Criminal Testosterone & Serotonin

Cross references:    Criminal Hormones     Testosterone     Serotonin     Criminal Testosterone      Criminal Serotonin    Serotonin References           

FINAL SUMMARY
OF FOUR REFERENCES
1996 - 2003


    "The Serotonin function was inversely correlated more strongly with Impulsivity than with Aggression . Plasma Testosterone correlated positively with aggressive acts."    




INITIAL SUMMARIES
OF THE REFERENCES


Following are initial summaries of the references.  The summaries are identified by the first words of the references title and the year of publication.   

The references themselves follow this list of their initial summaries. 

Cerebrospinal Fluid   Testosterone   and  5-HIAA   ... 1996  
    "We conclude that high  Cerebrospinal Fluid   free Testosterone concentrations are associated with competitive aggression, while low Cerebrospinal Fluid   5-HIAA concentrations are associated with severe aggression which results from impaired impulse control, and perseverance."    


Influences of Serotonin and  Testosterone   ... 1997    
    "Low Serotonin levels have been found in the Hypothalamus and the Amygdala in aggressive animals."    


Relationship between 5-HT ... 2001   
    "The Serotonin function was inversely correlated more strongly with Impulsivity than with Aggression . Plasma Testosterone correlated positively with aggressive acts."    
   

Aggression: The  Testosterone   -  Serotonin ... 2003   
    "It seems that  Testosterone modulates Serotonin receptors activity"  
    "It is thus concluded that high CSF free testosterone concentrations are associated with competitive aggression, while low CSF 5-HIAA  concentrations are associated with severe aggression, which results from impaired impulse control and perseverance." 


THE REFERENCES


CSF biochemistries, glucose metabolism, and diurnal activity rhythms in alcoholic, violent offenders, fire setters, and healthy volunteers.  - 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7506515  
Only the abstract available online.  I got the PDF through the library.   
    "In the present study, we investigated biochemical concomitants of impulsivity and aggressiveness, and the physiological consequences of reduced central serotonin turnover." "In the present sample, a low CSF 5-HIAA concentration was primarily associated with impulsivity and high CSF testosterone concentration, with aggressiveness or interpersonal violence."


Cerebrospinal Fluid   Testosterone   and  5-HIAA   correlate with different types of aggressive behaviors.   - 1996   
Only the abstract available online.  I got the PDF through the library.   
from the abstract 
    "We studied the potential roles of  Testosterone   and  Serotonin   in various forms of Aggressive and violent behaviors by measuring each biochemical and behavior in free-ranging adolescent male nonhuman primates. Our results showed that
    (1) Cerebrospinal Fluid   free  Testosterone   concentrations were positively correlated with overall aggressiveness, but not with measures of Impulsivity .
    (2) Cerebrospinal Fluid   5-HIAA concentrations were negatively correlated with impulsive behavior, and severe, unrestrained aggression, but not with overall rates of aggression. High rates of impulsive behavior were positively correlated with severe, unrestrained aggression, but not overall rates of aggression.
    (3) Dimensional analyses showed that while subjects with low Cerebrospinal Fluid   5-HIAA exhibited high rates of aggression, high Cerebrospinal Fluid   Testosterone further augmented rates and intensity of aggression in subjects with low Cerebrospinal Fluid   5-HIAA .
    We conclude that high  Cerebrospinal Fluid   free Testosterone concentrations are associated with competitive aggression, while low Cerebrospinal Fluid   5-HIAA concentrations are associated with severe aggression which results from impaired impulse control, and perseverance."      



Influences of Serotonin and  Testosterone   in aggression and dominance: Convergence with social psychology.  - 1997   
Only abstract available online. 
Library was not able to provide access to PDF.  
    "Low Serotonin levels have been found in the Hypothalamus and the Amygdala in aggressive animals.  
    Testosterone   action in both of these brain structures has been shown to increase Aggression in various animal species.
    The Amygdala provides input to, and is a moderator of aggression due to, the Hypothalamus . This combination of biologically determined effects corresponds well to the psychological states the frustration-aggression hypothesis postulates are important.  
    Testosterone   promotes Dominance behaviors, which put the individual into situations in which frustration of dominance can occur.  
    Low Serotonin has been shown to make an animal hyper responsive to aversive stimuli and potentially aggressive. This hyper responsiveness to aversive stimuli means a greater likelihood of frustration being experienced with negative mood."  


Relationship between 5-HT ( Serotonin ) function and Impulsivity and Aggression in male offenders with personality disorders (PubMed)  - 2001 
Full length HTML & PDF available online for free.    

from the abstract   
    "Sixty male offenders with DSM-III-R personality disorders and 27 healthy staff controls were assessed using the Special Hospital Assessment of Personality and Socialisation (SHAPS), impulsivity and aggression ratings, d-fenfluramine challenge and plasma hormone concentrations."    
    "The SHAPS non-psychopaths and those with schizoid personality disorders had enhanced  5-HT ( Serotonin ) function (prolactin response to d-fenfluramine). Reduced  5-HT ( Serotonin ) function was found in offenders with DSM-III-R borderline personality disorders and those with a history of repeated self-harm or alcohol misuse. The  5-HT ( Serotonin ) function was inversely correlated more strongly with impulsivity than with aggression. Plasma testosterone correlated positively with aggressive acts. The SHAPS primary psychopaths had lower initial Cortisol and higher Testosterone concentrations than controls."     

from the HTML       
     "A main focus of studies examining the biological determinants of aggressive behaviour has been the association between low Serotonin (5-HT) function and Impulsive aggression in studies of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) concentration of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ; Tuinier et al, 1995 ) and from 5-HT drug challenge studies (Markowitz & Coccaro, 1995 ).
     In contrast, Testosterone has been implicated primarily in aggressive rather than impulsive behaviour (Archer, 1991 ). The notion that a low 5-HIAA level relates more to Impulsivity and that Testosterone relates more to Aggression receives support from Cerebrospinal Fluid   studies (Virkkunen et al, 1994 )."




Aggression: The  Testosterone   -  Serotonin Link (PubMed)  - 2003
Abstract: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509157  
Full length PDF available online for free.   
http://www.ima.org.il/imaj/ar03sep-12.pdf  
    Must download to copy-and paste. 
from the abstract   
    "The relevance of central neurotransmission to Aggressive and Impulsive behavior has become more evident due to extensive research in humans and in animals.  
    Among other findings, there are abundant data relating low Serotonergic activity – as measured by low Cerebrospinal Fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ), and a blunted response of prolactin to fenfluramine – to impulsive behavior.
    Many studies on  Testosterone activity show a relation between high plasma levels and a tendency towards aggression.  
    It is hypothesized that the interaction between low serotonin and high  Testosterone levels in the central nervous system has a significant effect on the neural mechanisms involved in the expression of aggressive behavior. It seems that  Testosterone modulates Serotonin receptors activity in a way that directly affects aggression, fear and anxiety.  
    Our survey reviews the main findings on SerotoninTestosterone and the possible interaction between them with regard to these behavioral phenomena. "      
My comment:
    The sentence, above: "It seems that  Testosterone modulates Serotonin receptors activity..." is the older, second half, of the Indirect Serotonin Pathway   .  

from the PDF    
    "A study of 4,462 men revealed that the overall picture among the high testosterone men is one of delinquency, substance abuse and a tendency toward excess aggressive behavior. These men have more trouble with people like teachers while they are growing up (Dabbs JM, Morris R. Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychol Sci 1990;1:209±11.)" 
      "One of the most replicated findings in psychobiology is the observation of lower 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid ( 5-HIAA ) in the brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of subjects with impulsive aggression and suicidal behavior. Low or lower than average 5-HIAA concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) have been reported in individuals who display inappropriate aggression as children,  engage in frequent impulsive and violent criminal behavior, exhibit  excessive alcohol abuse and dependence, and in high lethality suicide attempters as opposed to low lethality suicide attempters." 
    "In contrast, the Dopamine and Norepinephrine systems do not appear to be as significantly involved in suicidal acts, aggression, or depression. [22]." 
    "Research on deactivation of Serotonin Receptors also indicated that Serotonin (5-HT) is connected to impulsivity and aggression-related behavior.
    The 5-HT1B receptor was the first subtype to have its gene deactivated. These receptors are located predominantly at presynaptic terminals where they can inhibit release of 5-HT.
    Wild-type and homozygous null mutant (5-HT1B) showed more rapid, more intense, and more frequent attacks when being intruded than the non-isolated male wild-type [27]. 
    In contrast to 5-HT1B knockout in mice, 5-HT1A knockouts are less reactive and possibly less aggressive but show more anxiety-related behavior than control mice [28]." 
    "A study that measured CSF testosterone and 5-HIAA showed that:
  . CSF free testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with overall aggressiveness, but not with measures of impulsivity.
  . CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were negatively correlated with impulsive behavior and with severe, unrestrained aggression, but not with overall rates of aggression. High rates of impulsive behavior were positively correlated with severe, unrestrained aggression, but not overall rates of aggression.
  . Dimensional analyses showed that while subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA exhibited high rates of aggression, high CSF testosterone further augmented rates and intensity of aggression in subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA [33].
    It is thus concluded that high CSF free testosterone concentrations are associated with competitive aggression, while low CSF 5-HIAA  concentrations are associated with severe aggression, which results from impaired impulse control and perseverance [34]." 
    "In fact, successful athletes and businessmen tend to have high testosterone levels, without being any more violence-prone than their low testosterone counterparts, indicating that testosterone may not act alone in promoting aggression. Rather, aggressive men's behavior may be influenced by high testosterone levels combined with low levels of the brain chemical serotonin."  
    "Acute administration of testosterone in male rats caused a significant increase in the content of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and
Serotonin Transporter mRNA in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus and the density of 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin binding sites in higher centers of the brain."    
My comments
1. The last paragraph, above, invokes the Direct Serotonin Pathway
2.  Unfortunately, this reference doesn't address the question of what determines the level of CSF 5-HIAA, i.e., serotonin turnover.   
3.  It also doesn't address all, or even most, serotonin receptors. 
4.  I'm unsure what "Wild-type and homozygous null mutant (5-HT1B) " means.  Perhaps I should look at reference [27].    
5.  According to  Serotonin Receptors  , all 5-HT1 receptors are inhibitory.
6.  This article does not discuss the mechanism whereby testosterone may influence the sensitivity of serotonin receptors.
See: Indirect Serotonin Pathway .
 


Criminal Testosterone & Serotonin
121209 - 0026 (modified)
From 121209 - 0001 after adding "Direct Serotonin Pathway" and "Indirect Serotonin Pathway .


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