Supplying an anti-detonant to the engine not only cures this tendency but enables supercharge-pressures to be employed which are substantially in exess of the maximun permissible without the anti-detonant and enables a reduction of some 15 to 20% of the normal fuel consumption to be made. Although these advantages may be obtained over the whole range of operation of the engine by continuous supply of an anti-detonant, nevertheless it is normal to restrict the use of anti-detonant to periods of short duration when the higher supercharge pressures exist; consequently only a limited supply is carried in the aircraft. When this limited supply has become exhausted it is essential to ensure that conditions of excess supercharge pressure and weakened fuel-mixture referred to cannot be brought about.


It is the object of the present invention to provide a simple apparatus for effectiong a supply of anti-detonant, and automatically fulfilling the other requisite conditions specified."


"In the foregoing description reference has been made to anti-detonants generally and for this purpose there may be used water, or a mixture of water and alcohol or a mixture of methanol and water, but it is to be understood that the invention is not restricted to the use of these anti-detonants."


U. S. Patent # 2,392,365 January 8, 1946

Note:

Sometimes there is a fine line between water injection systems and emulsification systems.  Apparatus that reduce fuel volume and inject water simultaneously are considered water injection systems for the prupose of this report.  Since the above apparatus mixes the water into the fuel, thereby effecting a mechanical emulsion, prior to injection it is included as emulsification technology.
 

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On January 28, 1944 Sol B. Wiezer and Vaman R. Kokatnur applied for a patent. 

excerpts:

"It is known that combustion engine efficiency and overall mileage can be improved by addition to the fuel of water and still more efficiently when the water is dispersed in the fuel as an emulsion wherein the water is the internal phase. See U. S. Patents 2,111,100 and 2, 152,196 and Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol 34 (1942) pages 575-580. The quantity of water varies  and may be used in any quantity up to 50%, quantities in the range of 25- 40% being preferred."

"Primary disadvantages of the use of emulsified fuel have been public resistance to use of a milky colodial mixture  where it has been accustomed to use water white liquid fuels; an inherent distrust of placing free  water in the fuel tanks; possible instability of preformed emulsions over long storage periods; and in the case of aircraft particulary the disadvantage of transporting large quantities of water which is heavier than an equivalent volume of fuel."

U. S. Patent # 2,461,580  Feb. 15, 1949

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On January, 29, 1951 Bernard Magui and  Andre Gerard, both from France, applied for a U. S. patent for a "sonic whistle" a type of pezio electric emulsification mechanism.

"The ternary air/water/fuel mixture after passing through the supersonic flux, will form a homogenous and uncondensable mixture."
U.S. patent # 2,704,535 issued March 22, 1955

Note:

They suggested using this mechanism in conjunction with internal combustion engines and oil burners such as in a boiler.

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On March 1, 1971 Eric C. Cottell of Long Island N. Y. filed a patent application for:

 "A combustion apparatus and process in which a water-in-oil emulsion of liquid fuel, such as liquid hydrocarbons, containing from 10 to 50 percent water, the emulsion being produced without any substantial emulsifying agent and preferably by sonic agitation, is burned."

Excerpt:
"The internal combustion engine fed with a gasoline and water emulsion atomized into the air ran with the same power as on straight gasoline, and pollutants were reduced, unburned hydrocarbons practically zero, carbon monoxide greatly reduced, and nitrogen oxides still more reduced. The figures illustrate the pollutant concentrations, the engine running at about 5,000 rpm under load. It will be noted that the pollutant concentrations are far below present emission standards and even meet more rigid standards proposed for later years."

U. S. patent #3,749,318  July 31, 1973

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Access to Energy article on Mr. Cottell's emulsified fuels. 

April 1, 1974 

"Can you do the same thing with gasoline to get more mileage out of a car? Very probably yes. Perhaps even more so, for apart from burning the gasoline more efficiently, there will be a "steam engine" effect, and the cleaner burning could possibly reduce or eliminate the need for gas-guzzling emission control devices."

http://www.accesstoenergy.com/view/atearchive/s76a3714.htm

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Originally printed in "Newsweek", June 17, 1974

A Solution to Air Pollution "In the wake of the energy-crisis a 50-year-old British-born inventor named Eric Cottell has come up with an ingeniously simple and economically practical solution -- one that is now exciting industry and government officials alike.
"In the conventional combustion process, fuel is combined with air and turned. The result is carbon dioxide, water vapor and heavy oxides of nitrogen, which are a prime cause of chemical smog. Cottell reasoned that if water could largely replace air as a source of oxygen in combustion, this would avoid the large amounts of nitrogen introduced by the air -- and thus eliminate much of the noxious nitrogen oxides.
"To accomplish this, he turned to a device he had patented 22 years ago -- an ultrasonic reactor that emulsifies heavy liquids and is widely used today to prepare such products as Worcestershire sauce, ketchup, cosmetics and paint. By refining the reactor, Cottell was able to break water into particles about one fifty-thousandth of an inch in diameter and to disperse them evenly in oil (or gasoline) to create an emulsion that was 70 percent oil and 30 percent water. When this emulsion was burned, Cottell found :
(1) that there were far fewer waste products and
(2) that the small water droplets expand on heating, then explode into steam, in turn shattering the oil into even finer particles, and thus increasing the surface area of the fuel exposed for burning.
"Last month Cottell divided his time between Washington, in talks with officials of the Federal Energy Office, and Detroit, where he consulted with engineers working to meet the tight 1976 automobile-emission requirements. So far, auto tests have shown that with an ultrasonic reactor attached to a carburetor, a car can get almost DOUBLE the normal miles per gallon of gasolinge -- with neglible exhausts.
Cottell's company, Tymponic Corp. of Long Island, N.Y., is also about to produce units for home oil burners that will be no larger than a flashlight and cost $100 to $150.
"Last winter, two Long Island schools converted to Cottell's system, and both reduced their fuel usage by about 25%. Adelphi University reports that it SAVED more than 3,500 gallons of oil per week! -- and REDUCED soot output by 98 PERCENT."

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Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) 

Fire Resistant Diesel Fuel

"San Antonio, TX -- Sept. 20, 1979 -- The development of a fire-resistant diesel fuel, containing from five to 10 percent water stably suspended in the form of very small droplets, has been recognized as one of the 100 most significant new technology advances of the year.

The new hybrid fuel was chosen as a winner in the 1979 I-R 100 Competition sponsored by Industrial Research/Development, officials of the publication announced Thursday in Chicago."

" "This fire protection is gained without unduly impairing the fuel's performance," Weatherford said. "Engine performance tests to date show that the combustion efficiency of the hybrid fuel is at least as good as that of regular diesel fuel. It performs well in standard diesel engines without modification." "

"The emulsifying agents, obtained from commercial sources, were prepared by reacting diethanolamine with oleic acid."

http://www.swri.edu/9what/releases/Pre1996/fireresi.htm 

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On October 5, 1987 Gerold Kunz of Zurich, Switzerland, Assignor for Zugol AG also of  Switzerland, applied for a patent.

Title:

Method of and an apparatus for producing a water-in-oil emulsion

Abtract:

"The production of a water-in-oil emulsion proceeds by an exact dosing of the desired water-oil ratio in a dosing apparatus. The dosed mixture is fed into a mixing chamber for producing the emulsion proper. Thereafter, the emulsion is fed out of the chamber via a funnel-like narrowing outlet into a storage tank, within which the emulsion is kept in permanent motion. A partial quantity of the emulsion is drawn off this chamber and returned possibly together with newly made emulsion to the mixing chamber. A further partial quantity of the emulsion is drawn off the storage tank and fed to the consumer. The conveying of the mixture and maintaining of the circulation, resp. is achieved by a pump located ahead of the mixing chamber. The apparatus has specific application for the production of a water-in-oil emulsion for the operation of combustion engines or oil burners."

U. S. Patent # 4,938,606 July 3, 1990

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On May 3, 1991 Rudolf W. Gunnerman filed a U, S. Patent.

Abstract:

"An aqueous fuel for an internal combustion engine is provided. The fuel comprises water from about 20 percent to about 80 percent by volume of the total volume of said fuel, and a carbonaceous fuel selected from the class consisting of ethanol, methanol, gasoline, kerosene fuel, diesel fuel, carbon-containing gaseous or liquid fuel, or mixtures thereof. A method for combusting an aqueous fuel in an internal combustion engine is provided. The method produces approximately as much power as the same volume of gasoline. The method comprises introducing air and aqueous fuel into a fuel introduction system for the engine. The fuel comprises water from about 20 percent to about 80 percent by volume of the total volume of the fuel, and a carbonaceous fuel from ethanol, methanol, gasoline, kerosene fuel, diesel fuel, carbon-containing gaseous or liquid fuel, or mixtures thereof, and introducing and combusting said air/fuel mixture in a combustion chamber or chambers in the presence of a hydrogen producing catalyst to operate the engine." 

"The novel aqueous fuel of the present invention has less than the potential energy of carbonaceous fuels but is nonetheless capable of developing at least as much power. For example, an aqueous fuel of the invention comprising water and gasoline has about 1/3 the potential energy (BTU's) of gasoline, but when used to operate an internal combustion engine, it will produce approximately as much power as compared with the same amount of gasoline. This is indeed surprising and is believed to be due to the novel fuel mixture that results from the release of hydrogen and oxygen and the combustion of hydrogen when the novel aqueous fuel is introduced to a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine and combusted with relatively small amounts of combustion air in the presence of a hydrogen-producing catalyst by the novel method of the present invention."

U. S. Patent # 5,156,114 October 20, 1992

Note:

From the references to patents sited in the above patent, and the language of Dr. Gunnerman's patent one can see that he may have came to emulsified fuels through the study of combustion enhancing metal catalysts, the surprising fact that the emulsions produced as much power as the higher energy content, straight fuel, he determined, must be due to released hydrogen from the water,  which he attributes to the "hydrogen-producing catalyst"  Initially Dr. Gunnerman maintained the need for engine modifications including securing catalytic metal inside the combustion chamber. He later, after additional tests, concluded that the catalyst was not  necessary for the invention to achieve the same results.

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"Engines That Run on Water" Business Week August 8, 1994

In 1994 a half water, half gasoline fuel starting getting some press. One of the first articles was in the August 8, 1994 issue of Business Week on page 47. The article was titled, "Engines That Run on Water." It described the 66 year old, Rudolph W. Gunnerman and his 7 years of development work on this project. He claims the mixture gets 40% better mileage from the gasoline it contains and emits significant less pollution because the engine runs cooler. In early July Caterpillar formed a joint venture with A-55 LP, Gunnerman's tiny 9 person company in Reno Nevada. The key ingredient is .5% of a secret emulsifier that enables fuel and water to mix - and stay mixed. Also a small piece of nickel must be attached to the top of the cylinder heads. The process has powered a city bus for 5 months in Reno and the Air Force put 6 vehicles through a 14 week test.

 

The link below contains references, to the above article and others including some full articles, on Gunnerman's emulsified fuels from 93 to 97 

http://www.rbbi.com/folders/fuel/a-21.htm 

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World Mining Equipment Jan-Feb 1997 issue

Burning water 

Excerpts:

"It still seems an impossible dream that water could constitute a major component of a viable alternative to diesel fuel, one that requires inexpensive engine modifications, while taking full advantage of currently available transport infrastructure and storage facilities. Common sense says that rocks and water do not burn, just as oil and water do not mix, or not for long anyway. But WME spoke to Rudolf Gunnerman, founder President and CEO of Reno-based A-55. And in `Gunnerman's World', oil and water do mix and the resulting mixture can run diesel trucks, boiler rooms and with minor modifications, your car.

The concept of powering a vehicle, with water as a fuel is as old as the hills. But A-55 has something new, a sustainable micro emulsion of a petroleum product and water, and the project has been backed by the mighty Caterpillar Corporation. Back in 1994, Caterpillar became a majority partner in a joint venture company called Advanced Fuels, in conjunction with A-55. Cat only backs projects that have real potential and this arrangement provided a good deal of competence as well as adding weight to the first stages of the project, to produce a truly clean alternative fuel for the 21 st century. "

"To prove the point, A-55 ran tests for the Minnesota Department of Transportation, which consisted of driving five test vehicles from Reno to Minnesota, over the Rocky Mountains in temperatures reaching -17[degrees], without any problems. In an effort to provide a continuous test bed for the fuel, the company also installed a genset sited adjacent to the small manufacturing plant. The unit is running continuously now for over 9,600 hours and supplies clean power to Sierra Pacific Power Grid (Reno NV). The unit in continually tested and today returns upwards of 50% reduction in NOx compared with conventional fuels." 

"Rudi Gunnerman went on to point out: "The potential disadvantage of the fuel freezing at low temperatures is obviously one of the more commonly heard criticisms of our water-based product. Recent tests confirmed however that the product remains stable in these conditions and, with proportional increases of ethanol to winterise it, temperatures of at least 40[degrees] below can be maintained, so conventional storage is not going to be a problem."

"Very recently there has been a major change for the company, as A-55 and Caterpillar have decided to dissolve their current venture. According to Peter Gunnerman. "The purpose of the dissolution is to enable the companies to pursue different programmes with low-emission aqueous fuel technology and to capitalise on business opportunities. Caterpillar still retains licensed rights to the aqueous fuel technology and will focus its activities in the kinds of products it produces, or will produce, while A-55 will now pursue applications of the aqueous fuel technology in all markets.""

 http://www.allbusiness.com/periodicals/article/601770-1.html

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Lemelson-MIT Program name Dr. Gunnerman the inventor of the week in Dec 1997

In 1987, Gunnerman began to apply his talent and his fortune to water-based fuels. Though it is proverbial that oil and water don't mix, Gunnerman invented a special emulsifier additive that overcomes that problem. He has created workable mixtures of alcohol and water, gasoline and water, diesel fuel and water, and most recently (1992) water and naphtha, an even cleaner-burning petroleum derivative. These are known collectively as A-55® Clean Fuels. 

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/gunnerman.html

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The Edge July 31, 2004

"An Untapped Transit Solution: Water-fueled Cars" 

"You say you have a proven way to cut your gasoline use in half? I'll drink to that."

"A Nevada inventor named Rudolf Gunnerman has shown that he can cut the costs of filling a gas tank by mixing petrol with tap water."

"In 1994 his firm, A-55 Limited Partnership linked up with Caterpillar's Engine Division to form Advanced Fuels LLC, a joint venture to test and promote the new fuel. Caterpillar saw the new fuel as an opportunity to win back some of its traditional diesel market that it had lost to automakers in Detroit."

"Nevada certified the "clean alternative fuel" in November 1995. During emission trials in Nevada, the fuel exceeded the EPA's tailpipe standards and the tougher hurdles of the California Air Resources Board. The EPA-monitored tests recorded a 60 percent drop in hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide (a major ingredient of smog)."

The Salt Lake Tribune reported that the fuel "tops conventional gasoline and diesel as a clean, cheap and safe fuel that can be used in almost any combustion engine." A-21 can be used in any diesel powered or spark-ignition motor to drive cars, trucks, aircraft, even locomotives."

An Untapped Transit Solution

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Dieselnet Sep. 9, 2002

Aquazole water-diesel fuel emulsion to enter North American market

Excerpts:

"TotalFinaElf, an oil company headquartered in France, announced the verification of Aquazole, a water-diesel fuel emulsion, as an Alternative Diesel Fuel by the California Air Resources Board (ARB). The Aquazole emulsion has been verified to provide emission reductions of 16% for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 60% for diesel particulate matter (PM). The verification was issued by the ARB on 6 August 2002."

"Aquazole is the second water-fuel emulsion verified by the ARB. In January 2001, the ARB verified the PuriNOx emulsion by Lubrizol to provide a NOx reduction of 14% and PM reduction of 62.9%." 

http://www.dieselnet.com/news/2002/09totalfina.php 

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Dieselnet Oct. 5, 2002

PuriNOx receives EPA fuel registration 

excerpts: 

"The Lubrizol Corporation announced that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has registered PuriNOx™, a water-diesel fuel emulsion, under its fuel and fuel additive registration program." 

"PuriNOx fuel is currently marketed in North America and in several countries in Europe for applications including on- and off-road vehicles and equipment, said Lubrizol. PuriNOx consists of diesel fuel, water and Lubrizol additives blended to form a stable, homogeneous emulsion. The registered warm-climate formulation contains 77% diesel fuel, 20% water, and 3% PuriNOx 1121A additive package. The winter formulation consists of 74% diesel fuel, 16.8% water, 5.7% methanol, and 3.5% PuriNOx generation 2 additive package.

According to Lubrizol, the average emission reduction effect of PuriNOx is 19% for NOx and 54% for PM. At this time, PuriNOx fuel is the only emulsified diesel fuel with EPA registration."

http://www.dieselnet.com/news/2002/10lubrizol.php 

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Diesel Fuel News   Jan. 20, 2003

European Emulsion Fuels Manufacturers Association formed

"European Emulsion Fuels Manufacturers Association (EEFMA) is officially born this month, another sign of growing interest in low-emissions diesel-water emulsions. The new group, headquartered in Brussels, aims to persuade agencies to "ensure that any unnecessary impediments to the exploitation of the technology are removed." Several countries have eliminated fuel tax on the water portion of diesel-water emulsions. Lubrizol, Cam Tecnologie and TotalFinaElf comprise EEFMA."

http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYH/is_1_7/ai_97448592 

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Diesel Fuel News Feb. 3, 2003

Retail diesel emulsion may become common in Italy

Excerpts:

" Vehicle endurance tests with the new fuel have started, under the supervision of giant automaker, Fiat."

"Meantime, more heavy-duty fleets continue to convert to CamTec's diesel-water emulsion. The city of Rome just decided to begin trials with CamTec's "Gecam" emulsion on some 100 buses and 150 garbage collection vehicles. "Gecam" is already used by more than 8,000 heavy vehicles "mainly in northern Italy," he said.

The company also cites emerging emulsion market developments in China, Czech Republic and France, as well as Italy."

 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYH/is_2_7/ai_97757244

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Fall 2004 SECAT Guidlines 

The Sacramento Emergency Clean Air Transportation (SECAT) Program

“The SECAT Program is a Partnership between the Sacramento Area Council of Governments and the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District whose goal is to reduce harmful emissions from on-road heavy-duty vehicles in the Sacramento Region”

"In 2004, SACOG’s Air Quality Funding Program approved a proposal to add an additional $3 million to the SECAT Program. Funds will be primarily used for projects in the Fleet Modernization Program; however applications for other emission reduction projects may also be submitted. Eligible types of projects include the following:" ...

"Using “cleaner” diesel fuel formulations and/or diesel emulsion fuels in place of California diesel fuel"

http://www.4secat.com/PDF/2004_SECAT_Guidelines.pdf

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April 2005 

Environmental Defense Fund

Cleaner Diesel Handbook

Excerpts: 

"Emulsified diesel fuel is diesel fuel (LSD or ULSD) blended with up to 20% water and a proprietary additive. "

"Emulsified fuels have been tested for many onroad and nonroad diesel engines, although only Lubrizol’s PuriNOx summer blend has received EPA verification. Summer blend PuriNOx cannot be used when ambient temperatures fall below 20 degrees Fahrenheit.90 EPA has verified PuriNOx for both on and nonroad use and has confirmed a 16.8–23.3% reduction in PM and a 17–20.2% reduction in NOx for nonroad applications.91 CARB has verified PuriNOx for onroad engines model years 1988-2003 at 50% PM (Level 2) reduction and 15% NOx reduction.92 In addition, CARB has verified PuriNOx and AZ Purimuffler or AZ Purifier System for 1996 through 2002 diesel engines used in off-road applications specifically at the ports, railway yards and other intermodal/freight handling operation applications only. The PuriNOx and AZ Purimuffler or AZ Purifier System uses a diesel oxidation catalyst and an emulsified diesel fuel to achieve a 50% reduction in PM emissions, qualifying it for a Level 2 CARB verification. The system also achieves a 20% reduction in
NOx emissions."

"PuriNOx has successfully been used in a variety of both low and high horsepower offroad engines, from small little John Deere Gators (all terrain vehicles) to tractors, loaders, scalars, dozers, haul trucks, cranes, marine vessels, etc."

Cleaner Diesel Handbook

http://www.environmentaldefense.org/ 

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Effective Jan. 1, 2006 Federal fuel tax reductions for diesel-water fuel emulsions. 

http://www.irs.gov/irb/2005-46_IRB/ar14.html

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To continue with developments past the turn of the century would create to volumous a document for the purposes of this report. There are now nearly as many patents filed a year on water emulsified fuels as  was filed in the last 70 years prior to the turn of the century.  Several foreign and domestic companies  are developing products.  The  very substantial lowered emissions resulting from these fuels are a well needed stepping stone to pollution free energy, not to mention the reduction on reliance of fossil fuels that would  be achieved should these fuels become available in a gasoline version on a widescale.

Here's a link to Lubrizol  a company that has been recently filing patents and working on emulsified fuels.

http://www.lubrizol.com/PuriNOx/understand.asp


How do water in fuel emulsions work?

To formulate a theory  on how water in fuel emulsions work, it helps to understand the internal combustion engine (ice). We will not go into great detail but will offer references were one may obtain a working knowledge. 

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm 

Let me point out that steam engines and ice's both work on very similar principles. Some of the first ice's were steam engines that were converted into ice's. In both machines expanding gases drive a piston that is attached to a rotary shaft. 

To get some idea of the expansion and contraction forces involved with steam click on the link below then  look at the pictures on the bottom of that page.

http://www.delta.edu/slime/cancrush.html

Every mechanic knows that water in your fuel is problematic.  Our atmosphere is so laden with water that it inevitably gets into the fuel through condensation in half full tanks during temperature changes.

What causes all the problems with water is simply that water and oil don't mix. Gasoline and diesel are oil based and are lighter than water so they float on top of it. Fuel lines pick up  water from the bottom of the tank, since it sinks, filters become water soaked and form a barrier to the fuel.If the water was dispersed evenly in microscopic particles in the fuel it wouldn't cause these problems.

My own test's and, as one can see from the patents cited above, much prior art has shown that these fuels produce as much power in a conventional internal combustion engine as stright hydrocarbon fuel alone. Dr. Gunnerman addressed the dilemma by theorizing that additional btu's where being obtained through the catalytic dissociation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. After deciding that this may be a situation where Occam's razor is beneficial.My theory is that what was once wasted heat, everyone knows who has touched a hot exhaust pipe that an internal combustion engine produces copious amounts of, causes the water once in the combustion chamber with the burning fuel to flash into steam and drive the piston along with the other expanding gases. This theory easily explains the increased mileage from the less btu's of fuel. The efficiency of the engine is increased by utilizing the traditionally wasted heat to expand steam.

You can dilute your fuel by up to 40% with water and not lose any performance and get as good or better gas mileage as you did with 100% fuel. In the combustion chamber the fuel ignites flashing the water into steam. The steam expansion, along with the gases from combustion, drives the piston. This turns what was an internal combustion engine (ice) into a hybrid ice/steam motor. Most ice's can run on this fuel with no modifications!

http://www.chevron.com/news/spotlight/26june2003_proformix.asp

Look down in the 4th paragraph, this is where they casually mention that it is a "water-in-fuel" diesel blend. This fuel will somewhat quietly replace diesel, in California first, marketed as a low sulfur emmitting, cleaner burning, fuel. Which it is.

It works just as well, if not better with gasoline.

Here is another brand that is being introduced by a European company:

http://www.dieselnet.com/news/2002/09totalfina.php

There are some basic widely available reagents that one can use to create these fuel blends oneself for very little expense. Farmers, heavy equipment contractors, and many private individuals routinely transport and handle fuels. The same precautions and knowledge needed for these actions are sufficient to start using and making these water-in-fuel blends. The savings and the positive environmental impact would be huge if this would be implemented widely, not to mention the reduction on the dependency of foreign oil.

The oil industries are embracing this new idea for diesel, but they are going to sell you the fuel with the water all ready added. The cost will not reflect the fact that a large percentage of the product is cheap widely available water.