Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Cross references:  Corticotropin-releasing factor family   Urocortins  
Stress   
CRH Receptors      CRH & Serotonin   Hypothalamus  
Pituitary Gland     Cortisol     HPA Axis      CRH & Testosteron   
Criminal Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
   Dorsal Raphe Nucleus  
CRH & Vassopressin           Direct Cortisol Pathway           
    
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (Wiki)  
    "Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), originally named corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and also called corticoliberin, is a polypeptide Hormone and Neurotransmitter  involved in the stress response. It belongs to Corticotropin-releasing factor family 
    Its main function is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of
ACTH."  
    "
CRH is secreted by the  Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the Hypothalamus in response to Stress."  
    "
CRH is produced by parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (which are contained within the Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)) of the Hypothalamus and is released at the median eminence from neurosecretory terminals of these neurons into the primary capillary plexus of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. The portal system carries the CRH to the anterior lobe of the pituitary (Anterior Pituitary), where it stimulates corticotropes to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and other biologically-active substances (β-endorphin).  ACTH stimulates the synthesis of Cortisol, Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and DHEA;"  
    "
In addition to being produced in the hypothalamus, CRH is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, such as T lymphocytes, and is highly expressed in the placenta.
"    
My comments 
    Although it isn't mentioned in this article, CRH may also be produced by nerves in the
Amygdala , Bed Nucleus Stria Terminalis and Hippocampus, and these extrahypothalamic sources which project to the  Dorsal Raphe Nucleus  are very important in human psychology.   
    Another possibility is that the extrahypothalamic sources actually produce and transmit 
Urocortin  rather than CRH.  CRHR2 (see: CRH Receptors) is 100 times more sensitive to Urocortin than it is to CRH.    
 

The central corticotropin releasing factor system during development and adulthood (PubMed)  - 2008   
Full length HTML available online for free. 
    "Corticotropin releasing factor (CRH) has been shown to contribute critically to molecular and neuroendocrine responses to Stress during both adulthood and development.  
    This peptide and
CRH Receptors are expressed in the Paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as in  Limbic System  brain areas including Amygdala and Hippocampus. This is consistent with roles for CRH in mediating the influence of stress on emotional behavior and cognitive function.
    The expression of CRH and
CRH Receptors in Paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Amygdala and Hippocampus is age-dependent, and is modulated by stress throughout life (including the first postnatal weeks). Uniquely during development, the cardinal influence of maternal care on the central  Stress  response governs the levels of central CRH expression, and may alter the ‘set-point’ of CRH-gene sensitivity to stress in a lasting manner."  
My comment:   
    See: 
Abbreviations .    
This paper uses "corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH)" for "Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)" .  So they agree with my abbreviation (CRH) but not with my name (factor vs. hormone).  They also use subscripts for the receptor numbers and spell out the word "receptor".  So what I write as "CRF1R", they write as "CRF1 receptor" with the 1 as a subscript. 


180906 - 1504 


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