SUNSHINE PROJECT‎ > ‎

ENMOD Convention

BIOTERRORBIBLE.COM: The Sunshine Project was a foundation funded program that existed in Europe and the United States from 2000 until 2008. While its purpose was never clearly defined, it acted as a source of information in respect to the highly illegal and highly unethical scientific practices occurring in the field of microbiology, specifically in bio-terror and bio-weapons research. The Sunshine Project will likely be trotted out in the media post pandemic to shine light on (demonize and blame) the United States for ultimately allowing an environment of underground bio-related research to flourish.

Title: Sunshine Project
Date: 2012
Source: SunshineProject

Disclaimer: As of 1 February 2008, the Sunshine Project is suspending its operations.
Although this website is no longer updated, it remains online as an archive of our activities and publications from 2000 through 2008. If you have any questions, please contact us by e-mail at tsp@sunshine-project.org. Thank you for your interest.

INTRODUCTION

What is the ENMOD Convention?

The Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) prohibits using the environment as a weapon in conflicts. Adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1976 and opened for signature on 18 May 1977, ENMOD entered into force when Laos, the twentieth State Party, deposited its instrument of ratification on 5 October 1978.

ENMOD was inspired by global opposition to the use of Agent Orange and other environmental modification technologies in the 1960s during the Vietnam War and also by fears - in the 1970s - that technology was rapidly reaching the point that deliberate catastrophic environmental changes could be triggered as a weapon for hostile use.

To date, ENMOD has been ratified nearly seventy countries, including major powers such as Russia and the United States. Relatively few Southern states have ratified the treaty. Two Review Conferences have been held, in 1984 and 1992.

In late 2000, the Sunshine Project began research on ENMOD as a possible "new" tool to prevent the use of weapons of mass destruction, particularly biological and toxin agents. In May 2001, the Sunshine Project joined the Edmonds Institute, Third World Network, and the Transnational Institute to co-sponsored a small conference to assess ENMOD's viability as tool for a diverse group of non-governmental organizations to promote peace, protect the environment, and prevent the hostile use of biological and chemical technologies.

The Project prepared a background paper on ENMOD for the Amsterdam meeting. Discussants at the meeting concluded that ENMOD's potential for civil society is significant and established a programme of research to fill knowledge gaps and to articulate the pieces to enable non-governmental organizations to conduct effective advocacy on ENMOD.


ENMOD 1994

Donwload a short (2 page) 1994 US Air Force proposal to develop a theater-scale weather modification system using carbon black. Released under FOIA from the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.

Download a PDF of a US Navy proposal to develop new weather modification weapons. This proposal is from April, 1994 and was submitted to the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.

PUBLICATIONS

A Political Primer on
the ENMOD Convention


February 2002

This primer provides diplomatic and political history on ENMOD, discussing:

- Initial treaty proposals;
- Negotiations by the Commission on Disarmament;
- Adoption by the General Assembly;
- the 1st and 2nd Review Conferences, and;
- US Senate materials related to ratification and 1960/70s military programs in Southeast Asia.

The primer includes electronic copies (PDF) of important and difficult-to-find UN and US government documents related to the treaty.

If you are unfamiliar with ENMOD, it is a good idea to first review the paper below, which provides a more general introduction to environmental warfare and the treaty:

Post-Cold War Conflict and the Environment
The ENMOD Convention and Related Agreements on Hostile Modification of the Environment.


An April 2001 Occasional Paper of the Edmonds Institute.

ENMOD Text
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (also available in Spanish)

List of Parties
ENMOD Parties (and Signatories)
(Source: UN)

ENMOD Parties and Signatories - May 2001

  State Signature Deposit Total signatories Total parties
  48 66

Tajikistan
12 October 1999 (a)



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
27 April 1999(s)



Costa Rica
7 February 1996(a)


Chile
26 April 1994(a)


Uruguay
16 September 1993(a)


Slovakia
28 May 1993(s)


Saint Lucia
27 May 1993(s)*


Uzbekistan
26 May 1993(a)


Czech Republic
22 February 1993(s)


Niger
17 February 1993(a)


Mauritius
9 December 1992(a)


Dominica
9 November 1992(s)


Algeria
19 December 1991(a)


Austria
17 January 1990(a)*


Antigua and Barbuda
25 October 1988(s)*



Switzerland
5 August 1988(a)*


Guatemala
21 March 1988(a)*


Argentina
20 March 1987(a)*


Republic of Korea
2 December 1986(a)*


Benin 10 June 1977 30 June 1986


Pakistan
27 February 1986(a)


Afghanistan
22 October 1985(a)


Democratic People's Republic of Korea
8 November 1984(a)


Brazil 9 November 1977 12 October 1984


New Zealand
7 September 1984(a)*


Australia 31 May 1978 7 September 1984


Sweden
27 April 1984(a)


Greece
23 August 1983(a)


Germany 18 May 1977** 24 May 1983***


Romania 18 May 1977 6 May 1983


Netherlands 18 May 1977 15 April 1983*


Ireland 18 May 1977 16 December 1982


Belgium 18 May 1977 12 July 1982


Japan
9 June 1982(a)


Egypt
1 April 1982


Italy 18 May 1977 27 November 1981


Solomon Islands
19 June 1981(s)


Canada 18 May 1977 11 June 1981


Papua New Guinea
28 October 1980(a)


Viet Nam
26 August 1980(a)


United States of America 18 May 1977 17 January 1980


Kuwait
2 January 1980(a)*


Sao Tome and Principe
5 October 1979(a)


Cape Verde
3 October 1979(a)


Bangladesh
3 October 1979(a)


Norway 18 May 1977 15 February 1979


India 15 December 1977 15 December 1978


Lao People's Democratic Republic 13 April 1978 5 October 1978


Malawi
5 October 1978(a)


Spain 18 May 1977 19 July 1978


Ghana 21 March 1978 22 June 1978


Ukraine 18 May 1977 13 June 1978


Poland 18 May 1977 8 June 1978


Belarus 18 May 1977 7 June 1978


Bulgaria 18 May 1977 31 May 1978


Russian Federation 18 May 1977 30 May 1978


Mongolia 18 May 1977 19 May 1978


United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 18 May 1977 16 May 1978*


Finland 18 May 1977 12 May 1978


Tunisia 11 May 1978 11 May 1978


Sri Lanka 8 June 1977 25 April 1978


Hungary 18 May 1977 19 April 1978


Denmark 18 May 1977 19 April 1978


Cyprus 7 October 1977 12 April 1978


Cuba 23 September 1977 10 April 1978


Yemen 18 May 1997 20 July 1977


Portugal 18 May 1977



Cambodia 15 January 1993



Syrian Arab Republic 4 August 1977



Turkey 18 May 1977*



Uganda 18 May 1977



Sierra Leone 12 April 1978



Nicaragua 11 August 1977



Morocco 18 May 1977



Lebanon 18 May 1977



Liberia 18 May 1977



Luxembourg 18 May 1977



Iran (Islamic Republic of) 18 May 1977



Iraq 15 August 1977



Holy See 27 May 1977



Iceland 18 May 1977



Ethiopia 18 May 1977



Bolivia 18 May 1977


  48 66