Criminal Testosterone

Cross references:    Criminal Hormones     Testosterone   
Criminal Testosterone & Serotonin    Criminal Cortisol & Testosterone      
Criminal Testosterone & Vasopressin     
Criminal Testosterone, Serotonin & ACTH   



FINAL SUMMARY
OF EIGHT REFERENCES
1988 - 2012



    "Inmates who had committed personal crimes of sex and violence had higher Testosterone levels than inmates who had committed property crimes of burglary, theft, and drugs."   



INITIAL SUMMARIES
OF THE REFERENCES


The references are designated by the first word of their title and their year of publication.    The references themselves follow this list of their initial summaries. 


Circulating Testosterone levels ... 1988 
    "Empirical analyses conducted within a causal—analytic framework (path analysis) on a sample of normal adolescent human males suggested that circulating levels of Testosterone in the blood had a direct causal influence on provoked aggressive behavior (self-reports): A high level of Testosterone led to an increased readiness to respond vigorously and assertively to provocations and threats."   


Testosterone, social class, ... 1990    
    "Analysis of archival data from 4,462 U.S. military veterans supported the first hypothesis: Testosterone was correlated with a variety of antisocial behaviors among all individuals. However, socioeconomic status (SES) proved to be a moderating variable, with weaker Testosterone-behavior relationships among high SES subjects."


Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior ... 1995    
    "Inmates who had committed personal crimes of sex and violence had higher Testosterone levels than inmates who had committed property crimes of burglary, theft, and drugs. Inmates with higher Testosterone levels also violated more rules in prison, especially rules involving overt confrontation."  


Increased aggressive in male volunteers ... 1995  
    "
Testosterone administration resulted in a significantly higher number of aggressive responding compared to placebo."    


The effects of supraphysiological doses ... 1996   
    "Supraphysiological doses of Testosterone, when administered to normal men in a controlled setting, do not increase angry behavior."    


Testosterone and ruthless homicide ... 2001 
    "Prior studies have found higher levels of Testosterone among persons who commit violent crimes than among those who commit nonviolent crimes." 
    "
Among inmates who committed homicide, those high in
Testosterone more often knew their victims and planned their crimes ahead of time."  


Effects of Testosterone on mood, ... 2004  
    "In conclusion, we have shown that a single administration of 1000 mg Testosterone undecanoate (TU) in healthy young men, raising circulating Testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range, produces detectable but relatively minor mood changes (i.e. anger-hostility). TU treatment did not produce any detectable increase in aggressive behavior or changes in other nonaggressive or sexual behavior."    


2012 
Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man 

    "
The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors. The major agents of neuroendocrine influence on aggression in brain process form a triad: testosterone activates subcortical tendencies towards aggression and cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically to testosterone."  
 


THE REFERENCES



Circulating Testosterone levels and aggression in adolescent males: a causal analysis.   - 1988   
http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/reprint/50/3/261.pdf 
Full length PDF available online.  Must download to copy-and-paste. 
from the abstract   
    "
Empirical analyses conducted within a causal—analytic framework (path analysis) on a sample of normal adolescent human males suggested that circulating levels of Testosterone in the blood had a direct causal influence on provoked aggressive behavior (self-reports): A high level of Testosterone led to an increased readiness to respond vigorously and assertively to provocations and threats.  
   
Testosterone also had an indirect and weaker affect on another aggression dimension: High levels of Testosterone made the boys more impatient and irritable, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in aggressive-destructive behavior.
    Two somewhat parallel dimensions of behavior, intermale and irritable aggression, have been identified in animal research to be under
Testosterone control."    


Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. 
Only abstract available online. 
    "
Two hypotheses have been offered to explain the relation between
Testosterone and antisocial behavior in delinquent and criminal populations. One is that Testosterone leads directly to antisocial behavior. The other is that a constellation of dominance, competitiveness, and sensation seeking associated with Testosterone leads to either antisocial or prosocial behavior, depending upon an individual's resources and background. Analysis of archival data from 4,462 U.S. military veterans supported the first hypothesis: Testosterone was correlated with a variety of antisocial behaviors among all individuals. However, socioeconomic status (SES) proved to be a moderating variable, with weaker Testosterone-behavior relationships among high SES subjects."  


Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior among 692 male prison inmates. 
Only abstract available online.  PDF not available through library.   
    "
Inmates who had committed personal crimes of sex and violence had higher
Testosterone levels than inmates who had committed property crimes of burglary, theft, and drugs. Inmates with higher Testosterone levels also violated more rules in prison, especially rules involving overt confrontation."  


Increased aggressive in male volunteers following administration of gradually increasing doses of Testosterone cypionate.   - 1995   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8746927 
Only abstract available online.  I got the PDF from the library.  
from the abstract 
    "
Testosterone administration resulted in a significantly higher number of aggressive responding compared to placebo."    
  
 

The effects of supraphysiological doses of Testosterone on angry behavior in healthy eugonadal men - a clinical research center study.   - 1996   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8855834 
Only abstract available online.     
from the abstract 
    "
Supraphysiological doses of
Testosterone, when administered to normal men in a controlled setting, do not increase angry behavior."    


Testosterone and ruthless homicide    - 2001         
Only abstract available online.   
from the abstract     
    "
Prior studies have found higher levels of
Testosterone among persons who commit violent crimes than among those who commit nonviolent crimes. The present study examined data from 230 male prison inmates to determine how Testosterone levels might relate specifically to the way in which inmates committed their crimes."  
    "
Among inmates who committed homicide, those high in
Testosterone more often knew their victims and planned their crimes ahead of time."  
 

Effects of Testosterone on mood, aggression, and sexual behavior in young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.  - 2004   
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/89/6/2837 
Full length HTML available online for free.   
    " Increased circulating Testosterone was associated with significant increases in anger-hostility from baseline ... treatment did not increase aggressive behavior or induce any changes in nonaggressive or sexual behavior."    
    "
Our results suggest that exogenous TU-induced elevation of circulating
Testosterone, to the range likely to be used in hormonal male contraception, has limited psychological effects."    
    "In conclusion, we have shown that a single administration of 1000 mg Testosterone undecanoate (TU) in healthy young men, raising circulating Testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range, produces detectable but relatively minor mood changes (i.e. anger-hostility). TU treatment did not produce any detectable increase in aggressive behavior or changes in other nonaggressive or sexual behavior."    


2012 
Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man 
Full length HTML available online for free.   
    "
The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors. The major agents of neuroendocrine influence on aggression in brain process form a triad: testosterone activates subcortical tendencies towards aggression and cortisol and serotonin act antagonistically to testosterone."  





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