Parasympathetic Nervous System

Cross references:  Central Nervous System (CNS)        
Human Endocrine System        Human Endocrinology in General    
Sympathetic Nervous System    
GABA    Glysine.  


Parasympathetic nervous system (Wiki) 
    "The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is responsible for regulation of internal organs and glands, which occurs unconsciously. The parasympathetic system specifically is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" activities that occur when the body is at rest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, digestion and defecation. Its action is described as being complementary to that of one of the other main branches of the ANS, the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response."  
    "
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions typically function in opposition to each other. This natural opposition is better understood as complementary in nature rather than antagonistic. For an analogy, one may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the brake. The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses. The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction.
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    "
The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter, although other peptides (such as cholecystokinin) may act on the PSNS as a neurotransmitter.[8][9] The ACh acts on two types of receptors, the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Most transmissions occur in two stages: When stimulated, the preganglionic nerve releases ACh at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors of postganglionic neurons. The postganglionic nerve then releases ACh to stimulate the muscarinic receptors of the target organ.
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    My comment
I'm surprised that this reference doesn't mention the inhibitory neurotransmitters such as  GABA   and Glysine.  



Searching PubMed for "parasympathetic GABA" located 371 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=parasympathetic+GABA  


1979    349<371
GABA receptor control of parasympathetic outflow to heart: characterization and brainstem localization.    



1981   
340<371 
Amino acid and monoamine inhibition of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
   


1981   
336<371 
Hindbrain GABA receptors influence parasympathetic outflow to the stomach.
   


1982   
335>371 
gamma-Aminobutyric acid system in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular function.
   


1983     325<371
Parasympathetic ganglia: naloxone antagonizes inhibition by leucine-enkephalin and GABA.
   


1987    302<371
Stress-induced changes in the function of the parasympathetic nervous system are mimicked by blocking GABA in the CNS of the cat.
   


1988   300<371 
Potential interactions between GABAb and cholinergic systems: baclofen augments scopolamine-induced performance deficits in the eight-arm radial maze.    
     My comment:
This might be what I'm looking for.  


1988    297<371
Influence of adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms in baclofen induced analgesia.

     My comment:
This might be what I'm looking for.  



1991   273<371
Cholinergic nerve terminals of human cerebral cortex possess a GABA transporter whose activation induces release of acetylcholine.
   


1991    272<371 
GABAergic control of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and memory.   


1992    256<371
GABAergic and cholinergic mediation in the antinociceptive action of homotaurine.   


1993   253<371
The extrinsic modulation of hippocampal theta depends on the coactivation of cholinergic and GABA-ergic medial septal inputs.   


1993   246<371 
Cholinergic modulation of synaptic inhibition in the guinea pig hippocampus in vitro: excitation of GABAergic interneurons and inhibition of GABA-release.


1992   244<371

A study on the role of cholinergic and gamma amino butyric acid systems in the anti-nociceptive effect of gossypin.  


1993   241<371
Theta-like activity in hippocampal formation slices: cholinergic-GABAergic interaction.
   
   

1994   235<371
GABA receptor function in the parasympathetic ganglia.
  


1994   225<371
Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat medial septum express muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.


1996   201<371    
Free Article
Cholinergic/GABAergic interaction in the production of EEG theta oscillations in rat hippocampal formation in vitro.
   


1997   187<371      
Free Article 
Selective cholinergic modulation of cortical GABAergic cell subtypes.   


1998   179<371
Basal forebrain neurons adjacent to the globus pallidus co-express GABAergic and cholinergic marker mRNAs.   


2006   98<371
Multiple types of GABAA receptors mediate inhibition in brain stem parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.   



2014   25<371    
Free PMC Article   
Cholinergic neurons excite cortically projecting basal forebrain GABAergic neurons.
   


2016 6<371
Optogenetic and pharmacological evidence that somatostatin-GABA neurons are important regulators of parasympathetic outflow to the stomach.
   


2016   5<371
Role played by periaqueductal gray neurons in parasympathetically mediated fear bradycardia in conscious rats.





Searching PubMed for "
parasympathetic glycine" located 83 references: 
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