Cerebral Cortex

Cross references:     Subcortical Brain  


Cerebral cortex (Wiki)   
    "The cerebral cortex is the outermost layered structure of neural tissue of the cerebrum (brain), in humans and other mammals. It covers the cerebrum, and is divided into two cortices, along the sagittal plane, covering the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The medial longitudinal fissure is a deep groove that separates these two hemispheres. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The neocortex which is the major part of the cortex, consists of up to six horizontal layers, each with a different composition in terms of neurons and connectivity. The human cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres (0.079 to 0.157 in) thick.[1]

It is referred to as grey matter as it consists of cell bodies and capillaries and contrasts with the underlying white matter, that consists mainly of the white myelinated sheaths of neuronal axons.

In large mammals the surface of the cerebral cortex is folded, giving a much greater surface area in a confined space as in the skull. A fold or ridge in the cortex is termed a gyrus (plural gyri) and a groove or fissure is termed a sulcus (plural sulci). In the human brain more than two-thirds is buried in the sulci. The phylogenetically most recent part of the cerebral cortex, the neocortex (also called isocortex), is differentiated into six horizontal layers; the more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, has at most three cellular layers. Neurons in various layers connect vertically to form small microcircuits, called cortical columns. Different neocortical regions known as Brodmann areas are distinguished by variations in their cytoarchitectonics (histological structure).   


File:Brainmaps-macaque-hippocampus.jpg


Note:  For a key to the abbreviations, please see:  http://brainmaps.org/index.php?p=abbrevs-macaca  .  



Brodmann's areas (Wiki)   
    "A Brodmann area is a region of the human cerebral cortex defined based on its cytoarchitectonics, or structure and organization of cells.

Contents


Clickable map: lateral surface

Areas 3, 1 & 2 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex Area 4 – Primary Motor Cortex Area 5 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 6 – Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex)(Supplementary motor area Area 7 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 8 – Includes Frontal eye fields Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 10 – Anterior prefrontal cortex Area 11 – Orbitofrontal area Area 17 – Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 – Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 – Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 20 – Inferior temporal gyrus Area 21 – Middle temporal gyrus Area 22 – Superior temporal gyrus Area 37 – Fusiform gyrus Area 38 – Temporopolar area Area 39 – Angular gyrus Area 40 – Supramarginal gyrus Area 41 – Primary and Auditory Association Cortex Area 42 – Primary and Auditory Association Cortex Area 43 – Primary gustatory cortex Area 44 – pars opercularis, part of Broca's area Area 45 – pars triangularis, Broca's area Area 46 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 47 – Inferior prefontal gyrus Image MapImage mapped Brodmann Areas. Clicking on an area in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
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Clickable map: medial surface

Areas 3, 1 & 2 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex area 4 – primary motor cortex Area 5 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 6 – Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex)(Supplementary motor area Area 7 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 8 – Includes Frontal eye fields Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 10 – Anterior prefrontal cortex Area 11 – Orbitofrontal area Area 12 – Orbitofrontal area Area 17 – Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 – Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 – Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 19 – Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 18 – Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 23 – Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex Area 24 – Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex Area 25 – Subgenual cortex (part of the Ventromedial prefontal cortex) Area 26 – Ectosplenial portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex Area 27 – Piriform cortex Area 28 – Posterior Entorhinal Cortex Area 29 – Retrosplenial cingulate cortex Area 30 – Part of cingulate cortex Area 31 – Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex Area 32 – Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex Area 33 – Part of anterior cingulate cortex Area 34 – Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus) Area 35 – Perirhinal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus) Area 20 – Inferior temporal gyrus Area 37 – Fusiform gyrus Areas 3, 1 & 2 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex Area 38 – Temporopolar area Image MapImage mapped Brodmann Areas. Clicking on an area in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.

Brodmann areas for human & non-human primates    

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(*) Area only found in non-human primates.

Some of the original Brodmann areas have been subdivided further, e.g., "23a" and "23b".[5]   


List of regions in the human brain - Wiki 


Anatomical regions of the brain are listed vertically, following hierarchies that are standard in neuroanatomy.    

Functional, connective, and developmental regions are listed horizontally in parentheses where appropriate.

The lamprey pallium provides a blueprint of the mammalian motor projections from cortex.   




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