Israel is the only modern nation that has not signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (refusal to engage in offensive biological warfare, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons). Israel is also the only modern nation that has signed but not ratified the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (refusal to produce, stockpile and use chemical weapons). Should a future biological terror attack hit America or any other nation, the state of Israel and its citizens will be prime suspects.
The following government and non-government agencies, institutions and organizations also appear to be intimately involved in some aspect of the upcoming bio-terror attack: BARDA (Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority), CDC (Center for Disease Control), Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, EIS (Epidemic Intelligence Service), INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organization), NBACC (National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center), NIAID (National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases), NIH (National Institutes of Health), OBFS (Organization of Biological Field Stations), USAMRICD (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense), USAMRIID (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases) and the WHO (World Health Organization).
Abstract: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. Its science and engineering counterpart is the National Science Foundation. It comprises 27 separate institutes, centers, and offices which includes the Office of the Director. Francis S. Collins is the current Director.
As of 2003, the NIH was responsible for 28%—about US$26.4 billion—of the total biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., with most of the rest coming from industry.
The NIH's research is divided into two parts: the Extramural Research Program is responsible for the funding of biomedical research outside the NIH, while the Intramural Research Program (IRP) is the internal research program of the NIH, known for its synergistic approach to biomedical science. With 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, the IRP is the largest biomedical research institution on earth. The unique funding environment of the IRP facilitates opportunities to conduct both long-term and high-impact science that would otherwise be difficult to undertake. With rigorous external reviews ensuring that only the most innovative research secures funding, the IRP is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus. Intramural research is primarily conducted at the main campus in Bethesda, Maryland, and the surrounding communities. The National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Drug Abuse are located in Baltimore, Maryland, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is in Research Triangle, North Carolina. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) maintains Rocky Mountain Labs in Hamilton, Montana, with an emphasis on virology.
The goal of NIH research is to acquire new knowledge to help prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat disease and disability, from the rarest genetic disorder to the common cold. The NIH mission is to uncover new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone. NIH works toward that mission by conducting research in its own laboratories, supporting the research of non-federal scientists (in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country and abroad), helping in the training of research investigators, and fostering communication of medical and health sciences information (Wikipedia, 2012).
Date: March 14, 2002
Abstract: Testing of potential new vaccines against anthrax and the Ebola virus and basic research on how the immune system fends off invaders top the government's plans for how to spend some $1.2 billion in bioterrorism research funding.
Congress has not yet voted on the Bush administration's proposal to award the National Institutes of Health that amount for bioterrorism work.
But the NIH on Thursday unveiled its plans to explain the mesh of basic laboratory research and clinical studies necessary for battling the most worrisome bioterrorism agents: anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers and botulism.
Such research, particularly studies focusing on the immune system, brings an added bonus, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, the NIH's bioterrorism chief. What scientists learn about how the immune system deals with, or is stumped by, a bioterrorist-caused disease should shed light on naturally occurring killers, too, he said.
The NIH's anti-bioterrorism agenda describes six major research categories:
1. Microbial biology, including unraveling the genetic structure of each bioterrorism agent, to understand how the bugs cause disease.
2. Better understanding of human immunology, important as a basis to create new vaccines, diagnostic tests and broadly acting drugs.
3. Developing new vaccines. Experimental candidates against the Ebola virus and better anthrax vaccines should soon enter clinical trials, the NIH said.
4. Hunting new treatments. Already NIH research has uncovered that an anti-AIDS drug called cidofovir may help treat smallpox.
5. Hunting more rapid tests to diagnose if someone is infected with a bioterrorism agent.
6. Developing the very tools needed to
do such research, including more high-containment laboratories and animal models
of the diseases (UCLA, 2002).