Israel is the only modern nation that has not signed
the 1972 Biological
Weapons Convention (refusal to
engage in offensive biological warfare, stockpiling, and use of biological
weapons). Israel is also the only modern nation that has signed but not
ratified the 1993 Chemical
Weapons Convention (refusal to produce, stockpile and use chemical
weapons). Should a future biological terror attack hit America or any other
nation, the state of Israel and its citizens will be prime suspects.
The following government and non-government agencies, institutions and organizations also appear to be intimately involved in some aspect of the upcoming bio-terror attack: BARDA (Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority), CDC (Center for Disease Control), Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, EIS (Epidemic Intelligence Service), INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organization), NBACC (National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center), NIAID (National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases), NIH (National Institutes of Health), OBFS (Organization of Biological Field Stations), USAMRICD (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense), USAMRIID (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases) and the WHO (World Health Organization).
Abstract: The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, provides an integrated, systematic approach to the development and purchase of the necessary vaccines, drugs, therapies, and diagnostic tools for public health medical emergencies.
BARDA manages the procurement and advanced development of medical
countermeasures for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear
agents, as well as the advanced development and procurement of medical
countermeasures for pandemic influenza and other emerging infectious
Medical countermeasure requirements in BARDA provide a solid foundation for establishing advanced development and acquisition programs that support the overarching ASPR mission of reducing the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, including those caused by pandemic influenza, CBRN threat agents and emerging diseases. These requirements are critical to establishing programs to meet our preparedness goals. They also create incentives for industry participation and shape the market for countermeasure products.
Pandemic Influenza requirements are defined by strategic objectives established in the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza and the HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan.
Advanced Research and Development
From its inception, BARDA has been committed to creating a robust and dynamic pipeline of medical countermeasures through advanced development of new and improved medical countermeasures. The goal of medical countermeasure development is to provide multiple product candidates in each program to both account for attrition in medical countermeasure development and to establish multi-product/multi-manufacturer portfolios for sustainability and redundancy.
BARDA medical countermeasures include vaccines, antimicrobial drugs,
therapeutic products, diagnostics and non-pharmaceutical medical
supplies and devices for public health medical emergencies including
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats, pandemic
influenza and emerging infectious diseases. BARDA currently has three
programs dedicated to overseeing the advanced development of these
medical countermeasures: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear
(CBRN); pandemic influenza; and emerging infectious diseases. BARDA’s
Influenza and Emerging Diseases Division is in the planning phase for
its Emerging Infectious disease program. This program will, when stood
up, support the advanced development of vaccine, therapeutic and
diagnostic medical countermeasures that address emerging disease
Integrated National Biodefense Medical Countermeasures Portfolio
Integrated National Biodefense Medical Countermeasure Portfolio “One-Portfolio Approach.” The Department of Defense (DoD) and HHS each identify medical countermeasure requirements to address their different missions and focus. DoD’s focus is on protecting the armed forces prior to exposure, whereas HHS’s focus is on response to threats to the civilian population after exposure in a CBRN event. However, there are areas of common requirements or interest where medical countermeasure candidates, resources and information can be appropriately shared to maximize opportunities for success in the development of medical countermeasures for the highest priority threats. BARDA, in partnership with other HHS and DoD partners, is leading an Integrated National Biodefense Medical Countermeasure Portfolio to leverage resources and programs across the agencies that develop and acquire CBRN medical countermeasures to more effectively address the broad range of common threats and requirements. Members of this Integrated Portfolio include BARDA, biodefense programs in NIAID and other Institutes of NIH, and multiple elements of the DoD Chemical and Biological Defense Program
The Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) established BARDA as the focal point within HHS for the advanced development and acquisition of medical countermeasures to protect the American civilian population against Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) and naturally occurring threats to public health.
BARDA’s stockpiling efforts are focused on building reserves of
critical countermeasures as they emerge from Advanced Development.
Stockpiling contributes to preparedness in two ways.
1. Stockpiled medical countermeasures directly support readiness, as
the stockpiled products can help to mitigate the effects of an event or
2. Establishment of the stockpile helps to ready suppliers to meet the increased demands that an event will bring about, becoming practiced in the production and delivery of products.
BARDA’s acquisitions for the stockpile are not one-time events,
complete upon the approval/licensure of a product. Rather, programs are
structured to include incremental milestone acquisitions during late
stage development, to make available products still in development that
may increase preparedness in an event, pending Emergency Use
Authorization. Furthermore, we aim to establish stockpiling milestones
to address long term commitments post-licensure.
CBRN Stockpiling Programs
In FY 2004, Congress appropriated $5.6 billion to the Project BioShield Special Reserve Fund (SRF) to support the Project BioShield goal of acquiring CBRN medical countermeasures over a 10-year period. BARDA has used these funds to support major acquisition programs leading to procurement of medical countermeasures against top priority threats.
Pandemic Influenza Stockpiling Programs
Using funds from the Pandemic Influenza Emergency Supplemental Fund, BARDA is leading the nation toward the vaccine and antiviral stockpile goals for preparedness for pandemic influenza.
Manufacturing and Infrastructure Building
Ensuring the availability of medical countermeasures for public health emergencies is central to BARDA’s mission. This includes ensuring that manufacturing infrastructure is sufficient to support the production of required products, in a manner that is timely, reliable and cost effective.
BARDA is taking several approaches to bringing online the necessary infrastructure for medical countermeasure manufacturing. We are supporting the construction of new facilities as well as
retrofitting existing facilities for maximal capacity and flexibility.
We are also exploring the use of multiproduct manufacturing facilities
to provide flexibility and surge capacity. So that we are able to
rapidly provide countermeasures in the dosage forms required for use in
the field, we are establishing a network of formulation/fill-finish
manufacturers for emergency production and distribution. BARDA is also
exploring the creation of centers of excellence for the development and
production of non-commercial products, with assistance from industry
The Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) charges BARDA to support innovation to reduce the time and cost of medical countermeasures and product advanced research and development. This is to be accomplished through development of technologies that assist the advanced development of countermeasures, investment in research tools and technologies, and research to promote strategic initiatives including rapid diagnostics, broad spectrum antimicrobials, and vaccine manufacturing technologies.
We see this innovation mandate as an opportunity to work with our partners (including NIH, DoD, CDC, industry, and academia) to create new ways to “make medical countermeasure better.” Examples of this approach to innovation could include the development of animal models to support efficacy testing, immune modulation and other broad-spectrum approaches, immunity assessment, and analytical (potency) assays.
An example of innovation from the Pandemic Influenza program is BARDA’s Mix and Match study, assessing various combinations of antigens and adjuvants to obtain a more robust immune response. BARDA plans to support similar initiatives, leveraging technology platforms and products from multiple companies. PAHPA provided an important “antitrust” authority that is used to facilitate cooperation among companies for whom such cooperation would otherwise be difficult to accomplish.
BARDA’s Strategic Science Team helps bring innovation to our programs. This team is the focal point for discussions with the creators of new technologies, ideas, and products. Together with the program managers, they seek ways to integrate
innovative science into the development and production of medical
countermeasures (Wikipedia, 2012).
Date: June 6, 2011
Source: Bio Prep Watch
Abstract: The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that administers biodefense stockpiling contracts, will exercise options under a botulism antitoxin supply contract with Cangene Corporation.
The options are expected to generate $61 million in additional revenue over the new few years for Cangene, one of Canada’s first and largest biopharmaceutical companies. The delivery schedule for the botulism antitoxin will be extended to 2018 for the approximately 80,000 doses that remain.
By exercising the options, the total contract value for Cangene rises from $362 million to $423 million, for which Cangene has already recognized approximately $200.1 million.
"This is an extremely positive step," Michael Graham, acting president and CEO of Cangene, said. "Not only does this significantly increase the total revenue value of this contract, it also indicates that BARDA is adopting a strategy of extending these types of contracts to replenish supplies of biodefense products. As the supplier for three products in the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile, that's an indication we are happy to see. It also provides for a consistent addition to our revenue stream for the next seven years."
In addition to the botulism antitoxin, the company has also introduced two other items to the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile – an anthrax immune globulin and a vaccinia immune globulin, which counteracts certain complications that can occur from smallpox vaccination (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).