Bugs & Insects

BIOTERRORBIBLE.COM: In the aftermath of man-made bio-terror generated pandemic, the government and media will be feeding the public any number of different scapegoats allegedly responsible for the pandemic that will likely kill millions.

While some scapegoats (see below) are indeed plausible, it is much more likely that the live pathogens or agents responsible for the pandemic will likely be dispersed via A) chemtrails by government airplanes or drones, B) by the U.S. Postal Service via Tide detergent samples, C) by the government and medical establishment via tainted vaccines, or by D) the portable petri dish commonly known as the Trojan condom.

Bio-Terror Scapegoats: Africa, Agriculture (Food & Animals), Airports & Air Travel, Al Qaeda, Bio Labs, Bio-Terrorism Is Easy, Bio-Terrorists (Bio-Hackers), Black Market, Bugs & Insects, Censorship / Lack Thereof, Domestic Terrorists, Exotic Animals (Zoonosis), Government Ineptitude, Mail-Order DNA, Mexico, Missile Shield Failure, Mutation, Natural Disaster, No Clinical Trials (Vaccines), and The Monkeys.

Title: The Role Of Insects As Biological Weapons
Montana State University


The following is based on the notes for a seminar presented by R.K.D. Peterson in 1990 at the University of Nebraska. The information is from several published primary and secondary sources listed at the end of this article.

What is a Biological Weapon

Before discussing the role of insects in biological warfare (BW), we need to define biological warfare and just what a biological warfare agent is. The definition is from the 1972 biological weapons convention. The definition for a BW agent is fairly straightforward:

"Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes."

This definition includes all living BW agents, including insects, as well as toxins produced from these agents (e.g., the botulinum toxin).

PRE 1800

The recorded allegations and instances of BW before 1800 do not involve insects. However, it is important to discuss some of these records to understand the full spectrum of BW.

600 B.C.

Solon, the legislator of the Athenians, contaminated the river Pleisthnes with the plant root of helleborous to give the defenders of Kirrha violent diarrhea, which led to their defeat.

ca. 200 B.C.

Carthaginian general Maharbal purposely retreated from his encampment and left behind a large stock of wine that he treated with mandagora, a toxic root which produces a narcotic effect. The enemy, upon drinking the tainted wine, fell into a deep sleep and the Cartheginians returned to slay their enemy.

190 B.C.

Hannibal won a naval victory over king Eumenes of Pergamon by firing earthen vessels full of snakes into king Eumenes ships.

There are many records throughout the ages of armies dumping dead humans and animals into wells, ponds, streams, and rivers to pollute the enemies’ water supplies.

Mid 1300s

Mongol tartars, sieging the port city of Feodosia (then Kaffa) on the Black Sea, finally broke the three-year siege by catapulting plague-infested cadavers over the walls of the city.

The city fell from plague in 1346 and it was suspected that escaping residents of the city introduces plague into Italy, initiating the pandemic (the Black Death) that decimated the European populace between 1348 and 1350.


The next recorded instance of BW was in the new world. Smallpox was strongly suspected of being used against the Indians in the French and Indian War. Sir Jeffrey Amherst, commander in chief of the British forces in the American colonies had two blankets and a handkerchief from a British smallpox hospital sent to Indian chiefs. A smallpox epidemic soon erupted.


The American Civil War

The American Civil War marked the first instance of alleged use of an insect as a weapon of war. The Confederacy accused the Union of deliberately introducing the harlequin bug, Murgentia histrionica, into the South.

Tremendous crop damage resulted in the South because of this pest. This allegation was never proven and it now appears that the harlequin bug moved on its own into the South from Mexico. However, humans may have aided in the movement of this pest.

Disease relationships (microbial and insect vector) were elucidated in the early twentieth century. As soon as the mechanisms were known, military planners began to apply them as possible warfare agents.

World War I

None of the belligerent countries in WWI took official notice of BW. No country involved had a BW research facility and there was no BW on a large scale.

BW clearly was used in sabotage operations in the war to end all wars. In 1915, German agents inoculated horses and cattle that were leaving the U.S. for allied ports with glanders and anthrax. In 1917, the Germans again were accused of spreading glanders to 4,500 donkeys on the French front, and of spreading plague on the Russian front in 1915 and 1916.

As most people know, WWI was known more for the development of chemical weaponry, which was spawned by advances in the dye industry.

Between the Wars

17 June 1925. Geneva Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare. Even though biological weapons were not used on a large scale in wwi, the framers of the Geneva Protocol viewed BW as a serious emerging threat and incorporated a bacterial warfare component into the protocol. Most major countries in the world at that time ratified the treaty.

The United States, however, did not ratify the treaty because of the then current isolationist movement in this country. The U.S. finally ratified this treaty in 1975, 50 years after its inception. The failure of the U.S. to ratify the treaty led the Japanese to not ratify the treaty either and to believe that BW was promising and had a future in warfare.

World War II

The world still is heavily influenced by the events that took place from 1939-1945, and in some respects the war finally ended less than a month ago with German reunification.

World War II also was pivotal when we consider the development and use of BW. I need to look at each belligerent country's involvement because each country's involvement was unique, both axis and allied.


German involvement in BW was not nearly as advanced as Japan or the Allied Nations. It now appears that BW and BW research was not taken seriously by the German military hierarchy. Hitler, especially, viewed the emerging sciences as some sort of Jewish plot. He called the physics of Einstein, Jew physics, and felt similarly about the new biology, and the new psychology.

After the successful Russian counterattacks in Russia in 1943, Hitler agreed to establish an SS BW research station at Posen. As the Russians got closer to the research station, work accelerated at the station, but no real advances were made before the Russians occupied the station in March 1945.

At the Posen BW research station, the Germans performed work on the diseases plague, cholera, typhus, yellow fever, and performed experiments on the feasibility of using insects such as the Colorado potato beetle to attack Allied potato crops. The Germans were accused of dropping cardboard boxes filled with Colorado potato beetles over England from 1941-1943. The containers were never recovered but abnormalities associated with the presence of the beetles prompted Sir Maurice Hankey, head of Britain's BW effort, to write a memo to Winston Churchill with his concerns.

Also, as British invasion fears grew after the successful evacuation from Dunkirk, rumors spread that the Germans had created an omnivorous strain of grasshopper which would soon starve the British into surrender. This was a myth. However, the fact that Nazi doctors used human subjects for experiments on insect-borne diseases is no myth. Concentration camp inmates were intentionally infested with typhus-infected lice by SS doctors at Natzweiler, Dauchau, and Buchenwald. Many of these doctors and scientists were sentenced to death by the Nuremberg Tribunal after the war.

Great Britain and the Commonwealth

England had a viable BW research program since 1934. After hearing that Germany was initiating a program in 1936, a BW advisory group was established which procured antisera for human and animal diseases, and stocked insecticides and fungicides as a contingency for anti-crop attacks.

In 1939, the BW advisory group assessed BW as less effective than the conventional forms of warfare, but they advised the government to begin a BW research effort.

In 1940, shortly after the fall of France, a BW research unit was established within the chemical warfare research establishment at Porton Down. An experiment conducted in 1941 involved the dissemination of anthrax spores from small aircraft bombs at Gruinard Island off the northwest coast of Scotland. All the other work at Porton Down has been heavily classified and still is unavailable. The only reason the Guinard island episode is known to the general public is because the island is still uninhabitable to this day because of the presence of anthrax spores.

The British effort was combined with the Canadian effort in 1942. Canada had several BW research stations throughout the country. Field testing was performed at a proving ground near Ralston, Alberta. Not much is known about what was studied there. Apparently Canada feared that North American livestock were very susceptible to Old World diseases so several were studied. As a result they studied rinderpest and a few other diseases. Also, botulinal toxins were studied and antidotes were developed.

After the U.S. Entered the war, Canada and Britain shared their BW research experience with the U.S.


The only verified instance of BW during the war was the use by Japan against the Chinese, from 1937-1945.

The Japanese BW program was headed by General Shiro Ishii, an army surgeon with a doctorate in bacteriology. Before Ishii began his BW efforts, he was famous for developing a portable water filtration system, capable of being transported by army regiments.

Ishii strongly believed that the western powers had advanced BW programs and were prepared to use them. Again, failure of the U.S. to sign the 1925 Geneva Protocol influenced his thoughts and actions.

BW research was considered too risky to study in Japan proper. Therefore, the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (formerly Manchuria), under complete Japanese control since 1932, was chosen as an ideal location for the studies.

Mukden POW Camp

In 1936, detachment 731 was formed in the town of Harbin. The official name of the detachment was “Epidemic Prevention and Water Supply Unit of the Kwantung Army." In reality, the mission of unit 731 was to forge deadly new biological weapons for the Japanese army to be used against all possible enemies.

In 1938, the success of the research and development efforts at Harbin necessitated the move of unit 731 to Pingfan, a more secure area outside of Harbin. The Pingfan complex included an insectary among its 150 buildings, where 1000 staff members worked around the clock. In total, with out-stations and personnel in the water purification units, 10,000 people were involved.

Like the German scientists, human subjects were used to study these diseases. As early as 1932, people were taken from prison camps (mainly Chinese soldiers, intellectuals, and local workers). The study subjects were called Marutas, which means logs of wood. This is how they were treated. Unspeakable horrors awaited those that entered the Ro block. No subjects that entered ever left alive.

The subjects were tied to posts and were forced to be bitten by plague-infested fleas. The progression of the disease was then charted very scientifically until the subjects died. If the subject did not die, he or she was usually killed, and the body dissected. Many of the human subjects were vivisected at the Ro block. A room existed there where body parts were kept and catalogued.

Of course, human subjects were used on all the diseases studied at Pingfan. Gangrene was studied by exploding gangrene soaked shrapnel bombs in front of tied up Marutas. Also, frostbite was studied by gradually freezing subjects.

It is estimated that 3600 people were sacrificed by the Japanese scientists in the Ro block. This was addition to possibly more than 200 American and British POW's, who were studied at the Mukden POW Camp. More than 1500 Allied soldiers may have been used in BW experimentation. The Japanese were curious to see if Anglo-Saxons and Caucasians in general responded differently to the treatments than the Chinese subjects.

The Pingfan facility was able to produce 300 kilograms of viable plague germs every month, Yersinia pestis. The facility also produced cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, and anthrax.

Ishii believed quite strongly that plague was a promising weapon of war and the insect vector was needed for delivery to the enemy. Therefore, a four-story granary was built which housed rats used as the plague reservoir. At production height in 1945, 4500 flea breeding machines were set up to produce 100 million fleas every few days. It is estimated that 3 million rats may have been used.

Bombs made primarily of clay were developed for dissemination of plague-infested fleas. Also, saboteur initiation of plague via distribution of rats with plague was studied. Plans were designed for the Japanese balloon bomb to carry pathogens to America. The balloon bombs were used to attempt to ignite forest fires in the Pacific Northwest (albeit with unsatisfactory results).

The actual use of bioweapons distinguished Japan from the other belligerents. Several attacks were launched against China from 1939-45. Plague-infested fleas were disseminated directly out of aircraft or via specialized bombs. In 1944, an assault team was assembled to sprinkle plague-infested fleas around the Saipan airfield, which the Americans held. The ship carrying the assault team, however, was sunk by an American submarine and the mission was never completed.

By war's end, Unit 731 was preparing for a major war with Russia. The enormous breeding program was interrupted when Russia invaded Manchuria on August of 1945. The remaining human subjects were slaughtered by the fleeing Japanese guards and Pingfan was abandoned with most of the complex intentionally set on fire to destroy particularly damaging information. A plague epidemic in the Harbin and Pingfan area occurred almost immediately after the abandonment of Pingfan. It is strongly suspected that escaped rats were responsible.

After the U.S. occupation of Japan, Russia began to begin making protests that the U.S. government knowingly was protecting Japanese BW specialists, and failing to bring them to justice. At the same time, the Truman administration sent a team of bacteriologists to investigate the Japanese BW program during the war.

It now appears that General Douglas Macarthur, who was in charge of the occupation of Japan after the war, and his intelligence staff deliberately withheld contacts and information from the Washington scientists. These U.S. scientists found out, after they granted immunity from prosecution to the Japanese scientists in exchange for their bw knowledge, that the Japanese scientists experimented on human subjects, and specifically American POWs. Immunity would not have been granted had the scientists known this. It appears, however, that Macarthur's intelligence staff knew this, but was so desperate for the Japanese BW information, that they deliberately coached the Japanese interviewees. The fear of Russia as the next major adversary was strong in Macarthur's eyes.

The Soviet Union was so frustrated by this episode, that they had their own trial and sentenced many of the scientists they captured in Manchuria to various prison terms, from 1 to 30 years. Many of the top Japanese BW scientists, however, lived comfortably in Japan, and some went on to become respected scientists of international repute.

Ishii continued to consult with American authorities, especially during the height of the Cold War, and died in 1959 of throat cancer.

The Soviet Union

Russian outrage at the Japanese BW research and use may have been hypocritical. There are numerous reports that the Soviets themselves conducted studies involving human experimental subjects in Mongolia before and during the war. In one account, political prisoners and prisoners of war were chained in tents with pens of diseased rats until the subjects were bitten by the
fleas. Supposedly, in the summer of 1941, one of the prisoner/experimental subjects escaped and began an epidemic that was controlled only because the Soviets bombed entire Mongol communities. It may never be known as to what extent Russia was involved in BW before, during, or after the war.

The United States

The U.S. army medical corps maintained a passing interest in BW since the 1920's. However, it was not until 1941 that the U.S. BW research program got off the ground, mainly because BW was viewed as a national security threat as the U.S. was drawn closer to the war.

In 1937, Roosevelt declared that the U.S. would never resort to the use of chemical or biological weapons unless they were first used by the enemy. Roosevelt, however, had to agree to increased research in BW as America was being drawn into the war.

The U.S. may have been one of the last major belligerent nations to research BW, but by the war's end the U.S. was probably the most advanced. By war's end, in August 1945, the U.S. BW effort employed 4,000 civilian and military workers, and vied with the Manhattan project for talented scientists and staff.

In all, the U.S. spent $45-50 million for BW installations during the war. The installations included the main research station at Camp Detrick, Maryland, a field-test station on Horn Island in the Mississippi sound, and a huge field-testing facility at the dug way proving grounds in Utah. Also, an ordnance plant was constructed at Terre Haute, Indiana was converted into BW agent production center.

Little is known about the U.S. BW research during the war. Most of the information is still heavily classified and may never be published. A 500 page monograph exists which details the U.S. effort during the war, but it is unavailable for publication because of its classification.

From the flood of journal papers published, it is known that during the war the bacteria of anthrax, glanders, brucellosis, tularemia, meliodosis, and plague were studied.

The fungus of coccidioimycosis was studied, as well as several plant .pathogens, including rice blast, rice brown-spot disease, late blight of potato, and stem rust of cereals. Also, animal pathogents such as rinderpest virus, newcastle disease virus, and fowl plague virus were studied.

Of course, insects played a large role in the study of many of these diseases. Fleas, lice, the yellow fever mosquito, and the Colorado potato beetle were reared in large quantities.

The U.S. also worked on aerosol transmission of pathogens, and freeze-drying of BW agents.

Korea and the Cold War

The U.S. BW research and development continued after WWII. As the cold war heated up, so did the BW effort at Fort Detrick.

In 1952, China accused the U.S. of engaging in germ warfare against the people of North Korea. The Chinese began producing large amounts of evidence which suggested that the U.S. was spreading bacteria-laden insects and other objects over the Korean countryside.

Also plague appeared in areas where it had not been documented for over 500 years.

Chinese entomologists accused the U.S. of distributing disease-carrying anthomyid flies, springtails, and stoneflies with P-51 fighters. Also, accusations were leveled stating that America was contaminating areas with plague infested rats and fleas, and anthrax infested flies and spiders. In all, the U.S. was accused of dropping ants, beetles, crickets, fleas, flies, grasshoppers, lice, springtails, and stoneflies. The alleged associated diseases included anthrax, cholera, dysentery, fowl septicemia, paratyphoid, plague, scrub typhus, and typhoid.

The Chinese set up an international scientific commission for investigating the facts about bacterial warfare. The commission, consisting of scientists from all over the world, ruled that the United States probably did engage in limited biological warfare in Korea.

The U.S. maintains that the commission was nothing more than a communist front, however, and denied all the allegations. The U.S. proposed that the United Nations send a formal inquiry committee to China and Korea and investigate, but China and Korea refused.

Most of the allegations were based on eyewitness reports, photographs of strange paper cartons, anomalous appearances of the insects in question, and testimony by POW's.

It is strange why the Chinese would pick insects such as springtails and stoneflies and allege they were deliberately infected with disease and dropped on Korea. Clearly these insects would not be the best choices if the U.S. wanted to initiate BW.

U.S. and Canadian entomologists claimed that the accusations were ridiculous and argued that the anomalous appearances of insects and appearances of new species to an area could be explained through natural phenomena. The U.S. wrote off the whole incident as communist propaganda, but speculation to this day exists as to whether the U.S. may have been experimenting in the field during the Korean war.

Ten years later it was admitted by Dale Jenkins, the chief entomologist at Fort Detrick, that the U.S. at the time of the allegations was able to initiate BW if they saw fit and this BW would have involved insects as vectors of human diseases. Also, during the Korean War U.S. BW specialists were consulting heavily with former Japanese 731 scientists who were granted immunity from war crimes prosecution.

Despite the allegations and negative press from the Korean war episode, BW research by the U.S. and Britain progressed at an accelerated pace through the 50's and 60's. Britain's BW effort tripled after WWII extensive fundamental research was done, including field testing, and promising results were passed on to the U.S. Top BW leaders in Britain and the U.S. grouped bioweapons in with atomic weapons as "weapons of mass destruction." They felt that situations might exist in which BW agents would be preferable to atomic weapons.

In 1951, BW and chemical warfare were incorporated into official strategic planning by the armed forces of the U.S. Brig. General Rothchild, chemical officer of the Far East command, in 1953 wrote that BW could have played a vital role in the Korean War, by distributing anthrax or yellow fever pathogens into the cold air flows that travel from Siberia through the populated areas of China.

Clearly, BW received strong support among the brass in the U.S. and British armed forces. By the end of the 50's the Fort Detrick labs were set up to breed 130 million yellow fever mosquitoes a month, infect them with yellow fever, and deliver them to the enemy via cluster bombs or from the warheads in a Sergeant Missile. Also, the facilities could accommodate the breeding of 50 million fleas per week. By 1960, the labs were experimenting with malaria, dengue, cholera, anthrax, and dysentery, relapsing fever, tularemia.

The 1960's and Vietnam

After the Cuban Missile Crisis, BW research and testing accelerated even further. President John F. Kennedy wished to balance the defense forces of the U.S. and therefore decided that BW and chemical weapons should be stepped up even further.

In 1962, General Stubbs told congress that insect strains were being developed that were more cold hardy and were resistant to insecticides. All other information pertaining to BW involving insects during the 60's to the present have been classified and have not appeared in the congressional testimonies.

In the early 60's, insects as BW vectors fell out of favor with the scientists and planners. This was due in large part to the successful development of dry biological formulations of toxins and microbes.

With dry formulations of BW agents, the practicality and ease of disseminating diseases was greatly increased. It became easy for pneumonic plague, botulinum toxin, q-fever, and other diseases to be spread reliably and efficiently without the need for insects.

Insects, however, were studied which could vector plant diseases. During the Cuban missile crisis, the U.S. considered destroying the sugarcane crop in Cuba with Fiji disease, which is vectored by leafhoppers.

The Biological Weapons Convention

In 1969, President Nixon called for the unilateral destruction of biological weapons. Three years later, the U.S. signed the Biological Weapons Convention Treaty, which banned the development, production, stockpiling, transfer, and acquisition of BW. In 1975, the U.S. also signed the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which also banned the use of these weapons in war. The treaties, however, do not ban research on BW.

Biological Weapons Today

BW development after 1975 virtually is unknown. Because all major nations signed the BW convention making BW illegal, little information is available as to what is going on today (Montana State University, 1990).

Title: Terrorists Could Use 'Insect-Based' Biological Weapon
January 5, 2009
Source: The Telegraph

Abstract: Terrorists would find it "relatively easy" to launch a devastating attack using swarms of insects to spread a deadly disease, an academic has warned.

Jeffrey Lockwood, professor of entomology at Wyoming University and author of Six-legged Soldiers: Using Insects as Weapons of War, said such Rift Valley Fever or other diseases could be transported into a country by a terrorist with a suitcase.

He told BBC Radio 4's Today programme: "I think a small terrorist cell could very easily develop an insect-based weapon."

He said it would "probably be much easier" than developing a nuclear or chemical weapon, arguing: "The raw material is in the back yard."

He continued: "It would be a relatively easy and simple process.

"A few hundred dollars and a plane ticket and you could have a pretty good stab at it."

Governments, he advised, needed to have robust "pest management infrastructure that's able to absorb and respond to an introduction" of infected insects, he said.

Trying to stop everything coming in at the border would not work, he said.

Rift Valley Fever is an east African disease which "can cause severe disease in both animals and humans, leading to high rates of disease and death" according to the World Health Organisation.

However, WHO says that "the vast majority of human infections result from direct or indirect contact with the blood or organs of infected animals" (The Telegraph, 2009)

Title: Prof: Terrorists Could Enlist ’6-Legged Soldiers’ In Bio-Attack
Date: January 7, 2009
Source: Wired

Abstract: Terrorists could easily contrive an "insect-based" weapon to import an exotic disease, according to an entomologist who’s promoting a book on the subject.

Jeffrey Lockwood, an entomologist at the University of Wyoming, is on the talk show circuit to promote his new book, Six-legged Soldiers: Using Insects as Weapons of War. He told BBC Radio 4′s Today program that planning a bio-terror attack using insects would "probably be much easier" than developing nuclear or chemical weapons. Today does not post the transcript, but the Daily Telegraph quotes him as saying: "It would be a relatively easy and simple process … A few hundred dollars and a plane ticket and you could have a pretty good stab at it."

Nothing like a little bio-warfare scare to drum up sales for your book. Military historian Max Hastings, for one, gave Lockwood’s book a less-than-stellar review this weekend in the London Sunday Times. But he also noted:

The last section of Lockwood’s book is the most plausible and interesting, because it addresses the risks of biological terrorism in our own times. In particular, the author speculates about the consequences if terrorists were to broadcast Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that carries the yellow fever virus. The consequences of a yellow fever epidemic in America, where scarcely anyone is inoculated against the disease, could be devastating.

As Noah has noted here, biodefense labs have soaked up massive amounts of funding in recent years to deal with precisely this kind of theoretical threat. But the real question, thus far, seems to been whether the boom in biodefense research has actually made us safer (Wired, 2009).  

Title: Mosquito Bioweapons: The History of Testing Inside the United States
Date: December 25, 2011
Activist Post

Abstract: With the recent announcement by UK-based biotechnology firm Oxitec that the company would be releasing thousands of genetically modified mosquitoes in Southern Florida as early as January, 2012, GM opponents, environmentalists, and a diverse group of Floridians have issued calls to suspend the experiment at least until further tests have been undertaken. Many are simply calling for informed consent protocol to be followed such as is required by law.

Yet, unfortunately, a great many of the responses to the GE (genetically engineered) mosquito release are missing the deeper agenda which is at work here. Undoubtedly, the sordid history of experimental tests involving mosquitoes, mosquito-borne illnesses, and uninformed and unwitting humans has been largely overlooked.

 For instance, many of the articles I have read over the last few days dealing with this issue have made the claim that the release scheduled for early January would be the first ever of this type of experiment in the United States. This, however, is not the case; and considering the history of such testing — specifically that conducted via the release of mosquitoes — the American people should be very concerned.

I, myself, wrote a detailed article close to a year ago, entitled “Viruses and the GM Insect ‘Flying Vaccine’ Solution,” in which I chronicled the experiments that have taken place over the years both inside and outside of the United States involving mosquitoes and mosquito-borne illnesses, specifically Dengue Fever.

That being said, it has already been discussed in other recent presentations after my initial article in 2010 how, under the guise of eradicating Dengue Fever, GM mosquitoes were released into the environment in the Cayman Islands in 2009.

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne, virus-based disease that has largely been non-existent in North America for several decades. Dengue Fever can morph into a much more dangerous form of the illness known as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Symptoms of Dengue Fever are high fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, easy bruising, joint, muscle and bone pain, rash, and bleeding from the gums. There is no known treatment for Dengue Fever besides adequate rest and drinking plenty of water.

Generally speaking, it is one specific type of mosquito, Aedes Aegypti, which transmits the virus.

The publicly given method for using these GM mosquitoes to eradicate Dengue Fever was that the genetically modified mosquitoes were “engineered with an extra gene, or inserted bacterium, or have had a gene altered so that either their offspring are sterile and unable to spread dengue, or simply die.” More specifically, the male GM mosquitoes are supposed to mate with natural females which produce larvae that die unless tetracycline, an antibiotic, is present. Without the antibiotic, an enzyme accumulates to a level that is toxic enough to kill the larvae.

It is important to note that these GM mosquitoes, known as OX513A, necessarily have to be of the Aedes Aegypti type in order to achieve the goals publicly stated by the developers. Therefore, the millions of male mosquitoes that were released into the open-air environment in 2009, and again in 2010, were all of the Dengue-carrying type.

It is also important to note that the company’s popular claim that the GM mosquitoes are sterile is patently false. They are not sterile. If they were, they would not be able to produce offspring with the tetracycline-dependent gene.

The OX513A mosquitoes were developed by a British biotechnology company named Oxitec, and their subsequent release was overseen by the Mosquito Research and Control Unit (MRCU) in the Cayman Islands, a British overseas territory.

Although Oxitec Limited was the developer who engaged in most of the groundwork for the GM insects, the project was not theirs alone. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Health Organization, The PEW Charitable Trusts, and government agencies in the United States, England, Malaysia, and others were all involved in the development and promotion of the GM mosquitoes, along with Oxford University, an institution to which Oxitec is closely related. Indeed, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation even went so far as to award Oxitec part of a $20 million consortium grant with which to conduct the research regarding genetically modified mosquitoes.

What has been quite suspicious, however, is the fact that Dengue fever, which has been nonexistent in North America for decades, has begun to resurface in Florida. Initially, the fever was found in 2009, but by 2010 the cases had vastly increased. In July 2010, a CDC study was released to very little media attention indicating that about 10 percent of the population of Key West had been infected with Dengue fever. This had doubled from 2009 where 5 percent had been infected. One might wonder what caused a virus that had been almost entirely eradicated to suddenly reappear with such vigor. That is, one might wonder if the answer weren’t so blatantly obvious. Of course, official reports do not address whether or not the Dengue fever is connected to the millions of mosquitoes capable of carrying the fever which were released just miles away in the Cayman Islands.

While Dengue fever had been eradicated in terms of naturally occurring outbreaks in the United States, cases that were research-related and laboratory-generated have occurred in the country for many years. This is because Dengue fever has been of particular interest to the United States government, US Army, and CIA since at least the middle part of the 20thcentury. There is a great deal of evidence suggesting that the biochemical research facilities at Fort Detrick were conducting tests on Dengue fever as a bio-weapon as far back as 1942. It is generally known that in the 1950s the CIA partnered with Ft. Detrick to study Dengue fever and other exotic diseases for use as biological weapons.It is also interesting to note that, according to CIA documents, as well as a 1975 congressional committee, the three locations of Key West, Panama City, and Avon Park (and two other locations in central Florida) were testing sites for Dengue fever research.

As is generally the case, the experiments in Avon Park were concentrated in low-income neighborhoods, in areas that were predominantly black with newly constructed housing projects. According to H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Zoe Martell of Truthout, CIA documents related to the MK/NAOMI program revealed that the agency was using the Aedes Aegypti type of mosquito in these experiments as well. In one of these experiments, 600,000 mosquitoes were released over Avon Park; and in another, 150,000 insects were released in paper bags that were specially designed to open up when they hit the ground.

Truthout interviewed residents (or test subjects) of Avon Park still living in the area who related that there were at least 6 or 7 deaths resulting from the experiments. As quoted by Truthout, one resident said, “Nobody knew about what had gone on here for years, maybe over 20 years, but in looking back it explained why a bunch of healthy people got sick quick and died at the time of those experiments.” Truthout goes on to point out that around the same time of the Avon Park experiments “there were at least two cases of Dengue fever reported among civilian researchers at Fort Detrick in Maryland.”

In 1978, a Pentagon document titled, “Biological Warfare: Secret Testing & Volunteers” revealed that similar experiments were conducted in Key West by the Army Chemical Corps and Special Operations and Projects Divisions at Fort Detrick.

Like the current situation, U.S. government agencies teamed with NGOs, academia, and other organizations to conduct mosquito-related projects. Operation Bellweather, a 1959 experiment consisting of over 50 field tests, was conducted over several states including Georgia, Maryland, Utah, and Arizona, and Florida. Operation Bellweather was coordinated with the Rockefeller Institute in New York; the facility that actually bred the mosquitoes. What’s more, the experiment was aided by the Armour Research Foundation, the Battelle Memorial Institute, Ben Venue Labs, Inc., the University of Florida, Florida State University, and the Lovell Chemical Company.

The military and CIA connections to Dengue fever outbreaks do not end with these experiments, however. It is widely believed that the 1981 outbreak in Cuba was a result of CIA and U.S. military covert biological attacks. This outbreak occurred essentially out of nowhere and resulted in over one hundred thousand cases of infection. Albarelli and Martell write:

American researcher William H. Schaap, an editor of Covert Action magazine, claims the Cuba Dengue outbreak was the result of CIA activities. Former Fort Detrick researchers, all of whom refused to have their names used for this article, say they performed ‘advance work’ on the Cuba outbreak and that it was ‘man made.’

In 1982 the CIA was accused by the Soviet media of sending operatives into Pakistan and Afghanistan for the purposes of creating a Dengue epidemic. Likewise, in 1985 and 1986, authorities in Nicaragua made similar claims against the CIA, also suggesting that they were attempting to start a Dengue outbreak.

While the CIA has characteristically denied involvement in all of these instances, army researchers have admitted to having worked intensely with “arthropod vectors for offensive biological warfare objectives” and that such work was conducted at Fort Detrick in the 1980s. Not only that, but researchers have also admitted that large mosquito colonies, which were infected with both yellow fever and Dengue fever, were being maintained at the Frederick, Maryland facility.

There is also evidence of experimentation with federal prisoners without their knowledge. As Truthout reports:

Several redacted Camp Detrick and Edgewood Arsenal reports indicate that experiments were conducted on state and federal prisoners who were unwittingly exposed to Dengue fever, as well as other viruses, some possibly lethal.

With all of the evidence that CIA and military tests have been conducted regarding Dengue fever, there is ample reason to be concerned when one sees a connection like the recent release of mosquitoes and the subsequent outbreak of Dengue fever in Florida, a traditional testing site for these organizations.

The response to the Dengue outbreak should also be questioned as aerial spraying campaigns were intensified. While these sprayings were claimed to be for the eradication of the Dengue-carrying mosquitoes, the number of people who contracted the illness actually rose.

Clearly, the announcement that experiments are being conducted involving genetically modified mosquitoes, mosquito-borne illnesses, and especially Dengue fever, should be met with great concern and heavy skepticism in regards to the true purpose of the experiments. Considering the track record of corporations, governments, intelligence agencies, foundations, and academia, there is no logical reason why anyone should trust any of these institutions with their progress and well-being. Indeed, in light of this recently announced experiment, one should question just who is the test subject – the insect or the human (Activist Post, 2011).

Title: Bat, Bee, Frog Deaths May Be Linked 
Date: June 1, 2012

Abstract: In recent years, diseases have ravaged through bat, honeybee and amphibian populations, and now animal experts suspect that shared factors may link the deaths, which are putting many species at risk for extinction.

The latest setback affects bats, given this week's announcement that the deadly fungal disease known as white-nose syndrome has been confirmed in already endangered gray bats. The illness, caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, has mortality rates reaching up to 100 percent at some sites.

Simultaneously, Colony Collapse Disorder continues to kill honeybees, while yet another fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis,has wiped out more than 200 frog species across the world.

"It appears that many species are under an immense amount of stress, allowing opportunistic diseases to take hold," Rob Mies, executive director of the Organization for Bat Conservation, told Discovery News. "Life is far more complex, so a single cause is likely not the only explanation for the bat, bee and frog deaths. There could be five, six or more factors involved."

One is how humans may be helping fungal spread. According to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, white-nose syndrome can be inadvertently transferred from people to bats.

"Some of the first caves in North America to be affected by white nose syndrome were in very high tourism areas," Mies said. "Somebody could have visited a cave in Europe wearing boots, and then brought back a tiny bit of mud on the boots containing dormant fungus."

He explained that the fungus, which is sensitive to body warmth, does not infect humans and most other animals. Bats experience a lower body temperature while hibernating, when the fungus can set in.

"It may eat into a bat's skin, even putting holes in it," Mies said. "The fungus can grow to a point where it winds up replacing the skin."

The amphibian fungus also attacks through the skin, causing an infected frog's skin to become up to 40 times thicker than usual, according to San Francisco State University biologist Vance Vredenburg, who recently conducted a study on the related disease, known as chytrid. Since frogs use their skin to absorb water and vital salts, such sodium and potassium, infection often leads to death.

Other human factors tied to the bat, frog and bee deaths include the use of chemical pesticides that may be absorbed through the skin, climate change, habitat loss and the spread of other health threats, such as viruses and mites. 

Helene Marshall of Marshall's Farm Natural Honey told Discovery News that "the virus causing CCD came to us when U.S. beekeepers were importing Australian packaged bees to meet the high pollination demand of the almond growers here in California."

Both bees and bats are critical to agriculture. Bats, like bees, can help to pollinate. They are also a primary predator of agricultural and other insect pests, such as mosquitoes. Frogs additionally consume insect pests.

The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service now has a national plan for managing white-nose syndrome in bats. It allows for diagnostics, disease management, disease surveillance and more. But Mies points out that for animals like bats and frogs, antifungals can be "pretty nasty medicines," doing damage of their own and perhaps further damaging ecosystems.

He said that man-made antifungal-treated mines might be created in the future so that bats ready for hibernation can use them. For bees, Marshall has partnered with hotels, businesses and individuals to establish more carefully monitored honeybee hives.

Bees, frogs and bats are usually not poster species for animal conservation, so educating people about their benefits to the environment and economy (via agriculture) is important. Bats are particularly maligned.

"Humans are still killing bats," Mies said. "If one finds its way into your home, please humanely evict it. If possible, you can also put up bat houses, providing much needed safe habitat for them" (Discovery, 2012)

Title: 2 People Dead After Swarms Of Venomous Spiders Invade Indian Town
Date: June 3, 2012
Fox News

Abstract: A town in India has suddenly been overrun by swarms of venomous spiders, leaving two people dead after being bitten.

It may sound like a B-grade horror movie, but residents of the town of Sadiya, in Assam state, say that on the evening of May 8 as they were celebrating a Hindu festival swarms of spiders suddenly appeared and attacked them, The Times of India reported.

Over the next few days two people -- a man, Purnakanta Buragohain, and an unnamed school boy -- died after being bitten by the spiders. Scores more turned up at the town's hospital with spider bites.

Local resident Jintu Gogoi spent a day in the hospital complaining of excruciating pain and nausea after being bitten. He said weeks later his finger was still blackened and swollen.

District authorities are also panicking -- and they are considering spraying the town with the insecticide DDT.

Locals say the most terrifying aspect is that spiders appear in swarms and their behavior is highly aggressive.

"It leaps at anything that comes close. Some of the victims claimed the spider latched on to them after biting. If that is so, it needs to be dealt with carefully. The chelicerae and fangs of this critter are quite powerful," head of the department of life sciences at Dibrugarh University Dr. L.R. Saikia said.

Teams of Indian arachnid experts have flocked to the town, hoping to identify the species, but so far they have drawn a blank.

They say it could be a tarantula, a black wishbone or even a funnel-web spider -- or it could be a whole new species.

One thing they agree on is that it is not native to the area as there is no record of venomous spiders in Assam. The black wishbone and funnel-web are native to Australia.

Researchers are also still running tests to find out the toxicity of the spiders' venom.

Dr. Anil Phatowali, superintendent of the town's hospital, said they had not administered antivenin as they could not be certain the spider was venomous at all.

He also pointed out other factors may have contributed to the two reported fatalities.

"All the bite patients first went to witch doctors, who cut open their wounds with razors, drained out blood and burnt it. That could have also made them sick," Phatowali said (Fox News, 2012).

Title: Honeybee Decline Linked To Killer Virus
Date: June 7, 2012

Abstract: The deadly link between the worldwide collapse of honeybee colonies and a bloodsucking parasite has been revealed by scientists. They have discovered that the mite has massively and permanently increased the global prevalence of a fatal bee virus.

The varroa mite's role means the virus is now one of the "most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet", the researchers warned. Furthermore, the new dominance of the killer virus poses an ongoing threat to colonies even after beekeepers have eradicated the mites from hives.

Varroa destructor has spread from Asia across the entire world over the past 50 years. It arrived in the UK in 1990 and has been implicated in the halving of bee numbers since then, alongside other factors including the destruction of flowery habitats in which bees feed and the widespread use of pesticides on crops. Bees and other pollinators are vital in the production in up to a third of all the food we eat, but the role the mites played was unclear, as bacteria and fungi are also found in colonies along with the viruses.

But the mite's arrival in Hawaii in 2007 gave scientists a unique opportunity to track its deadly spread. "We were able to watch the emergence of the disease for the first time ever," said Stephen Martin, at the University of Sheffield, who led the new research published in the journal Science. Within a year of varroa arrival, 274 of 419 colonies on Oahu island (65%) were wiped out, with the mites going on to wreak destruction across Big Island the following year.

A particular virus, called deformed wing virus (DWV), was present in low and apparently harmless levels in colonies before the mites arrived, the scientists found. Even when the mites first invaded hives, the virus levels remained low. "But the following year the virus levels had gone through the roof." said Martin. "It was a millionfold increase – it was staggering."

The other key finding was that one DWV strain had gone from making up 10% of the virus population to making up 100%. "The viral landscape had changed and to one that happened to be deadly to bees," Martin said, noting the DWV strain was the same one found around the world. "There is a very strong correlation between where you get this DWV strain and where you get huge amounts of colony losses. We are almost certain this study seals the link between the two."

Even if a colony is cleared of varroa mite infestation, the deadly DWV strain remains dominant. "That means the colonies will collapse very fast, so beekeepers must keep the varroa levels down: it's even more critical than we knew before," said Martin. Other research by members of the team, conducted in Devon, showed that even when the varroa mites are kept under control, the presence of the fatal DWV strain kills about 10% of colonies each year.

The varroa mite magnifies the impact of DWV for three reasons. First, it transmits the virus directly into the bee's bloodstream as the parasite feeds. This means it bypasses all the bee's natural immune defences which are deployed when the virus is transmitted via food or sexual contact. Second, the virus can massively multiply in the mite. And third, the DWV strain best suited to transmission via the mite rapidly comes to dominate and is a strain that is particularly harmful to bees.

"This work provides clear evidence that, of all the suggested mechanisms of honeybee loss, virus infection brought in by mite infestation is a major player in the decline," said Ian Jones, at the University of Reading, who was not involved in the work. But Martin noted that the weakening of colonies through lack of food or the presence of damaging pesticides would make them more vulnerable to infestation.

Hawaii is a particularly significant bee-keeping location as almost all the queen bees used in the US are bred on the islands. The islands also have a significant macadamia nut industry, which is entirely dependent on bees for pollination. "The bees are dropping like flies in Hawaii: macadamia nuts may be about to get very expensive," Martin said (Guardian, 2012).

Title: Killer Insect Virus Helping To Decimate World's Bee Population
Date: June 8, 2012
Common Dreams

new study published in the journal Science has revealed that, in addition to the destruction of natural habitats and the widespread use of industrial chemical pesticides, the global bee die-off witnessed in recent years is also caused by a deadly virus carried by bloodsucking parasitic mites.

Varroa destructor is a bloodsucking parasite that feeds on honeybees and has spread globally, destroying colonies worldwide. (Photograph: Alamy)The report in Science is available to subscribers only, but according to The Guardian's Damian Carrington, the researchers who conducted the study warn that the virus, called Varroa destructor and carried by the varroa mite, is now one of the "most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet." Equally troubling, the new dominance of the killer virus poses an ongoing threat to colonies even after beekeepers have eradicated the mites from hives.

The research team, led by Stephen Martin of Britain's University of Sheffield studied the impact of Varroa in Hawaii, which the mites have only recently invaded.

"This data provides clear evidence that, of all the suggested mechanisms of honey bee loss, virus infection brought in by mite infestation is a major player in the decline," he told Reuters in a telephone interview.

Bee populations have been falling rapidly in many countries, fuelled by a phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder. Its cause is unclear but the Varroa mite is a prime suspect, since it spreads viruses while feeding on hemolymph, or bee's "blood".

To clarify the link between mites and viruses, a team led by Stephen Martin of Britain's University of Sheffield studied the impact of Varroa in Hawaii, which the mites have only recently invaded.

They found the arrival of Varroa increased the prevalence of a single type of virus, deformed wing virus (DWV), in honey bees from around 10 percent to 100 percent.

At the same time the amount of DWV virus in the bees' bodies rocketed by a millionfold and there was a huge reduction in virus diversity, with a single strain of DWV crowding out others.

"It is that strain that is now dominant around the world and seems to be killing bees," Martin said in a telephone interview. "My money would be on this virus as being key."

Martin noted that the weakening of colonies through lack of food or the presence of damaging pesticides would make them more vulnerable to infestation.

The varroa mite's role means the virus is now one of the "most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet", the researchers warned. Furthermore, the new dominance of the killer virus poses an ongoing threat to colonies even after beekeepers have eradicated the mites from hives.

Varroa destructor has spread from Asia across the entire world over the past 50 years. It arrived in the UK in 1990 and has been implicated in the halving of bee numbers since then, alongside other factors including the destruction of flowery habitats in which bees feed and thewidespread use of pesticides on crops. Bees and other pollinators are vital in the production in up to a third of all the food we eat, but the role the mites played was unclear, as bacteria and fungi are also found in colonies along with the viruses.

But the mite's arrival in Hawaii in 2007 gave scientists a unique opportunity to track its deadly spread. "We were able to watch the emergence of the disease for the first time ever," said Stephen Martin, at the University of Sheffield, who led the new research published in the journal Science. Within a year of varroa arrival, 274 of 419 colonies on Oahu island (65%) were wiped out, with the mites going on to wreak destruction across Big Island the following year.

A particular virus, called deformed wing virus (DWV), was present in low and apparently harmless levels in colonies before the mites arrived, the scientists found. Even when the mites first invaded hives, the virus levels remained low. "But the following year the virus levels had gone through the roof." said Martin. "It was a millionfold increase – it was staggering."

The other key finding was that one DWV strain had gone from making up 10% of the virus population to making up 100%. "The viral landscape had changed and to one that happened to be deadly to bees," Martin said, noting the DWV strain was the same one found around the world. "There is a very strong correlation between where you get this DWV strain and where you get huge amounts of colony losses. We are almost certain this study seals the link between the two." [...]

Martin noted that the weakening of colonies through lack of food or the presence of damaging pesticides would make them more vulnerable to infestation (Common Dreams, 2012).