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    Title: Law Enforcement’s Role In Defending Against Bio-Terrorism Threats To America’s Livestock Industry
    Date: 2002
    Source: Homeland Security 

    Abstract:

    What Is the Threat? 
    There is general agreement among agriculture experts that the greatest biological threat to our country’s agriculture economy is foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This highly contagious, viral disease attacks cloven-hoofed animals (cattle, swine, and sheep), as well as wildlife such as deer and elk. The FMD virus has a remarkable capacity for remaining viable in carcasses, in animal byproducts, in water, in straw and bedding, and in pastures. Early indications of FMD are excessive salivation and lameness. Infected animals usually refuse to eat or drink, and their movement is severely restricted, resulting in a dramatic weight loss. Milk production in dairy cattle will also decrease or stop.

    An outbreak of FMD, either by intentional introduction of a virus or by accident, would bring our nation’s economy to a virtual standstill.

    Dr. Jerry Jaax, a research veterinarian at Kansas State University and an expert in the field of biological warfare, has presented compelling testimony to Congress concerning the potential disaster that FMD poses to our livestock industry. “In terms of an economic impact, it would be devastating. Any outbreak of FMD could mean the destruction of thousands of animals, immediately impact our capacity to export agriculture products, and create severe financial losses in only a matter of days and weeks,” Jaax stated. He cited the 2001 FMD outbreak in the United Kingdom as an example of the possible fallout for any agriculture economy. “The outbreak in the UK took almost nine months to eradicate, and their economy will suffer for years to come.”

    Where’s the Beef (Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture Cattle Report, 19 July 2002)

    1. Texas: 15.0 Million head of cattle
    2. Nebraska: 7.0 Million head of cattle
    3. Kansas: 6.6 Million head of cattle
    4. Oklahoma: 5.6 Million head of cattle
    5. California: 5.2 Million head of cattle
    6. South Dakota: 5.0 Million head of cattle
    7. Missouri: 4.7 Million head of cattle
    8. Iowa: 4.0 Million head of cattle
    9. Wisconsin: 3.6 Million head of cattle
    10. Colorado: 3.1 Million head of cattle
    11. United States Total: 105.2 million head of cattle

    George Teagarden, Kansas Livestock Commissioner, outlined the emergency response procedures that are in place to deal with an outbreak of FMD in the state of Kansas. He explained that all movement of livestock would immediately be halted and that a six-mile quarantine zone would be established surrounding the point where FMD was detected. At the center of the quarantine zone, a “kill zone” would be established where all cloven-hoofed animals would be destroyed. Teagarden emphasized the extent of a quarantine around the area—no animal movement from the affected area, and no movement of equipment or vehicles from the affected area. Only persons who have been fully decontaminated would be allowed to leave this area. Teagarden further explained that a full quarantine is necessary because the FMD virus can be carried or transmitted in several ways—on a person’s clothes, shoes, or boots and on tires of equipment, trucks, and other vehicles. “It is critical that all movement of livestock be halted in order to prevent further spreading of this highly infectious virus,” he stated. Teagarden explained that the movement of livestock from other states into Kansas would also be stopped, requiring coordination between law enforcement agencies in the surrounding states.

    Jaax and Teagarden both cited the sweeping impact of the FMD outbreak in the United Kingdom. In England, FMD was originally detected at a hog farm in February 2001, and it quickly spread. Throughout the UK, virtually all exports of products related to sheep, swine, and cattle were stopped following the outbreak, and they will not resume for some time.

    What Is Foot-and-Mouth Disease?
    FMD is a serious animal health problem in several countries of the world. This viral disease is caused by livestock inhaling or otherwise coming in contact with the virus. It is usually contracted via the respiratory system and is rapidly contagious from animal to animal. It causes severe blisters, called vesicles, in the mouths and hooves of the infected animals, and FMD severely cripples animals, thus limiting their mobility and curtailing their capacity and desire to consume food. Although extremely painful to animals, FMD is not infectious to humans.

    Teagarden has been conducting a series of educational meetings throughout the state in an effort to alert livestock producers and feedlot operators about the serious threat of FMD. Dr. Kevin Varner, USDA veterinarian, and Dr. George Kennedy, Kansas State veterinarian, join Teagarden in presenting helpful information. Kennedy was one of the U.S. veterinarians sent to England to help contain the FMD outbreak there.

    These presentations focus on:

    1. The need for each livestock producer and feedlot operator to develop a bio-security plan as a preventive measure against FMD
    2. The importance of early detection and understanding warning signs of FMD in cattle, hogs, and sheep
    3. Understanding the emergency plans to be implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Kansas Animal Health Department, and Kansas law enforcement in the event of an outbreak of FMD

    As a means to prevent his type of threat to our economic infrastructure, these countermeasures are recommended:

    1. Intelligence. Develop an information-sharing system concerning suspects and suspicious activity.
    2. Surveillance. As the first line of defense, local livestock producers and veterinarians need to develop a bio-security plan. Everyone must be aware of the risks and symptoms associated with infectious diseases.
    3. Rapid diagnostic capabilities. On-site diagnosis must be conducted, with confirmatory tests conducted at the USDA Laboratory in Plum Island, New York.
    4. Rapid incident response. Local, state, and federal agencies will quickly respond, in accordance with K.S.A. 47-611, to contain and eradicate any outbreak of a foreign animal disease. The Kansas Livestock Commissioner will coordinate this response.
    5. Training. All members of the livestock industry must be provided with a continuing form of training and timely updates concerning possible biological threats.

    What Is Law Enforcement’s Role in Helping Prevent Harm to America’s Agriculture?
    If an outbreak of FMD were deemed an act of terrorism, the FBI would assume overall responsibility for the law enforcement response and for conducting the criminal investigation. Presidential Decision Directive 39, signed on 21 June 1995, designates the FBI as the lead federal agency for managing the operational response to an attack from a terrorist or use of a weapon of mass destruction against the United States. 

    As part of a coordinated response to a biological attack on agriculture, law enforcement officers would play any number of roles, including:

    1. Providing security and implementing a quarantine for the infected area
    2. Assisting in the conduct of a criminal investigation
    3. Providing assistance requested by federal agencies, such as the USDA
    4. Providing assistance requested by state regulatory agencies
    5. Conflict resolution

    What Is the Legislative Authority?
    During the 2001 legislative session in Kansas, House Bill No. 2468 was passed and signed into law, establishing clear and specific responsibilities for agencies responding to a declared state of emergency caused by animal diseases. This bill, amending K.S.A. 47-611, defined criminal conduct relative to animal health issues and made it a criminal act (level 4, nonperson felony) to expose any animal in this state to FMD. It states further that “the governor will utilize all available resources of the state government to cope with the disaster.” The Kansas Livestock Commissioner would be empowered by the governor to directly manage emergency operations during an outbreak of FMD or other form of foreign animal disease in the state. 

    A more critical role for Kansas law enforcement would occur before an act of bio-terrorism, by gathering intelligence that would hopefully prevent an outbreak of some intentionally introduced foreign animal disease. Kansas’ livestock industry is made up of five primary groups:

    1. Livestock producers
    2. Feedlot operators
    3. Livestock marketers
    4. Veterinarians
    5. County extension agents

    Agriculture-based states are vulnerable to a foreign animal disease in a number of diverse locations. Within the state of Kansas there are 462 feedlots, 104 meat-processing plants, 94 domestic elk or deer facilities, and 55 livestock markets.

    Preventing an attack or outbreak of a foreign animal disease should be the primary focus of the agriculture industry working in concert with local law enforcement.

    In recent town meetings throughout the state, USDA officials and the Kansas Livestock Commissioner have asked members of the livestock industry to report any suspicious activities in the proximity of a livestock operation to law enforcement authorities. This type of information and pro-active intelligence would be essential to help prevent an outbreak of an intentionally introduced foreign animal disease, rather than having to respond to a disaster after the fact.

    Within federal regulations (28 CFR part 23), the KBI is expanding its existing intelligence database, called KsLEIN (the Kansas Law Enforcement Intelligence Network) to help identify any potential threat to Kansas agriculture. The purpose of this database will be to track suspicious activity and individuals reported to Kansas law enforcement and to the KBI. This computerized network will also serve as the repository for complaints and information from citizens concerning suspicious activity. KsLEIN is being modified to add an intelligence component related to bio-terrorism threats to Kansas agriculture. Currently, there are 345 law enforcement agencies participating in KsLEIN.

    Biological threats to agriculture represent a new challenge for Kansas law enforcement, and it is important that we understand possible threats, vulnerabilities, available resources, and likely scenarios. To help with this understanding, several training sessions have been initiated. The Ford County Sheriff’s Office hosted a regional seminar in Dodge City involving law enforcement officers, livestock producers, and feedlot operators in the west region. Officers were able to learn firsthand about the potential threats and the impact of a bio-terrorism attack on livestock. In turn, there was a mutual understanding by livestock producers of the capabilities and resource limitations of law enforcement agencies in the west region.

    In October 2002, a joint training exercise was held in Dodge City involving representatives from local, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies, as well as emergency management personnel, the Kansas National Guard, USDA, representatives from the livestock industry, and the Kansas Animal Health Department. The training scenario focused on an intentionally introduced outbreak of FMD in western Kansas.

    “This exercise was a good opportunity to test our emergency response plan, to define agency responsibilities, to identify limitations, and to make changes for the future,” Ford County Undersheriff James Lane said. One of the major problems identified in this training exercise was how to effectively deal with the movement of livestock not affected by the outbreak. For example, approximately 500 truckloads of cattle move through western Kansas every day. “Stopping the movement of livestock requires contingency plans to handle unloading, feeding, and caring for these cattle,” Lane said. “This is an enormous logistical task, requiring advance planning, cooperation, and coordination.”

    Preventing and responding to threats to agriculture, particularly FMD, represent a major law enforcement challenge. “The key for law enforcement is understanding the complexity of the agriculture industry, and developing new partnerships to help prevent any bio-terrorism attack. Responding after the fact will be costly and difficult,” Undersheriff Lane stated (Homeland Security, 2002).

    Title: Kansas Holds Bioattack Drill
    Date:
     January 11, 2012
    Source:
     Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: Johnson County, Kansas, recently held a drill designed to test its ability to dispense medical countermeasures in the event of biological emergency.

    The public health emergency preparedness plan is in place to organize the handing out of medicines if there is ever an outbreak of anthrax, plague or tularemia, whether it is a naturally occurring event or an intentional release, according to Fox4KC.com.

    Public health officials said that the most difficult role the public has to play is filling out the proper form. The rest of the procedure takes only 45 seconds.

    “If they go online, fill out their form and bring it in, it’ll decrease the time it’s going to take for them to go through the whole dispensing process and speed it up,” Nancy Tausz of Johnson County Public Health said, Fox4KC.com reports.

    Johnson County Health said that it is prepared to dispense countermeasures to the entire population of the county within 48 hours.

    During an event, the head of a household can pick up prophylactic medications for their entire family at open dispensing sites or neighborhood dispensing centers.

    Additional sites may be set up depending on the nature of the emergency and the target population. Only asymptomatic persons are to receive the medication. Those showing symptoms are to be taken to treatment centers, according to Health.JoCoGov.org (Bio Prep Watch, 2012).

    Title: Students Receives Anthrax Scare From Textbook
    Date: January 27, 2012
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    AbstractA student at MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Kansas, ordered a textbook for a class on terrorism from Amazon.com and received a scare when a bag containing a white substance fell out.

    Sophia Stockton had ordered the book, “Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives and Issues,” and was flipping through it when a clear plastic bag with a white substance inside fell out, NCN reports.

    “I was just flipping through the book and it kind of just fell out,” Stockton, said, according to KCTV-5. “My little brother was there and he said, ‘Wow, that’s creepy.’”

    Stockton feared that the powder might be anthrax and took the book and its contents to the police department in Gardner, Kan.

    “It was white powder,” Stockton said, according to KCTV-5. “It fell out of the page that was talking about [terrorists] sending bombs through the mail. I was a little nervous.”

    According to WPTV, the police investigated the powder and determined that it was approximately $400 worth of cocaine.

    “He put some gloves on and put it in a plastic bag, he took it back to test it and like 10 minutes later he came back and said, ‘Did you happen to order some cocaine with your text book?’ I was like ‘No…,’” Stockton said, according to KCTV-5.

    The police are still investigating the origin of the package (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: NAS Report On Agro-Defense Facility Due Out Soon
    Date: June 15, 2012
    Source:
    BioPrepWatch

    Abstract: The National Academies of Science recently announced that it will soon release a congressionally mandated analysis on the risks posed by the planned National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility.

    Millions of dollars in stalled congressional funding are believed to be linked to the results of the report, which is due out on Friday, according to KCUR.org.

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security planned for the project to be constructed in Manhattan, Kansas, near the site of Kansas State University. Currently, an armed guard and steel perimeter fence protect idle equipment on the stalled construction site, according to Reuters.

    The analysis is an updated version of the department’s original risk assessment, which the NAS considered predicated on misguided assumptions and methodologies. The new report will examine whether or not DHS has taken into account the risks identified in the original, KCUR.org reports.

    A second, separate NAS review of the project, set to be released at a later date, will provide a detailed analysis of whether or not the NBAF proposal is even necessary. DHS requested the second review to study entirely different options, including a scaled back version of the existing plans, a collaborative effort with private firms or a renovation of the existing Plum Island Animal Disease Lab in New York State (BioPrepWatch, 2012).

    Title: Kansas County Health Department Simulates Anthrax Attack
    Date: July 22, 2011
    Source: 
    Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: The Finney County Health Department recently held an anthrax attack simulation in Garden City, Kansas, to help train area public safety agencies in emergency management.

    During the simulation, Garden City police officers, firefighters, state and county emergency management personnel and emergency medical technicians responded to an emergency call saying that a group of students had found an envelope filled with white powder, according to GCTelegram.com.

    With temperatures hovering near 100 degrees, the first responders acted immediately. Firefighters wearing hazmat suits evacuated volunteer victims from the building and began decontaminating them. Police officers cordoned off the area to prevent curious bystanders from being hurt. Ambulances began taking anthrax stricken victims to the emergency room of a local hospital. All of the 42 people present at the scene were considered to be casualties.

    "It was the health department's first exercise that involved all the area public safety agencies," Ashley Goss, a FCHD administrator, said, GCTelegram.com reports. "We found a lot of pluses, a lot of places where we have done well. And we have noted areas in which we can improve. It was a very successful exercise.

    "We had a first responder who did have a problem. It was heat-related."

    The heat casualty was treated quickly and no other major problems were reported. Goss noted, however, the need for continuous communication among all agencies responding to emergencies (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: Department Of Homeland Security Revises Kansas Biosafety Lab Assessment
    Date: March 6, 2012
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has revised an assessment of the proposed high-level animal biosafety lab in Kansas, dramatically lowering the assessed likelihood that Foot and Mouth Disease would escape.

    In a 923 page risk assessment released on Friday, the DHS estimated that the risk that FMD would escape from the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility during the facility’s 50 year lifespan was less than 0.11 percent. When excluding catastrophic events such as tornadoes and earthquakes, the risk drops below 0.008 percent, Nature reports.

    The previous risk assessment in 2010 estimated the risk of such an event was 70 percent. The National Academies concluded that the 2010 assessment had multiple major shortcomings. The academies will evaluate the new risk assessment later this spring.

    “(The new risk assessment) reaffirms that we can build a safe and secure facility to meet this important mission,” Tara O’Toole, the DHS under secretary for science and technology, said, according to Nature.

    Bill Dorsett, a member of the group No NBAF in Kansas, questioned the validity of the new assessment.

    “There’s no way that an analysis can get it down that precisely,” Dorsett said, according to Nature. “Because a big portion of the risk has to do with people and people’s behavior. That starts with congressional funding for the lab — and continued congressional funding for its maintenance.  We’re trying to predict what Congress will do ten years down the line.”

    Congress provided the lab with $50 million in funding in 2012 on the condition of the new risk assessment and its appraisal by the National Academies. President Obama’s 2013 budget proposal did not request any money for the construction of the lab. The proposal also impels the National Academies to evaluate whether present disease threats justify the potential $1 billion costs of the facility (Bio Prep Watch, 2012).

    Title: Kansas CST Trained To Handle Chemical And Biological Threats
    Date: April 10, 2012
    Source: Bio Prep Watch


    Abstract: The Kansas-based 73rd Civil Support Team, Weapons of Mass Destruction, visited Fort Leavenworth from March 27-29 to conduct a training exercise related to chemical and biological threats.

    The Kansas CST is a joint effort by the Kansas Air National Guard and Army that employs 22 full-time experts to respond to biological and chemical threats throughout the state. There are 57 teams trained to handle such threats nationwide. The CST works to support local first responders and law enforcement, Comtex reports.

    “Everything we do is locked in step with our civilian partners,” Sgt. George McMahon, a noncommissioned officer on the team, said, according to Comtex. “We act in support of them.”

    During its training at Fort Leavenworth, the team practiced several scenarios, including a simulated chemical or biological dump at a public pool and a vehicle spraying an unknown chemical along a street.

    “Every exercise has been a different scenario,” Lt. Col. Dirk Christian, the commander of the unit, said, according to Comtex. “We really train the whole set of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear threats.”

    The Fort Leavenworth Fire Department also gave support to the March exercise, as approximately 20 firefighters in the area are also trained to handle hazardous materials.

    “It gives us a chance to know what our capabilities are so we can know when to contact them,” Christian said, according to Comtex. “It’s also just good to network before there’s an emergency situation” (Bio Prep Watch, 2012).

    Title: FBI Says Not To Discount Agroterrorism
    Date: April 16, 2012
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: An expert on weapons of mass destruction for the Federal Bureau of Investigation recently said that, although the food sector is not a likely target for terrorists, gaining access to the food supply would be relatively simple.

    John Frank, the WMD coordinator for the FBI mobile field office in Kansas, said that agroterrorism is a threat not usually considered when people think of conventional terrorism, according toExaminer.com.

    “Agroterrorism is a very big topic because if you think about the (agricultural) industry it covers a huge span of things,” Frank said, Examiner.com reports. “It’s not just about animals; it’s not just about crops. It’s much bigger than that.”

    Frank, who spoke at a town hall meeting in Healy, Kansas, is one of 56 WMD coordinators across the country. He is the FBI’s contact point in his district regarding any investigation of WMD incidents.

    “Whether state or local agencies, even the private sector, we get involved with special events such as the Super Bowl or Mardi Gras,” Frank said, according to Examiner.com. “Anything you can think of–there’s a good chance the FBI will have a presence there.”

    Frank said that overseas terrorists are generally not thought of as preparing to engage in agroterrorism, but evidence suggests otherwise.

    “It is accepted within certain terrorist organizations in their mindsets,” Frank said,Examiner.com reports. “In 2002, Operation Enduring Freedom recovered a lot of documents overseas that showed their interest in using toxins and biological agents not only against humans, but against animals and crops and food supplies. They have the interest and the desire to do it and they know what they’re talking about” (Bio Prep Watch, 2012).

    Title: Department Of Homeland Security Revises Kansas Biosafety Lab Assessment
    Date: March 6, 2012
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has revised an assessment of the proposed high-level animal biosafety lab in Kansas, dramatically lowering the assessed likelihood that Foot and Mouth Disease would escape.

    In a 923 page risk assessment released on Friday, the DHS estimated that the risk that FMD would escape from the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility during the facility’s 50 year lifespan was less than 0.11 percent. When excluding catastrophic events such as tornadoes and earthquakes, the risk drops below 0.008 percent, Nature reports.

    The previous risk assessment in 2010 estimated the risk of such an event was 70 percent. The National Academies concluded that the 2010 assessment had multiple major shortcomings. The academies will evaluate the new risk assessment later this spring.

    “(The new risk assessment) reaffirms that we can build a safe and secure facility to meet this important mission,” Tara O’Toole, the DHS under secretary for science and technology, said, according to Nature.

    Bill Dorsett, a member of the group No NBAF in Kansas, questioned the validity of the new assessment.

    “There’s no way that an analysis can get it down that precisely,” Dorsett said, according to Nature. “Because a big portion of the risk has to do with people and people’s behavior. That starts with congressional funding for the lab — and continued congressional funding for its maintenance.  We’re trying to predict what Congress will do ten years down the line.”

    Congress provided the lab with $50 million in funding in 2012 on the condition of the new risk assessment and its appraisal by the National Academies. President Obama’s 2013 budget proposal did not request any money for the construction of the lab. The proposal also impels the National Academies to evaluate whether present disease threats justify the potential $1 billion costs of the facility (Bio Prep Watch, 2012).

    Title: Scientists Say Feds Underestimate The Risks Of ‘Plum Island, Kansas’
    Date: June 16, 2012
    Source:
    Examiner

    Abstract: The devastation to the nation’s food supply could be dramatic if an animal pathogen like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) accidentally got out into the nation’s heartland through either natural disaster or human error.

    This is why Congress asked the independent National Research Council (NRC), part of the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) evaluation of the safety of the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Their findings can be found in a 100-page report published Friday.

    The $1.14 billion National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF) would replace the aging Plum Island Animal Research Center, which is located on a relatively remote island off the tip of Long Island.

    This is the second time in as many years that the NRC questioned the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s evaluation of the safety of NBAF.

    Although the NRC committee stated that the DHS Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment (uSSRA) was a substantial improvement over the 2010 report in terms of clarity and methods used, it was still "inadequate in critical respects."

    In the committee’s evaluation of the uSSRA, they say that the DHS sometimes relied on “questionable and inappropriate assumptions” in its evaluation.

    More specifically, the committee notes that the uSSRA’s demonstrated extremely low probabilities of release are based on overly optimistic and unsupported estimates of human error rates, underestimates of infectious material available for release, and inappropriate treatment of dependencies, uncertainties, and sensitivities in calculating release probabilities.

    The committee’s overall conclusion says the uSSRA is technically inadequate in critical aspects and is an insufficient basis on which to judge the risks associated with the proposed NBAF in Manhattan, Kansas.

    The University of Maryland’s, Gregory Baecher, chairman of the report-compiling committee said in a statement:

    “Because a pathogen release from the NBAF could have devastating agricultural, economic, and public health consequences, a risk assessment that reaches inappropriate conclusions could have substantial repercussions”.

    In addition to FMD, the NBAF would house the Nepha and Hendra viruses that can spread to humans, swine fever and the Japanese encephalitis virus.

    This report follows a USA Today story earlier in the week that the $214 million bioterror germ lab at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta has had repeated problems with airflow systems designed to help prevent the release of infectious agents (Examiner, 2012)

    Title: Kansas National Guard Trains In CBRN Exercise
    Date: August 8, 2012
    Source:
    BioPrepWatch

    Abstract: Members of the 73rd Civil Support Team of the Kansas Army and Air National Guard took part in a decontamination training exercise on Monday in Indiana as part of Vibrant Response 13.

    The specialists in chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear response identified, assessed, assisted and provided information to their incident commander during the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center, Indiana-based event. The 73rd CST acted as part of Joint Task Force Civil Support, Dvidshub.net reports.

    “After almost two full days of training, this has exceeded our expectations as an excellent training venue,” Lt. Col. Dirk Christian, the commander of the civil support team, said, according to Dvidshub.net. “The unit completed a lot of collective training events preparing for the Vibrant Response exercise, and it’s all really starting to pay-off.”

    The 73rd CST identified potential hazardous substances in three facilities around the training center. After identifying the contaminants, the specialists needed to assess the situation and evacuate nearby civilians.

    “While we’re downrange conducting operations, 40 minutes that we spend downrange could save 40 people or it could save 40,000 people,” Christian said, according to Dvidshub.net.

    The 73rd CST is available to use its CBRN skills in the event of a natural or man-made disaster for the support of civil authorities. The team will remain in Indiana throughout the rest of the Vibrant Response exercise, which ends later in August (BioPrepWatch, 2012).