CAPTAIN JAMES COOK DEATH. CAPTAIN JAMES

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Captain James Cook Death


captain james cook death
    james cook
  • Cook: English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
  • James Cook (born January 7, 1974) is a former Australian rules footballer who played for Carlton, the Western Bulldogs and Melbourne in the Australian Football League (AFL).
  • Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer, ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy.
    captain
  • an officer holding a rank below a major but above a lieutenant
  • the naval officer in command of a military ship
  • Be the captain of (a ship, aircraft, or sports team)
  • be the captain of a sports team
    death
  • the event of dying or departure from life; "her death came as a terrible shock"; "upon your decease the capital will pass to your grandchildren"
  • An instance of a person or an animal dying
  • the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism; "the animal died a painful death"
  • The action or fact of dying or being killed; the end of the life of a person or organism
  • The state of being dead
  • the absence of life or state of being dead; "he seemed more content in death than he had ever been in life"

Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands
Officially the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan: Pule?anga Fakatu?i ?o Tonga), an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprises 169 islands, 36 of them inhabited. The Kingdom stretches over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles) in a north-south line. The islands that constitute the archipelago lie south of Samoa, about one-third of the way from New Zealand to Hawai?i. Tonga also became known as the Friendly Islands because of the friendly reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773. He happened to arrive at the time of the ?inasi festival, the yearly donation of the first fruits to the Tu?i Tonga, the islands' paramount chief, and received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, in reality the chiefs had wanted to kill Cook during the gathering, but could not agree on a plan. Apart from being the only sovereign monarchy among the island nations of the Pacific Ocean, Tonga can also lay claim to being the only island nation in the region to have avoided formal colonisation. Tonga plans to become a fully functioning constitutional monarchy after legislative reform and a more fully representative election take place in 2010. Etymology In many Polynesian languages the word tonga means "south". The name of Tonga derives from the word Tongahahake, which translates to "Southeast", originally meaning "the wind that blows from the Southeast". The proper pronunciation of the name 'Tonga' is /to?a/, and not /t????/, a pronunciation used for an Indian carriage spelled in the same way and so causing confusion. History An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and colonised Tonga around 1500–1000 BCE. (Scholars continue to debate the dates of the initial settlement of Tonga.) Reaching the Tongan islands (without modern navigational tools and techniques) was a remarkable feat accomplished by the Lapita peoples. Not much is known about Tonga before European contact because of the lack of a writing system during prehistoric times. But oral history has persisted, and Europeans have recorded it (and given it Eurocentric interpretations). (The Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht made a short visit to the islands to trade.) By the 12th century Tongans, and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tu?i, had a reputation across the central Pacific, from Niue to Tikopia, leading some historians to speak of a 'Tongan Empire'. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted. Into this situation the first European explorers arrived, beginning in 1616 with the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu), and in 1643 with Abel Tasman(who visited Tongatapu and Ha?apai). Later noteworthy European visitors included James Cook (British Navy) in 1773, 1774, and 1777, Alessandro Malaspina (Spanish Navy) in 1793, the first London missionaries in 1797, and the Wesleyan Methodist Walter Lawry Buller in 1822. In 1845 the ambitious young warrior, strategist, and orator Taufa?ahau united Tonga into a kingdom. He held the chiefly title of Tu?i Kanokupolu, but was baptised with the name King George. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy, formally adopted the western royal style, emancipated the "serfs", enshrined a code of law, land tenure, and freedom of the press, and limited the power of the chiefs. Tonga became a British-protected state under a Treaty of Friendship on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. Within the British Empire, which posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul (1901–1970), Tonga formed part of the British Western Pacific Territories (under a colonial High Commissioner, residing on Fiji) from 1901 until 1952. Although under the protection of Britain, Tonga remained the only Pacific nation never to have given up its monarchical government - as did Tahiti and Hawai?i. The Tongan monarchy, unlike that of the UK, follows a straight line of rulers. The Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protectorate status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970 (atypically as an autochthonous monarchy, that is one with its own hereditary monarch rather than Elizabeth II), and the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has never lost indigenous governance, a fact that makes Tonga unique in the Pacific and gives Tongans much pride, as well as confidence in their monarchical system. As part of cost cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nuku?alofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interes
King Kamehameha I, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kawaihae, Hawaii
King Kamehameha I, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kawaihae, Hawaii
An interpretive sign discussing King Kamehameha I's struggle for power. Kamehameha I (c. 1758–May 8, 1819), also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawai?i in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawai?i's independence under his rule. Kamehameha is remembered for the Kanawai Mamalahoe, the "Law of the Splintered Paddle", which protects human rights of non-combatants in times of battle. Kamehameha's full Hawaiian name is Kalani Pai?ea Wohi o Kaleikini Keali?ikui Kamehameha o ?Iolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kunuiakea. Although there is some debate as to the precise year of his birth, Hawaiian legends claimed that a great king would one day unite the islands, and that the sign of his birth would be a comet. Halley's comet was visible from Hawai?i in 1758 and it is likely Kamehameha was born shortly after its appearance. Other accounts state that he was born in November 1737. The 1758 date is most likely, since his eldest son was born in 1797. He was known as Paiea, which means "hard-shelled crab". His father by blood was Chief Keoua Nui. His mother was Chiefess Keku?iapoiwa of the Kohala district on the island of Hawai?i. In ancient Hawaiian culture it was common for royalty to mentor or "adopt" other children, so they can have another honorary parent. The ruler of the adjacent island of Maui, Kahekili II took Kamehameha into his court. His father Keoua was the grandson of Keaweikekahiali?iokamoku, who had once ruled a large portion of the island of Hawai?i. When Keaweikekahiali?iokamoku died, war broke out over succession between his sons, Kalani Kama Ke?eaumoku Nui and Kalaninui?amamao, and a rival chief, Alapa?inuiakauaua. Alapa?i emerged victorious over the two brothers, and their orphan sons (including Kamehameha's father) were absorbed into his clan. He may also be the son of the chief of Maui named Kahikili. When Kamehameha (Paiea) was born, Alapa?i ordered the child killed. One of his priests (kahuna) had warned him that a fiery light in the sky would signal the birth of a "killer of chiefs". Alapa?i, nervous at the thought of this child eventually usurping his rule, decided to take no chances. Pai?ea's parents, however, had anticipated this. As soon as he was born, he was given into the care of Nae?ole, another noble from Kohala, and disappeared from sight. Nae?ole raised Pai?ea for the first few years of his life. Five years after his birth, Alapa?i, perhaps remorseful of his actions, invited the child back to live with his family. There under the guidance of his kahu (teacher), Kekuhaupi?o, he learned the ways of court diplomacy and war. Kekuhaupi?o remained a faithful and trusted advisor to Pai?ea until the accidental death of the loyal kahu during a sham battle. Another story says the name Pai?ea was given to Kamehameha after he first distinguished himself as a warrior in a battles between Maui and Hawai?i island in 1775–1779. Pai?ea is said to have had a dour disposition, and acquired the name he is best known for today: Ka mehameha, from the Hawaiian language for "the lonely one" When Alapa?i died, his position was succeeded by his son Keawea?opala. Kalani?opu?u, Alapa?i's great-nephew, challenged his rule, and was backed by his nephew Kamehameha. In fierce fighting at Kealakekua Bay, Keawea?opala was slain and Kalani?opu?u claimed victory. For his loyal service to his uncle, Kamehameha was made Kalani?opu?u's aide. In 1779, Kamehameha again traveled with Kalani?opu?u to Kealakekua Bay. This time he, among other young chiefs accompanying their senior chief, met with Captain James Cook. Cook was perhaps mistaken by some Native Hawaiians to be Lono, the Hawaiian god of fertility. Cook's ship was the HMS Discovery; Kamehameha may have stayed on board at least one night. It was Kamehameha's first contact with non-Hawaiians. Raised in the royal court of his uncle Kalani?opu?, Kamehameha achieved prominence in 1782, upon Kalani?opu?u's death. While the kingship was inherited by Kalani?opu?u's son Kiwala?o, Kamehameha was given a prominent religious position, guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kuka?ilimoku, as well as the district of Waipi?o valley. There was already bad blood between the two cousins, caused when Kamehameha presented a slain ali?i's body to the gods instead of to Kiwala?o. When a group of chiefs from the Kona district offered to back Kamehameha against of Kiwala?o, he accepted eagerly. The five Kona chiefs supporting Kamehameha were: Ke?eaumoku Papa?iahiahi (Kamehameha's father-in-law), Keaweaheulu Kalua?apana (Kamehameha's uncle), Kekuhaupi?o (Kamehameha's warrior teacher), Kame?eiamoku and Kamanawa (twin uncles of Kamehameha). Kiwala?o was soon defeated in the battle of Moku?ohai, and Kamehameha took control of the districts of Kohala, Kona, and Hamakua on the island of Hawai?i. Kamehameha th

captain james cook death
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