BTS Home - Version 158

This webpage hopes to make C. Judson Herrick's "Brain of the Tiger Salamander" more accessible to any who might  be interested. 

To return to this Home page, click on the 'Brain of the Tiger Salamander' logo in the top left corner of whatever page you're on.   Internal links are in green.     

For an overview of the figures please see:   
    Salamander Brain Illustrations  . 
To search for a particular label among all the figures, please see:
    Figure Label Search .   
For an attempt to supplement Herrick's book with more recently acquired information, please see:
    Herrick Update .   


Herrick's Biography   

Table of Contents

Title Page & Preface    


I. Salamanders and their Brains    p.  3
The salamanders, 3.
The scope of this inquiry, 4.
The plan of this book, 6.
Sources and material, 10.
Development of the brain, 11.
The evolution of brains, 13

II. Form and Subdivisions of the Brain     p.  18
Gross structure, 18.
Ventricles, 24.
Meninges, chorioid plexuses,and
blood vessels, 26

III. Histological Structure     p.  28
General histology, 28.
The neuropil, 29.
The ventrolateral peduncular
neuropil, 33

IV. Regional Analysis     p.  40 
The subdivisions, spinal cord
to pallium, 41.
The commissures, 55.
Conclusion, 56

V. Functional Analysis       p.  57
The longitudinal zones, 57.
The sensory zone, 58.
The motor zone, 60.
The intermediate zone, 64.
The functional systems, 65

VI. Physiological Interpretations     p.  70 
Apparatus of analysis and synthesis, 70.
The stimulus-response formula, 72.
Reflex and inhibition, 73.
Principles of localization
of function, 82

VII. Origin of Cerebral Cortex     p.  p.  91.
The problem, 91.
Morphogenesis of the cerebral
The cortex, 98.
Physiology and psychology, 106

VIII. Principles of Morphogenesis     p.  109
Morphogenic agencies, 109.
Morphological landmarks, 116.
The future of morphology, 120


Introduction 123

IX. Spinal Cord     p.  125
The spinal cord and its nerves, 125.
The bulbo-spinal junction, 129

X. Cranial Nerves     p.  131
 Development, 131.
Survey of the functional systems, 132

XI. Medulla Oblongata       p.  153
 Sensory zone, 153.
Intermediate zone, 156.
Motor zone, 157.
Fiber tracts of the medulla
oblongata, 158.
The lemniscus systems, 162

XII. Cerebellum       p.  172
Brachium conjunctivum, 176.
The cerebellar commissures, 177.
Proprioceptive functions of the
cerebellum, 178

XIII. Isthmus       p.  179
Development, 179.
Sensory zone, 181.
Intermediate zone, 182.
Motor zone, 182.
White substance, 186.
Isthmic neuropil, 187.
Physiological interpretation, 189

XIV. Interpeduncular Nucleus     p.  191
Comparative anatomy, 191.
Histological structure, 193.
Afferent connections, 197.
Efferent connections, 201.
Conclusion, 210

XV. Midbrain       p.  212 
Development, 212.
Sensory zone, 214.
Intermediate zone, 215.
Motor zone, 216

XVI. Optic and Visual-motor       p.  219 
Optic nerve and tracts, 219.
Tectum opticum, 222.
Tectooculomotor connections, 226.
Visual functions, 227

XVII. Diencephalon       p.  230
General features, 230.
Development, 231.
Epithalamus, 234.
Dorsal thalamus, 236.
Ventral thalamus. 239.
Hypothalamus, 241

XVIII. Habenula and Connections       p.  247
The di-telencephalic junction, 247.
Fornix, 254.
Stria terminalis, 255.
Stria medullaris thalami, 256.
Fasciculus retroflexus, 261

XIX. Cerebral Hemispheres       p.  265
Subdivisions of the hemisphere, 265.
The olfactory system, 266

XX. Systems of Fibers       p.  270
The basal forebrain bundles, 271.
The tegmental fascicles, 275.
Fasciculus tegmentalis profundus, 286

XXI. The Commisures       p.  289
General considerations, 289.
The dorsal commissures, 292.
The ventral commissures, 294

Bibliography     p.  307 
Salamander Brain Illustrations    p.  321 
    Fig Stor 1  
    Fig Stor 2            
    Salamander Brain Diagram   
Figure Descriptions      p.  321 
Figure Abbreviations     p.  391  
    Figure Label Search    
    Tract Details   
Index    p.  399 
Salamander Brain Downloads     

The Introduction includes a sporadically updated blog on where I'm currently focusing most of my attention.   Historical Background & Free Book  tells where I began.    

My other websites:   Herrick Update      Subcortical Brain    Early Behavior   
Children of the Amphioxus    Boys without Fathers    My Dysfunctional Family          

These sites are an ongoing effort and will change as I continue to research the relevant topics.  Please send questions and/or comments to:  <>  .   

Cross references:   Salamander      Salamander Brain Text    
Salamander Brain Illustrations   
  Figure Label Search     
Figure Abbreviations   Salamander Brain Development        
Accumbal Connections       Salamander Nucleus Accumbens    
Nucleus Accumbens Septi      Dictionary   

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