Gonadotropins

Cross references:  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)       
Luteinizing Hormone    Testosterone   Criminal Testosterone   Androgens   
   
Gonadotropin (Wiki) 
    "Gonadotropins (or glycoprotein hormones) are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates.[1][2][3] This is a family of proteins, which include the mammalian hormones follitropin (FSH), lutropin (LH), placental chorionic gonadotropins hCG and eCG[4] and chorionic gonadotropin (CG), as well as at least two forms of fish gonadotropins. These hormones are central to the complex endocrine system that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function.[5] The hormones LH and FSH are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, while hCG and eCG are secreted by the placenta.[6]"  
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The two principal gonadotropins in vertebrates are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), although primates produce a third gonadotropin called chorionic gonadotropin (CG).
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Gonadotropin receptors are embedded in the surface of the target cell membranes and coupled to the G-protein system. Signals triggered by binding to the receptor are relayed within the cells by the cyclic AMP second messenger system.
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Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The gonadstestes and ovaries — are the primary target organs for LH and FSH. The gonadotropins affect multiple cell types and elicit multiple responses from the target organs. As a simplified generalization, LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes and the theca cells of the ovaries to produce testosterone (and indirectly estradiol), whereas FSH stimulates the spermatogenic tissue of the testes and the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles.
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