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Bio-Terror Agents

    DEAD SCIENTISTS

    BIOTERRORBIBLE.COM: Since May 19th, 1994, more than 100 scientists in the field of bio-terror, biology, genetics and medicine have been systematically targeted and subsequently eliminated. Most of these scientists died in horrible deaths resulting from car crashes, plane crashes, murder, suicides, poison, etc., etc., etc. In almost every single case, the perpetrators of these crimes were never apprehended, let alone tried or convicted. The war on scientists is a global phenomenon that continues until this day.

    Name: Harsha Maddula  (18)
    Specialty: 
    Pre-Med Engineering

    Date:
    September 27, 2012
    COD: Drowning

    Title: Missing Northwestern University Student's Body Found In Harbor
    Date: September 28, 2012
    Source:
    Fox News

    Abstract:  The body of a Northwestern University student who was last seen leaving a weekend party has been found in a harbor near the school's suburban Chicago campus.

    Authorities say the body of 18-year-old sophomore Harsha Maddula was pulled late Thursday from a harbor in Wilmette, a town north of Evanston. The harbor is about two miles north of Maddula's residence hall.

    Prasad Maddula, Harsah's father had believed someone had kidnapped his son, but Northwestern spokesman Alan Cubbage says Maddula's wallet was found on his body, which showed no signs of foul play.

    The pre-med engineering student was last seen after midnight on Saturday. A relative says he went to the party with several friends and disappeared after he and several others left for another party. 

    Maddula's cell phone showed that the closest cell phone tower to the last signal received from his phone was near the school, MyFoxChicago.com reported.

    Maddula did not appear intoxicated to partygoers who spoke with him that night.

    His parents and other relatives arrived in Evanston on Monday from Long Island, N.Y. to help with the search. The family was offering a $25,000 reward for any information that would lead to the whereabouts of their son. They said it was simply out of character for him to disappear and not contact anyone.

    Hundreds of Northwestern University students had turned out to help search for him (Fox News, 2012).

    Name: Chahnaz Kebaier (40)
    Specialty: 
     Infectious Disease Researcher 

    Date: May 25, 2012
    COD: Gun Shot

    Chahnaz Kebaier, an infectious disease researcher, was allegedly shot dead by her husband Ali Cherfaoui.  

    Title:
    Police: Chapel Hill Shooting A Domestic Dispute 
    Date: May 25, 2012
    Source: WRAL News

    Abstract:  Chapel Hill police were holding Ali Cherfaoui Friday night on charges he shot and killed a woman outside Mary Scroggs Elementary School. Police said Cherfaoui and his victim, Chahnaz Kebaier, had "an ongoing domestic dispute."

    Police were called to the school just after 2 p.m., after multiple gun shots rang out.

    "A lady ran in the lobby and said, 'Help! Help! My friend has been shot!'" said Emily Martine, who was inside the school picking up some papers.

    Martine said she and others hid in a conference room while the principal and school nurse ran to help Kebaier.

    "The school staff, they did a great job. They were very calm and collected and called police right away," she said.

    Police confirmed that Kabaier was shot multiple times. She was taken to UNC Hospitals where she died.

    Officers arrested the suspect after stopping his vehicle near N.C. Highway 15-501 and Raleigh Road. Cherfaoui, 49, of N.C. Highway 54 in Carrboro, will spend the holiday weekend in jail; his first chance to see a judge will come on Tuesday. 

    Mary Scroggs Elementary School, which usually dismisses students at 2:30 p.m., was temporarily locked down while police and emergency personnel cleared the shooting scene. Students later escorted out a back door to their waiting parents.

    Martine's son, 8-year-old Cal, said students knew someone had been hurt. 

    Parent Bill Ryan said he quickly went to Scroggs to check on his first-grader, Jack, after getting an email from the school.

    "I was concerned (after receiving the school's email), but when I got a frantic phone call from my wife, that sort of upped the ante a little bit. I tried to reassure her," he said.

    Ryan said the school handled the situation "very well" and added that he is thankful the students and staff are safe.

    Students have off Monday for Memorial Day, but it is an optional teacher work day.

    Chapel Hill-Carrboro schools will provide a support team Monday and Tuesday for staff and student who want to talk about Friday's incident (WRAL News, 2012)

    Name: Richard Din (25)
    Specialty: Biology Student
    Date: May 4, 2012
    COD: Bacteria? 

    Richard Din was allegedly killed by the germ Neisseria meningitidis which he was researching. 

    Title:
    California Lab Shut Down After Young Researcher Dies While On Personal Crusade To Find Vaccine For Meningitis
    Date: May 4, 2012
    Source: Daily Mail

    Abstract: California officials have shut down a laboratory at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center on Thursday following the death of a young research associate that was apparently caused by a dangerous bacteria that he had been handling.  

    The San Francisco Chronicle reported that for the past several weeks, 25-year-old Richard Din, a biology major working with the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, had been researching the germ Neisseria meningitidis that can cause meningitis and bloodstream disease.

    A state laboratory has confirmed that the rare strain that Din was studying -- Serotype B -- was the same one found in his body, according to the website Military.com.

    According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the disease caused by this particular strain is relatively uncommon in the United States, with only about 1,000 cases reported each year. In 2010, an estimated 75 people died from this type of meningococcal infection.

    The germ causes septicemia and meningitis, officials said. Septicemia is an inflammation of the bloodstream that causes bleeding into the skin and organs, and is believed to be the cause of Din's death. 

    It can be spread by sneezing, coughing or kissing. Meningitis is a bacterial infection of the thin layer of tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can result in brain damage and death.

    A VA official told the San Francisco Chronicle that Din, who shared an apartment with his girlfriend and several roommates in treasure Island, left work on Friday at 5pm in good health.

    Two hours later, the researcher told his girlfriend that he was feeling ill with a headache, fever and chills, and went to bed.

    Din woke up Saturday morning to discover a rash all over his body and asked his friends to take him to the VA hospital.

    On the way there, the 25-year-old fell unconscious in the car and had no pulse on arrival. He was pronounced dead of multiple organ failure at around 2pm, according to Reuters.

    'In his case, the time between the onset of symptoms and death was 17 hours. That's not uncommon with this disease,' Dr Harry Lampiris, chief of infectious disease at the San Francisco VA, told the Chronicle. 

    While vaccination can generally prevent meningococcal disease, the vaccine is not effective against this particular strain of bacteria. Lampiris said Din had not been vaccinated, but as a precaution, all of his co-workers and close friends have since received the inoculation.

    About 70 VA employees who came in contact with Din also have been given antibiotics to prevent possible infection. 

    The University of California at Berkeley graduate had been described as a polite and intelligent man whose interest in infectious disease was inspired by a family tragedy, according to former classmate Alex Peng.

    'It really troubles me thinking about it,' Peng told the San Jose Mercury News. 'It's really sad to hear about him passing away after he wanted to follow that dream.'

    The 25-year-old's death is being investigated by the VA, the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the state Department of Public Health and the San Francisco Department of Public Health.

    Officials have six months to conclude the probe into Din's death, and if any workplace violations are found, the employer could face citations and fines, according to the San Francisco Examiner.

    Lampiris says he is not sure how Din contracted the infection, given that his colleagues have described him as a very 'fastidious' and by-the-book researcher who had always followed safety procedures. Initial results of the investigation did not show any spills or equipment failure that could have caused the exposure.

    Lampiris said he does not believe the case poses a high risk because the incubation period is generally three to five days. Symptoms of meningococcal disease can include high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, rash, confusion and severe sleepiness.

    All local hospitals have been put on alert to watch out for anyone coming in with these symptoms and to immediately contact public health officials, CBS San Francisco has reported.

    According to a 2005 study by the Journal of Clinical Microbiology cited by Military.com, 16 laboratory workers worldwide contracted meningitis between 1985 and 2001, including six in the US. Half of them died (Daily Mail, 2012).

    Title: Researcher Believed To Be Killed By Lab Bacteria
    Date: May 4, 2012
    Source: Fox News


    Abstract: A young research associate killed by a highly virulent strain of meningococcal disease is believed to have contracted the bacteria from the San Francisco lab where he was working on a vaccine against it, public health officials said on Thursday.

    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention experts are seeking to confirm what they already suspect: that Richard Din, 25, died Saturday in an unusual case of a scientist being fatally infected with an agent from his own laboratory.

    Tom Skinner, a CDC spokesman in Atlanta, said in a telephone interview the CDC in Atlanta would test a biopsy sample from Din and a sample of the laboratory pathogen he was working with to create fingerprints for each.

    "If the fingerprints match, you know it's highly likely he acquired the infection from working in the lab," he said.

    "Someone getting sick and dying from the organism they're working with in the lab is exceedingly rare," he added.

    Meanwhile, dozens of people, including relatives, close friends, medical personnel who treated Din and some of his co-workers at the research department of the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center were being given antibiotics as a precaution.

    Harry Lampiris, chief of infectious disease at the San Francisco VA, said it is likely Din died as a result of his work with Neisseria meningitidis, a strain of bacteria that causes meningococcal disease, which leads to meningitis and bloodstream infections.

    "It's our responsibility to assume it's laboratory-associated until proven otherwise," he told Reuters.

    Since the 1960s, vaccines have been available for some strains of meningococcal disease. But scientists in the San Francisco lab have spent more than 20 years trying unsuccessfully to develop a vaccine against serogroup B, the strain that killed Din.

    "It's been like the Holy Grail to develop the vaccine against B," Lampiris said.

    Din died of multiple organ failure caused by meningococcal infection and septic shock, said Eileen Shields, a spokeswoman for the San Francisco Department of Public Health. He died less than a day after becoming ill.

    The disease can come on quickly with symptoms including high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, rash, confusion and fatigue.

    Lampiris said coworkers described Din, who began work at the lab in October, as "a very talented, hard-working and fastidious individual."

    "He was a very bright person who was probably at the beginning of a long research career," he said.

    Meningitis, an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, commonly strikes infants and college students living in dormitories, Lampiris said. He said Din had not had contact with either group.

    About 1,000 Americans each year suffer from meningococcal disease, and an estimated 10 to 15 percent die from it, Skinner said. He could not say how many of the cases resulted from serogroup B.

    The California Division of Occupational Safety and Health is investigating the circumstances of Din's death, along with its federal counterpart and the CDC, the city Public Health Department and the San Francisco VA (Fox News, 2012)

    Name: Esther Fujimoto (49)
    Specialty: Genetic Scientist
    Date: August 21, 2011
    COD: Killed by Boat


    Esther Fujimoto was run down and killed by a boat while swimming across a lake in Utah. Fujimoto helped discover the breast cancer gene. A few local teens have been implicated in her death, but her case has not gone to trial.

    Title:
    Esther Fujimoto Ex ’91
    Date: Winter 2012
    Source:
    University of Utah

    Abstract: Esther Fujimoto ex’91, a University of Utah scientist who was on the team that helped discover a breast cancer gene, died August 21 after being hit by a power boat while swimming in Pineview Reservoir near Ogden. She was 49 (University of Utah, 2012).

    Name: Jonathan B. Tucker (56)
    Specialty: Biological & Chemical Weapons Expert
    Date: July 31, 2011
    COD: Unknown/Murder?

    Jonathan B. Tucker was killed in his Washington D.C. home on July 31, 2011. Tucker was a biological and chemical weapons expert who was awaiting a security clearance from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

    Title:
    Bioweapons Expert Found Dead
    Date:
    August 5, 2011
    Source:
    Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: Jonathan B. Tucker, an expert on biological and chemical weapons, was found dead in his Washington, D.C., home on July 31.

    The District's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner said the cause of death was unknown, the Washington Post reported Thursday. Tucker, 56, was awaiting security clearance so that he could take a position in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, UPI reports.

    Tucker left his job of close to 15 years as a research fellow at the Monterey Institute's James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. He had also previously worked as an editor at the magazine Scientific American. He was often used as a source by journalists writing about chemical and biological weapons.

    YouTube-Video

    "Jonathan was a rare breed in that he knew the science of the issue, which was really complicated, and also knew the policy side," Paul Carroll, the program director at the Ploughshares Fund, said. "He was one of really a handful of people that could talk to both of these audiences, to both chemists and diplomats."

    Tucker was a weapons inspector for the United Nations in Iraq in 1995 and used his knowledge of the chemical weapons program of Saddam Hussein to advise the U.S. government before its invasion of Iraq in 2003.

    Tucker graduated from Yale in 1975 with a biology degree and later earned a master's degree from the University of Pennsylvania and a doctorate in non-proliferation studies from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Name: Gelareh Bagherzadeh (30)
    Specialty: Genetic Molecular Bioologist
    Date: January 17, 2011
    COD: Gun Shot

    Abstract:
    Gelareh Bagherzadeh was killed when she was shot in Houston, Texas. Detectives investigating the murder of the Iranian molecular scientist gunned down in her car as she drove home believe she was followed or that someone was waiting for her. Bagherzadeh was struck by a single bullet that entered the passenger door window as she talked on her cell phone with her ex-boyfriend. Bagherzadeh was a molecular genetic technology student at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and an active in promoting Iranian women's rights.

    Name: Zachary Greene Warfield (35)
    Specialty: DARPA Engineer
    Date: July 4, 2011
    COD: Boat Accident

    Abstract:
    Zachary Greene Warfield died in a boating accident on the Potomac River. Zack was a co-founder and a member of the Board of Directors for Omnis, Inc., a McLean, VA-based strategic consulting firm for the intelligence, defense and national security communities. He spearheaded major research initiatives and, in addition to helping steer the company, was directly involved in numerous projects, including analytic training and technology consulting. Prior to founding Omnis, Zack was an engineer and analyst for the U.S. Government and private industry. As a science and technology analyst, he assessed missile and space systems, managed technical contracts, and investigated Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) program as a member of the Iraq Survey Group, serving in Baghdad on two separate occasions. As an engineer, he worked on aerospace projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and private industry. Most notably, Zack designed critical guidance systems that ensured a successful landing for the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity; his name is inscribed on one of the rovers, and remains on Mars today.

    Name: Jonathan Widom (55)
    Specialty: DNA/Molecular Biosciences
    Date: July 18, 2011
    COD: Heart Attack

    Abstract:
    Jonathan Widom died of an apparent heart attack. He was a professor of Molecular Biosciences in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern University. Widom focused on how DNA is packaged into chromosomes -- and the location of nucleosomes specifically. Colleagues said the work has had profound implications for how genes are able to be read in the cell and how mutations outside of the regions that encode proteins can lead to errors and disease.

    Name: Fanjun Meng (29) & Chunyang Zhang (26)
    Specialty: Anatomic Pathology/Parkinson's Disease
    Date: 2011
    COD: Drowning

    Abstract:
    Fanjun Meng and Chunyang Zhang drowned in a Branson hotel swimming pool. Both were from China and working in the anatomic pathology lab at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Meng was a visiting scholar and his wife, Zhang, was a research specialist, according to information at the university's website. Meng was working on research looking at a possible link between pesticides and Parkinson's disease. Police said the investigation is ongoing as to the cause of the drowning but had said earlier there was no sign of foul play.

    Name: Gregory Stone (54)
    Specialty: Coastal Scientist
    Date: February 17, 2011
    COD: Unknown Illness

    Abstract:
    Gregory Stoned, who was quoted extensively in many publications internationally after last year’s BP oil leak, died from an unknown illness. Stone also was the director of the renowned Wave-Current Information System. Stone quickly established himself as an internationally respected coastal scientist who produced cutting-edge research and attracted millions of dollars of research support to LSU. As part of his research, he and the CSI Field Support Group developed a series of offshore instrumented stations to monitor wind, waves and currents that impact the Louisiana coast. The system is used by many fishermen and scientists to monitor wind, waves and currents off the Louisiana coast. Stone was a great researcher, teacher, mentor and family man.

    Name: Bradley C. Livezey (56)
    Specialty: Avian Anatomist
    Date: February 8, 2011
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract:
    Bradley C. Livezey, who knew nearly everything about the songs of birds and was considered the top anatomist, died in a car crash. Livezey, curator of The Carnegie Museum of Natural History, never gave up researching unsolved mysteries of the world's 20,000 or so avian species. Carnegie curator since 1993, Livezey oversaw a collection of nearly 195,000 specimens of birds, the country's ninth largest. Livezey died in a two-car crash on Route 910, authorities said. An autopsy revealed he died from injuries to the head and trunk, the Allegheny County Medical Examiner's Office said. Northern Regional Police are investigating.

    Name: John (Jack) P. Wheeler III (66)
    Specialty: Biological/Chemical Weapons
    Date: December 30, 2010
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    John (Jack) P. Wheeler III, last seen December 30, 2010, was found dead in a Delaware landfill. Wheeler fought to get the Vietnam Memorial built and served in two Bush administrations. His death has been ruled a homicide by Newark, Delaware, police. Wheeler graduated from West Point in 1966, and had a law degree from Yale and a business degree from Harvard. His military career included serving in the office of the Secretary of Defense and writing a manual on the effectiveness of biological and chemical weapons, which recommended that the United States not use biological weapons.

    Name: Mark A. Smith (45)
    Specialty: Alzheimer's Disease
    Date: November 15, 2010
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Mark A. Smith, a renowned Alzheimer's disease researcher, died after being hit by a car in Ohio. Smith was a pathology professor at Case Western Reserve University and director of basic science research at the university's memory and cognition center. He also was executive director of the American Aging Association and co-editor-in-chief of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. He is listed as the No. 3 "most prolific" Alzheimer's disease researcher, with 405 papers written, by the international medical Journal.

    Name: Chitra Chauhan (33)
    Specialty: Molecular Biologist/Mosquitoes
    Date: November 15, 2010
    COD: Cyanide Suicide

    Abstract:
    Chitra Chauhan was found dead in an apparent suicide by cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel, police said. Chauhan left a suicide note saying she used cyanide. Hazmat team officials said the cyanide was found only in granular form, meaning it was not considered dangerous outside of the room it was found in. The chemical is considered more dangerous in a liquid or gas form. Potassium Cyanide, the apparent cause of death, is a chemical commonly used by universities in teaching chemistry and conducting research, but it was not used in the research projects she was working on. Chauhan, a molecular biologist, was a post-doctoral researcher in the Global Health department in the College of Public Health. She earned her doctorate from the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in New Delhi, India, in 2005, then studied mosquitoes and disease transmission at the University of Notre Dame.

    Name: Franco Cerrina (62)
    Specialty: DNA Microarray Technology
    Date: July 12, 2010
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Franco Cerrina was found dead in a lab at BU’s Photonics Center on a Monday morning. The cause of death is not yet known, but police have ruled out homicide. Cerrina joined the faculty of BU in 2008 after spending 24 years on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He co-founded five companies, including NimbleGen Systems, Genetic Assemblies (merged with Codon Devices in 2006), Codon Devices, Biolitho, and Gen9, according to Nanowerk News. NimbleGen, a Madison, WI-based provider of DNA microarray technology, was sold to Basel, Switzerland-based Roche in 2007 for $272.5 million. Cerrina, chairman of the electrical and computer engineering department, came to BU two years ago from the University of Wisconsin at Madison as a leading scholar in optics, lithography, and nanotechnology, according to his biography on the university website. The scholar was responsible for establishing a new laboratory in the Photonics Center.

    Name: Vajinder Toor  (34)
    Specialty:
    Unknown
    Date: April 26, 2010
    COD: Murder/Gun Shot

    Abstract:
    Vajinder Toor was shot and killed outside his home in Branford, Connecticut. Toor worked at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center in New York before joining Yale.

    Name: Joseph Morrissey (46)
    Specialty: Immunopharmacology
    Date: April 6, 2010
    COD: Murder/Stabbing

    Abstract:
    Joseph Morrissey died as a result of an alleged home invasion. Although the cause of death was first identified as a gunshot wound, the autopsy revealed that the professor died from a stab wound. Morrissey joined NSU in May 2009 as an associate professor and taught one elective class on immunopharmacology in the College of Pharmacy.

    Name: Maria Ragland Davis (52)
    Specialty: Plant pathology & Biotechnology
    Date: February 13, 2010
    COD: Murder/Gunshot

    Abstract:
    Maria Ragland Davis died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. Her background was in chemical engineering and biochemistry, and she specialized in plant pathology and biotechnology applications. She had a doctorate in biochemistry and had worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Monsanto Company in St. Louis. She was hired at the University of Alabama after a seven-year stint as a senior scientist in the plant-science department at Research Genetics Inc. (later Invitrogen), also in Huntsville.

    Name: Gopi K. Podila (54)
    Specialty: Bioenergy & Functional Genomics
    Date: February 13, 2010
    COD: Murder/Gunshot

    Abstract:
    Gopi K. Podila died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. He was an Indian American biologist, noted academician, and faculty member at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He listed his research interests as engineering tree biomass for bioenergy, functional genomics of plant-microbe interactions, plant molecular biology and biotechnology. In particular, Padila studied genes that regulate growth in fast growing trees, especially poplar and aspen. He has advocated prospective use of fast growing trees and grasses as an alternative to corn sources for producing ethanol.

    Name: Adriel D. Johnson Sr. (52)
    Specialty: Gastrointestinal Physiology
    Date: February 13, 2010
    COD: Murder/Gunshot

    Abstract:
    Adriel D. Johnson Sr. died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. His research involved aspects of gastrointestinal physiology specifically pancreatic function in vertebrates.

    Name: Keith Fagnou (38)
    Specialty: Molecular Research
    Date: November 11, 2009
    COD: H1N1

    Abstract:
    Keith Fagnou allegedly died as a result of H1N1. His research focused on improving the preparation of complex molecules for petrochemical, pharmaceutical or industrial uses. Keith's advanced and out--of-the-box thinking overturned prior ideas of what is possible in the chemistry field.

    Name: Stephen Lagakos (63)
    Specialty: AIDS
    Date: October 12, 2009
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract:
    Stephen Lagakos was killed in a car crash along with his wife Regina and his mother Helen. Lagakos centered his efforts on several fronts in the fight against AIDS particularly how and when HIV-infected women transmitted the virus to their children. In addition, he developed sophisticated methods to improve the accuracy of estimated HIV incidence rates. He also contributed to broadening access to antiretroviral drugs to people in developing countries.

    Name: Malcolm Casadaban (60)
    Specialty: Molecular Genetics
    Date: September 13, 2009
    COD:
    Plague

    Abstract:
    Malcolm Casadaband was as a renowned molecular geneticist with a passion for new research. He had been working to develop an even stronger vaccine for the plague, but allegedly died of plague prior to bringing his vaccine to market. The medical center says the plague bacteria he worked with was a weakened strain that isn't known to cause illness in healthy adults. The strain was approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for laboratory studies.

    Title: Plague Samples Suspected In Scientist Death
    Date: September 21, 2009
    Source: Science Mag

    Abstract: An autopsy last week revealed that a geneticist who died mysteriously might have succumbed to the plague. Malcolm Casadaban, 60, studied a weakened and reportedly benign form of the bacteria that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, in his lab at the University of Chicago. Casadaban died Sunday, 13 September, and an autopsy report 5 days later indicated high levels of Y. pestis in his blood. No other cause of death was apparent, the university said. A team of scientists at the university, with support from local health officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is investigating the matter. So far, no one in contact with Casadaban has shown plague symptoms. The investigators are focusing on whether the strain Casadaban worked on was different than other benign strains of the bacterium and whether he had any inborn susceptibility to the microbe. Results are expected in a few weeks (Science Mag, 2009).

    Title: Another Dead Microbiologist - The Coming Plague
    Date: September 23, 2009
    Source: ABC 7 News

    YouTube-Video



    Title: Researcher's Death From Plague Prompts CDC Warning
    Date: February 24, 2011
    Source: My Health News

    Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is reminding laboratory workers to be diligent about wearing protective gear, after it found that an Illinois researcher died in 2009 from exposure to plague-causing bacteria.

    The 60-year-old researcher, a university employee, had been working with a strain of the bacteria Yersinia pestis. He died of cardiac arrest shortly after going to the hospital for what appeared to be flu symptoms, the CDC said in a report released today (Feb. 24).

    After determining the cause of death, health agencies and the university began a safety investigation and learned that the man had inconsistently complied with the laboratory policy to wear gloves while handling the bacterial cultures, the CDC report said.

    However, experts at the CDC did not rule out that the researcher could have been infected by the bacteria elsewhere on his skin or mucous membranes, such as his mouth or nose.

    The CDC report did not identify the man or his university. According to a report from Chicago television station WLS in 2009, he was Malcolm Casadaban, a longtime professor of molecular genetics at the University of Chicago. His family said Casadaban had been seeking to develop a plague vaccine, and was working with a weakened strain of the bacteria.

    The CDC report said he had hemochromatosis, a condition in which too much iron is absorbed into body tissues from foods in the gastrointestinal tract. Because Y. pestis bacteria are naturally iron-deficient, the extra iron in the man may have fed the bacteria and caused them to become virulent, the report said.

    The researcher sought care from a physician Sept. 10, 2009, six days after he had last worked in the lab. But that doctor thought the problem was a respiratory infection or the flu, and referred him to an emergency department, the report said.

    Three days later the researcher was brought by ambulance to an emergency department because of fever, cough, and worsening of his shortness of breath. He died there after suffering septic shock and cardiac arrest, the report said.

    Blood tests later revealed he was infected with the bacteria . The Chicago Department of Public Health was then notified.

    Before then, the last known laboratory-acquired infection with Y. pestis bacteria in the United States occurred in 1959, the CDC report said. That person, who inhaled the bacteria, did not die (My Health News, 2011).

    Name: August "Gus" Watanabe (67)
    Specialty: Former Eli Lilly & Co. Executive 
    Date: June 9, 2009
    COD: Suicide/Murder/Gun Shot

    Abstract:
    August "Gus" Watanabe was found dead outside a cabin in Brown County. Friends discovered the body, a .38-caliber handgun and a three-page note at the scene. Friends allegedly said he had been depressed following the death last month of his daughter Nan Reiko Watanabe Lewis. She died at age 44 while recovering from elective surgery. Watanabe was one of the five highest-paid officers of Indianapolis pharmaceutical maker Eli Lilly and Co. when he retired in 2003.

    Name: Caroline Coffey (28)
    Specialty: Bio-Medicine
    Date: June 3, 2009
    COD: Murder/Throat Slashed

    Abstract:
    Caroline Coffey died from massive cuts to her throat. Hikers found the body of the Cornell Univ. post-doctoral bio-medicine researcher along a wooded trail in the park, just outside Ithaca, N.Y., where the Ivy League school is located. Her husband was hospitalized under guard after a police chase and their apartment was set on fire.

    Name: Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi (53)
    Specialty: Bioweapon Antitoxin
    Date: February 14, 2009
    COD: Unknown/Suspicious Causes

    Abstract:
    Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi died of "suspicious" causes. Dr. Noah (formerly Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi) is described in his American biography as a pioneer of Mind-Body-Quantum medicine who lectured in five countries and ran a successful health care center General Medical Clinics Inc. in King County, Washington for 15 years after suffering a heart attack in 1989. Among his notable accomplishments was discovering an antitoxin treatment for bioweapons.

    Title: Iranian Bioweapon Researcher Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi Dies Suspiciously In The US
    Date: Feb 18, 2009
    Source: Press TV

    Abstract: A US-based Iranian doctor working to discover an antitoxin therapy for biological weapons has purportedly died a "suspicious death."

    One of the leading bioweapon researchers and a regular keynote speaker at international conferences, Dr. Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi died on Saturday in what his doctors described as a "suspicious death".

    Media reports have linked Dr. Talebzadeh Ordoubadi's mysterious death to his notable accomplishments in discovering an antitoxin treatment for bioweapons.

    The use of biological and chemical weapons -- which is considered illegal under The Hague convention on rules of warfare -- is feared by many experts more than the use of nuclear weapons.

    Biological weapons can kill, incapacitate, or seriously impede an individual as well as entire cities or places where they are used.

    While there are antibiotic and penicillin treatments for different types of bioweapons, some of them such as Botulism and Ricin still remain without any antitoxin or vaccine to cure those subjected to the poisonous weapon.

    According to Tabnak, Dr. Talebzadeh's achievements in finding a cure to bioweapons had made him the target of various accusations from the government of the United States -- one of the possessors of biological weapons -- since 1992.

    In 2000, the Iranian doctor was sentenced to 35 months in prison on charges of health care and mail fraud under the new HIPAA regulations (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996).

    His jail sentence, which prompted him to change his name to Noah McKay, came after years of government attempts to level various accusations against him.

    The charges, which were never substantiated, proven or confirmed, included "money laundering, funding Middle Eastern terrorists, and connections to the Russian mafia in Seattle".

    While serving in the federal prison camp in Sheridan, Oregon, he told one of his lawyers "my life is in danger and I should change my name and request transfer to another prison" (Press TV, 2009).


    Name: Bruce Edwards Ivins (62)
    Specialty: Anthrax/Vaccine Technology
    Date: July 29, 2008
    COD: Suicide/Murder/Overdose

    Abstract:
    Bruce Edwards Ivins died of an alleged drug overdose. Ivins allegedly committed suicide prior to formal charges being filed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for his alleged criminal connection to the 9/11 anthrax attacks. Ivins was likely to be scapegoated for the attacks which resulted in the deaths of five persons and the injury of dozens of others. The attacks included the mailings of several anonymous letters to members of Congress and members of the media in September and October, 2001. The letters in question allegedly contained Bacillus anthracis, commonly referred to as anthrax. Ivins was a coinventor on two US patents for anthrax vaccine technology.

    Name: Laurent Bonomo (23) & Gabriel Ferez (23)
    Specialty: Infectious Disease/Eco Friendly Fuels
    Date: July 3, 2008
    COD: Murder/Stabbing

    Abstract:
    Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, both died after being bound, gagged, stabbed and set alight. Laurent, a student in the proteins that cause infectious disease, had been stabbed 196 times with half of them being administered to his back after he was dead. Gabriel, who hoped to become an expert in ecofriendly fuels, suffered 47 separate injuries.

    Name: Yongsheng Li
    Specialty: Receptor Cells
    Date: March 10, 2007
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Yongsheng Li died sometime after 4 p.m. on March 10, 2009, when he was last seen as a result of unknown causes. He was found in a pond between the Women's Sports Complex and State Botanical Gardens on South Milledge Avenue Sunday and had been missing 16 days. Li was a doctoral student from China who studied in Regents Professor David Puett's biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory.

    Name: Mario Alberto Vargas Olvera (52)
    Specialty: Biologist
    Date: October 6, 2007
    COD: Murder/BFT

    Abstract:
    Dr. Mario Alberto Vargas Olvera as a result of several blunt-force injuries to his head and neck. Ruled as murder. Found in his home. He was a nationally and internationally recognized biologist.

    Name: Yoram Kaufman (57)
    Specialty: NASA Atmospheric Scientist/Aerosols
    Date: May 31, 2006
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Yoram Kaufman died on May 31, 2006 when he was struck by an automobile while riding his bicycle near the Goddard center's campus in Greenbelt. Dr. Kaufman began working at the space flight center since 1979 and spent his entire career there as a research scientist. His primary fields were meteorology and climate change, with a specialty in analyzing aerosols -- airborne solid and liquid particles in the atmosphere. In recent years, he was senior atmospheric scientist in the Earth-Sun Exploration Division and played a key role in the development of NASA's Terra satellite, which collects data about the atmosphere.

    Name: Lee Jong-Woo (61)
    Specialty: AIDS/WHO Director-General
    Date: May 22, 2006
    COD: Brain Blood Clot

    Abstract:
    Lee Jong-Woo died after suffering a blood clot in the brain. Lee was spearheading the organization's fight against global threats from bird flu, AIDS and other infectious diseases. WHO director-general since 2003, Lee was his country's top international official. The affable South Korean, who liked to lighten his press conferences with jokes, was a keen sportsman with no history of ill-health, according to officials.

    Name: Leonid Strachunsky.
    Specialty: Microbes Resistant to Biological Weapons
    Date: June 8, 2005
    COD: Murder/BFT

    Abstract:
    Leonid Strachunsky died after being hit on the head with a champagne bottle. Strachunsky specialized in creating microbes resistant to biological weapons. Strachunsky was found dead in his hotel room in Moscow, where had come from Smolensk en route to the United States. Investigators are looking for a connection between the murder of this leading bio weapons researcher and the hepatitis outbreak in Tver, Russia.

    Name: Robert J. Lull (66)
    Specialty: Nuclear Medicine
    Date: May 19, 2005
    COD: Murder/Stabbing

    Abstract:
    Robert J. Lull died as a result of multiple stab wounds. Despite his missing car and apparent credit card theft, homicide Inspector Holly Pera said investigators aren't convinced that robbery was the sole motive for Lull's killing. She said a robber would typically have taken more valuables from Lull's home than what the killer left with. Lull had been chief of nuclear medicine at San Francisco General Hospital since 1990 and served as a radiology professor at UCSF. He was past president of the American College of Nuclear Physicians and the San Francisco Medical Society and served as editor of the medical society's journal, San Francisco Medicine, from 1997 to 1999. Lee Lull said her former husband was a proponent of nuclear power and loved to debate his political positions with others.

    Name: Todd Kauppila (41)
    Specialty: Nuclear Medicine
    Date: May 8, 2005
    COD: Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis

    Abstract:
    Todd Kauppila allegedly died of hemorrhagic pancreatitis at the Los Alamos hospital, according to the state medical examiner's office. His death came two days after Kauppila publicly rejoiced over news that his lab's director was leaving. Kauppila was fired by director Pete Nanos on Sept. 23, 2004 following a security scandal. Kauppila said he was fired because he did not immediately return from a family vacation during a lab investigation into two classified computer disks that were thought to be missing. The apparent security breach forced Nanos to shut down the lab for several weeks. Kauppila claimed he was made a scapegoat over the disks, which investigators concluded never existed. The mistake was blamed on a clerical error. After he was fired, Kauppila accepted a job as a contractor at Bechtel Nevada Corp., a research company that works with Los Alamos and other national laboratories. He was also working on a new Scatter Reduction Grids in Megavolt Radiography focused on metal plates or crossed grids to act to stop the scattered radiation while allowing the unscattered or direct rays to pass through with other scientists: Scott Watson (LANL, DX-3), Chuck Lebeda (LANL, XTA), Alan Tubb (LANL, DX-8), and Mike Appleby (Tecomet Thermo Electron Corp.)

    Name: David Banks (55)
    Specialty: Quarantine Authority at Biosecurity Australia
    Date: May 8, 2005
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    David Banks, based out of North Queensland, Australia, died in an airplane crash along with 14 others. He was known as an Agro Genius inventing the mosquito trap used for cattle. Banks was the principal scientist with quarantine authority, Biosecurity Australia, and heavily involved in protecting Australians from unwanted diseases and pests. Most of Dr Banks' work involved preventing potentially devastating diseases making their way into Australia. He had been through Indonesia looking at the potential for foot and mouth disease to spread through the archipelago and into Australia. Other diseases he had fought to keep out of Australian livestock herds and fruit orchards include classical swine fever, Nipah virus and Japanese encephalitis.

    Name: Douglas James Passaro (43)
    Specialty: Epidemiologist/Spiral-Shaped Bacteria
    Date: April 18, 2005
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Dr. Douglas James Passaro died from unknown cause in Oak Park, Illinois. Dr. Passaro was a brilliant epidemiologist who wanted to unlock the secrets of a spiral-shaped bacteria that causes stomach disease. He was a professor who challenged his students with real-life exercises in bioterrorism. He was married to Dr. Sherry Nordstrom..

    Name: Geetha Angara (43)
    Specialty: Senior Chemist
    Date: February 8, 2005
    COD: Homocide

    Abstract:
    Geetha Angara was found in a Totowa, New Jersey, water treatment plant tank. Angara, of Holmdel, was last seen on the night of Feb. 8 doing water quality tests at the Passaic Valley Water Commission plant in Totowa where she had worked for 12 years. Divers found her body in a 35-foot-deep sump opening at the bottom of one of the emptied tanks. Investigators are treating Angara's death as a possible homicide. Angara, a senior chemist with a doctorate from New York University, was married and mother of three.

    Name: Jeong H. Im (72)
    Specialty: Protein Chemist
    Date: January 7, 2005
    COD: Murder/Stabbing

    Abstract:
    Korean Jeong H. Im died of multiple stab wounds to the chest before firefighters found in his body in the trunk of a burning car on the third level of a Maryland Avenue Garage. A retired research assistant professor at the University of Missouri - Columbia, Dr. Im was primarily a protein chemist a researcher in the field. A "person of interest" described as a male 6'–6'2" wearing some type of mask possible a painters mask or drywall type mask was seen in the area of the Maryland Avenue Garage prior to the murder.

    Name: Darwin Kenneth Vest
    Specialty: Entomologist/Poisonous Spiders & Snakes
    Date: March 2004 (Disapeered June 3, 1999)
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Darwin Kenneth Vest was an internationally renowned entomologist, expert on hobo spiders and other poisonous spiders and snakes. Darwin disappeared in the early morning hours of June 3, 1999 while walking in downtown Idaho Falls, Idaho. The family believes foul play was involved in his disappearance. Darwin was declared legally dead the first week of March 2004 and now the family is in the process of obtaining restraining orders against several companies who saw fit to use his name and photos without permission. His brother David is legal conservator of the estate and his sister Rebecca is handling issues related to Eagle Rock Research and ongoing research projects.

    Name: Tom Thorne (64) & Beth Williams (53)
    Specialty: Veterinary Medicine/Brucellosis
    Date: December 29, 2004
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract:
    Tom Thorne and Beth Williams, both wild life scientists as well as husband-and-wife, were killed in a snowy-weather crash on U.S. 287 in northern Colorado. The wildlife veterinarians were nationally prominent experts on chronic wasting disease and brucellosis.

    Name: John R. La Montagne (61)
    Specialty: AIDS/NIAID Deputy Director
    Date: November 2, 2004
    COD: Pulmonary Embolism

    Abstract:
    John R. La Montagne Ph.D. died while in Mexico. Originally, no cause of death was stated, but later his death was disclosed as a pulmonary embolism. La Montagne was Head of US Infectious Diseases unit under Tommie Thompson as well as the NIAID Deputy Director. He was an expert in AIDS Program work and Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    Name: Matthew Allison (32)
    Specialty: Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
    Date: October 13, 2004
    COD: Murder/Car Explosion

    Abstract:
    Matthew Allison died when his car exploded while parked at an Osceola County Wal-Mart store in Florida.  Witnesses said the man left the store at about 11 p.m. and entered his Ford Taurus car when it exploded. Investigators said they found a Duraflame log and propane canisters on the front passenger's seat of the burnt car. Allison had a college degree in molecular biology and biotechnology.

    Name: John Clark (52)
    Specialty: Animal Science/Biotechnology/Cloning
    Date: August 12, 2004
    COD: Muder/Suicide?/Hung

    Abstract:
    Professor John Clark was found hanged in his vacation home. Clark was an expert in animal science and biotechnology and developed techniques for the genetic modification of livestock. Head of the science lab which created Dolly the sheep, Clark led the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, one of the world's leading animal biotechnology research centers. He played a crucial role in creating the transgenic sheep that earned the institute worldwide fame. He was put in charge of a project to produce human proteins (which could be used in the treatment of human diseases) in sheep's milk. Clark and his team focused their study on the production of the alpha-I-antitryps in protein, which is used for treatment of cystic fibrosis. Prof Clark also founded three spin-out firms from Roslin - PPL Therapeutics, Rosgen and Roslin BioMed.

    Name: John Badwey (54)
    Specialty: Infectious Diseases
    Date: July 21, 2004
    COD: Pneumonia Like Symptoms

    Abstract:
    Dr. John Badwey was a scientist and accidental politician when he opposed disposal of sewage waste program of exposing humans to sludge. Badwey suddenly developed pneumonia like symptoms and died within two weeks. Badwey was a biochemist at Harvard Medical School specializing in infectious diseases.

    Name: Bassem Al-Mudares
    Specialty: Chemist
    Date: July 21, 2004
    COD: Torture/Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Bassem Al-Mudares' mutilated body was found in the city of Samarra, Iraq, and evidence showed that he had been tortured before being killed. Al-Mudares worked for a drug company and held a doctorate in chemistry.

    Name: Stephen Tabet (42)
    Specialty: HIV/Epidemiologist
    Date: July 6, 2004
    COD: Unknown Illness

    Abstract:
    Professor Stephen Tabet died from an unknown illness. He was an associate professor and epidemiologist at the University of Washington. A world-renowned HIV doctor and researcher who worked with HIV patients in a vaccine clinical trial for the HIV Vaccine Trials Network.

    Name: Larry Bustard (53)
    Specialty: Bioterrorism
    Date: July 2, 2004
    COD: Unknown Causes

    Abstract:
    Dr. Larry Bustard died from unknown causes. He was a Sandia scientist in the U.S. Department of Energy who helped develop a foam spray to clean up congressional buildings and media sites during the anthrax scare in 2001. He worked at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. As an expert in bioterrorism, his team came up with a new technology used against biological and chemical agents.

    Name: Edward Hoffman (62)
    Specialty: Professor & Scientist
    Date: July 1, 2004
    COD: Unknown Causes

    Abstract:
    Edward Hoffman died from unknown causes. Hoffman was a professor and a scientist who also held leadership positions within the UCLA medical community. He worked to develop the first human PET scanner in 1973 at Washington University in St. Louis.

    Name: Paul Norman (52)
    Specialty: Chemical & Biological Weapons
    Date: June 27, 2004
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Dr. Paul Norman of Salisbury Wiltshire, an expert in chemical and biological weapons, was killed when his single-engine Cessna 206 he was piloting crashed in Devon. He traveled the world lecturing on defending against the scourge of weapons of mass destruction. He was married with a 14-year-old son and a 20-year-old daughter, and was the chief scientist for chemical and biological defense at the Ministry of Defense's laboratory at Porton Down, Wiltshire. The crash site was examined by officials from the Air Accidents Investigation Branch and the wreckage of the aircraft was removed from the site to the AAIB base at Farnborough.

    Name: Assefa Tulu (45)
    Specialty: Epidemiologist/Bioterror
    Date: June 24, 2004
    COD: Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Abstract:
    Dr. Assefa Tulu, who was found face down and dead in his office, allegedly died of a hemorrhagic stroke according to the Dallas County coroner. Dr. Tulu joined the Dallas health department in 1997 and served for five years as the county's lone epidemiologist. He was charged with tracking the health of the county, including the spread of diseases, such as syphilis, AIDS and measles. He also designed a system for detecting a bioterrorism attack involving viruses or bacterial agents. Tulu often coordinated efforts to address major health concerns in Dallas County, such as the West Nile virus outbreaks of the past few years, and worked with the media to inform the public.

    Name: Antonina Presnyakova (46)
    Specialty: Biological Weapons
    Date: May 25, 2004
    COD: Ebola

    Abstract:
    Antonina Presnyakova was a Russian scientist at a former Soviet biological weapons laboratory in Siberia. He died after an alleged accident when he was pricked with a needle laced with ebola. Scientists and officials said the accident raised concerns about safety and secrecy at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, known as Vector, which in Soviet times specialized in turning deadly viruses into biological weapons.

    Name: Eugene Mallove (56)
    Specialty: Cold Fusion/Free Energy
    Date: May 14, 2004
    COD: Murder/BFT

    Abstract:
    Dr. Eugene Mallove, who was found at the end of his driveway, died as a result of several blunt-force injuries to his head and neck. His death was ruled as murder.  Mallove was an alternative energy expert who was working on a viable energy alternative program and was well respected for his knowledge of cold fusion. He had just published an "open letter" outlining the results of and reasons for his last 15 years in the field of "new energy research." Dr. Mallove was convinced it was only a matter of months before the world would actually see a free energy device.

    Name: William T. McGuire (39)
    Specialty: Microbiology/Biocontainment Facilities
    Date: May 5, 2004
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    William T. McGuire, last seen late April 2004, was found in three suitcases floating in Chesapeake Bay. He was NJ University Professor and Senior programmer analyst and adjunct professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark. He emerged as one of the world's leading microbiologists and an expert in developing and overseeing multiple levels of biocontainment facilities.

    Name: Ilsley Ingram (84)
    Specialty: Haemophilia
    Date: April 12, 2004
    COD: Unknown Causes

    Abstract:
    Ilsley Ingram, Director of the Supraregional Haemophilia Reference Centre and the Supraregional Centre for the Diagnosis of Bleeding Disorders at the St. Thomas Hospital in London, died on  from unknown causes. Although his age was a possible reason for his death, it was never confirmed by the family or the news media.

    Name: Mohammed Munim Al-Lzmerly
    Specialty: Chemistry Professor
    Date: April 2004
    COD: Murder/BTF/Brainstem Compression

    Abstract:
    Mohammed Munim Al-Lzmerly was a distinguished Iraqi chemistry professor died in American custody from a sudden hit to the back of his head caused by blunt force trauma. It was uncertain exactly how he died, but someone had hit him from behind, possibly with a bar or a pistol. His battered corpse turned up at Baghdad's morgue and the cause of death was initially recorded as "brainstem compression". It was discovered that US doctors had made a 20cm incision in his skull.

    Name: Vadake Srinivasan
    Specialty: Microbiologist
    Date: March 13, 2004
    COD: Car Crash/Stroke

    Abstract:
    Vadake Srinivasan was a microbiologist who died when his car crashed into guard rail in Baton Rouge, LA. Srinivasan's death was eventually ruled as a stroke. Srinivasan, who held two doctorate degrees, was originally from India and was one of the most-accomplished and respected industrial biologists in academia.

    Name: Michael Patrick Kiley (62)
    Specialty: Ebola & Mad Cow
    Date: January 24, 2004
    COD: Heart Attack

    Abstract:
    Dr. Michael Patrick Kiley, a world expert on Ebola and Mad Cow disease, suddenly died of massive heart attack. It is interesting to note, he had a good heart, but it "gave out". Dr. Shope and Dr. Kiley were working on the lab upgrade to BSL 4 at the UTMB Galvaston lab for Homeland Security. The new lab was destined to host the most hazardous pathogens known to man, especially tropical and emerging diseases as well as bioweapons.

    Name: Robert Shope (74)
    Specialty: Virus Expert
    Date: January 23, 2004
    COD: Suregery Complications/Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Abstract:
    Robert Shope, a virus expert who warned of future epidemics, first died as a result of alleged lung transplant complication. It was later purported that died of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis which can be caused by either environmental stimulus or a virus. Dr. Shope led a group of scientists who had an 11 million dollar fed grant to ensure the new bio-lab would keep in nasty bugs. Dr. Shope also met with and worked with Dr. Mike Kiley on the UTMB Galveston lab upgraded to a BSL 4. The new lab was destined to host the most hazardous pathogens known to man, especially tropical and emerging diseases as well as bioweapons.

    Name: Richard Stevens (54)
    Specialty: Hematologist
    Date: January 6, 2004
    COD: Murder/Suicide?

    Abstract:
    Dr. Richard Stevens disappeared after arriving for work on July, 21, 2003. His disappearance sparked a national manhunt with a coroner eventually ruling that he killed himself because he could not cope with the stress of a secret affair. Stevens was a hematologist who analyzed the cellular composition of blood and blood producing tissues e.g. bone marrow.

    Name:
    Robert Aranosia (61)
    Specialty:
    Medical Examiner
    Date: December 18, 2003
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract: While driving south on I-75,
    Robert Aranosia's pickup truck went off the freeway near a bridge over the Kawkawlin River. The vehicle rolled over several times before landing in the median. Aranosia was thrown from the vehicle and ended up on the shoulder of the northbound lanes. He was the Oakland County deputy medical examiner.

    Name: Robert Leslie Burghoff (45)
    Specialty: Viral Microbiologist
    Date: November 20, 2003
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Robert Leslie Burghoff was killed by a hit and run driver that jumped the curb and ploughed into him in the 1600 block of South Braeswood, Texas. The driver was described as a short Hispanic man in his 50s with a slightly rounded face. He was studying the virus plaguing cruise ships.

    Name: Michael Perich (46)
    Specialty: West Nile Virus Microbiologist
    Date: October 11, 2003
    COD: Car Accident

    Abstract:
    Michael Perich died in one-vehicle car accident. The LSU West Nile research scientist was wearing his seat belt and drowned. He was LSU professor who helped fight the spread of the West Nile virus. Perich, who was known as one of the country's experts on vector-borne diseases, had most recently led a crusade to keep down the effects of West Nile virus and to get many of the Louisiana's parishes to work toward forming mosquito control districts.

    YouTube-Video

    Name:
    David Kelly (59)
    Specialty: Biological Weapons
    Date: July 18, 2003
    COD: Slashed Wrists

    Abstract:
    David Kelly was a British biological weapons expert, was said to have slashed his own wrists while walking near his home. Kelly was the Ministry of Defense's chief scientific officer and senior adviser to the proliferation and arms control secretariat, and to the Foreign Office's non-proliferation department. The senior adviser on biological weapons to the UN biological weapons inspections teams (Unscom) from 1994 to 1999, he was also, in the opinion of his peers, pre-eminent in his field, not only in this country, but in the world.

    Name: Leland Rickman (47)
    Specialty: Infectious Diseases/Bioterrorism
    Date: June 24, 2003
    COD: Headache

    Abstract:
    Dr. Leland Rickman died while on a teaching assignment in Lesotho, a small country bordered on all sides by South Africa. Rickman was UC San Diego expert on infectious diseases and since September 11, 2001 a consultant on bioterrorism. He had complained of a headache, but the cause of death was not immediately known. The physician had been working in Lesotho with Dr. Chris Mathews, director of the UC San Diego Medical Center's Owen Clinic, teaching African medical personnel about the prevention and treatment of AIDS. Rickman, the incoming president of the Infectious Disease Assn. of California, was a multidisciplinary professor and practitioner with expertise in infectious diseases, internal medicine, epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic utilization.

    Name: Carlo Urbani (46)
    Specialty: Epidemiologist/SARS
    Date: March 2003
    COD: SARS

    Abstract:
    Carlo Urbani died in Bangkok from SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) - the new disease that he had helped to identify. Thanks to his prompt action, the epidemic was contained in Vietnam. However, because of close daily contact with SARS patients, he contracted the infection. On March 11, he was admitted to a hospital in Bangkok and isolated. Less than three weeks later he died. He was a dedicated and internationally respected Italian epidemiologist, who did work of enduring value combating infectious illness around the world.

    Title: Doctor Who ID'd Mystery Illness Dies
    Date: March 29, 2003
    Source:
    UCLA

    Abstract: The World Health Organization doctor who first identifed the outbreak of a deadly mystery illness died of the disease on Saturday.

    Italian Dr. Carlo Urbani, 46, a WHO expert on communicable diseases, died in Thailand where he had been receiving treatment after becoming infected while working in Vietnam, the U.N. agency said.

    Urbani, who worked in public health programs in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, was the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome in an American businessman who had been admitted to a hospital in Hanoi, where he later died.

    WHO said Urbani's work had allowed it to increase its surveillance of the disease rapidly, and many new cases were identified and isolated before they infected hospital staff.

    "Carlo was a wonderful human being and we are all devastated," said Pascale Brudon, the WHO Representative in Vietnam. "Carlo was the one who very quickly saw that this was something very strange. When people became very concerned in the hospital, he was there every day, collecting samples, talking to the staff and strengthening infection control procedures."

    Urbani, who was married with three children, was also president of Doctors Without Borders-Italy.

    "Carlo Urbani's death saddens us all deeply at WHO," said WHO Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland. "His life reminds us again of our true work in public health. Today, we should all pause for a moment and remember the life of this outstanding physician."

    To date, SARS has killed at least 55 people and sickened 1,485, with the biggest number of cases and deaths in China's Guangdong province, where an earlier outbreak began in November (UCLA, 2003).

    Name: Roman Kuzmin (24)
    Specialty: Orthopedic Surgeon
    Date: December 2002
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Roman Kuzmin was a  Russian studying to be an orthopedic surgeon in in Connecticut when he was fatally struck by a car as he allegedly fled a store with three stolen rolls of film. Doctors who worked with Roman Kuzmin at Waterbury Hospital said they were stunned to hear of his death Sunday evening and many couldn't believe the circumstances. Kuzmin left Vladivostok, Russia, in September to study orthopedic surgical techniques at Waterbury Hospital under a Keggi Othopedic Foundation program. Dr. Kristaps Keggi, who organized the program, said Kuzmin was "very able, very bright - a superb student and a superb individual."

    Name: David R. Knibbs
    Specialty: Pathobiologist/Electron Microscopy
    Date: August 5, 2002
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Dr. David R. Knibbs (August 5, 2002) Respected pathobiologist specializing in electron microscopy.

    Name: Steven Mostow "Dr. Flu" (63)
    Specialty: Infectious Disease/Bioterrorism
    Date: March 25, 2002
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Steven Mostow  was one of the country's leading infectious disease and bioterrorism experts and was associate dean at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. He died in a plane crash near Centennial Airport. He was known as "Dr. Flu" for his expertise in treating influenza, and expertise on bioterrorism.

    Name: David Wynn-Williams (55)
    Specialty: Astrobiologist
    Date: March 24, 2002
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Dr. David Wynn-Williams was hit by a car while jogging near his home in Cambridge, England. He was an astrobiologist with the Antarctic Astrobiology Project and the NASA Ames Research Center. He was studying the capability of microbes to adapt to environmental extremes, including the bombardment of ultraviolet rays and global warming.

    Name: Tanya Holzmayer (46) & Guyang "Mathew" Huang (38)
    Specialty: Microbiologists
    Date: February 28, 2002
    COD: Murder & Suicide

    Abstract:
    While taking delivery of a pizza in San Francisco, microbiologist Tanya Holzmayer was shot and killed by a colleague and microbiologist Guyang "Mathew" Huang, 38, who then apparently shot himself. Holzmayer moved to the US from Russia in 1989. Her research focused on the part of the human molecular structure that could be affected best by medicine. Holzmayer was focusing on helping create new drugs that interfere with replication of the virus that causes AIDS. One year earlier, Holzmayer obeyed senior management orders to fire Huang. Huang appeared from behind the deliveryman. He shot Holzmayer several times at close range in the chest and head. As Holzmayer fell in her doorway, Huang ran to a Ford Explorer and drove away. Less than an hour after the shooting, Huang called his wife, according to Foster City Police Capt. Craig Courtin. He told her about the shooting and that he was going to kill himself, then he hung up. Huang's wife called the emergency services and Foster City police used search dogs to comb the area. They ran into a jogger who had seen Huang's body lying off the walkway that locals call "The Levee." He had fired a single bullet into his head.

    Name: Ian Langford
    Specialty: Leukemia/Infections.
    Date: February 12, 2002
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Ian Langford was found dead at his blood-spattered and apparently ransacked home. A Russian scientist who worked as a Senior Research Associate at the CSERGE in the UK, he was a leading university research scientist working on Global Environment where he specialized in links between human health and the environment risk He was also a specialist in leukemia and infections.

    Name: Vladamir "Victor" Korshunov (56)
    Specialty: Microbiologist
    Date: February 9, 2002
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Vladamir "Victor" Korshunov was found dead near his home in Moscow with his head bashed in. Korshunov was head of the microbiology sub-facility at the Russian State Medical University. On Feb. 9, 2002, the Russian newspaper Pravda reported that Korshunov had probably invented a vaccine protecting from any biological arm.

    Name: David W. Barry (58)
    Specialty: AIDS Scientist
    Date: January 28, 2002
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    David W. Barry was a scientist who co-discovered AZT, the antiviral drug that is considered the first effective treatment for AIDS. Circumstance of Death are unknown.

    Name: Ivan Glebov
    Specialty: Microbiologist
    Date: January 2002
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Ivan Glebov,  a Russian Microbiologist, was murdered in Moscow as a result of an alleged bandit attack. Glebov was well known around the world and members of the Russian Academy of Science.

    Name: Alexi Brushlinski
    Specialty: Microbiologist
    Date: January 2002
    COD: January 2002

    Abstract:
    Dr. Alexi Brushlinski, a Russian Microbiologist, was murdered in Moscow as a result of an alleged bandit attack. Brushlinski was well known around the world and members of the Russian Academy of Science.

    Name: Benito Que (52)
    Specialty: AIDS Microbiologist/Oncologist
    Date: December 6, 2001
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Benito Que was found in the street near the laboratory where he worked at the University of Miami Medical School on November 12, 2001. When found, Que was comatose from what was called a mugging. and subsequently died in the hospital on December 6, 2001. Among Dr. Que's friends and family there is firm belief that Dr. Que was attacked by four men, at least one of whom had a baseball bat. Dr. Que's death has now been officially ruled "natural", caused by cardiac arrest. He was a cell biologist, involved in research on AIDS, oncology research in the hematology department.

    Name: Vladimer Pasechnik (64)
    Specialty: Anthrax/Bioweapons
    Date: December 23, 2001
    COD: Stroke

    Abstract:
    Dr. Vladimer Pasechnik was ound dead in Wiltshire, England, a village near his home. Two different dates of death have been reported (November 21 and December 23), with Pasechnik's death ruled as a stroke. Pasechnik had defected from Russia to UK. He had been the #1 scientist in the FSU's bioweapons program. It was thought he was involved with exhuming the bodies of the 10 London victims of the 1919 Type A flu epidemic. Pasechnik died six weeks after the planned exhumations were announced. On November 23, 2001, Pasechnik's death was reported in the New York Times as having occurred two days earlier. Pasechnik's death was made in the United States by Dr. Christopher Davis of Virginia, who stated that the cause of death was a stroke. Dr. Davis was the member of British intelligence who de-briefed Dr. Pasechnik at the time of his defection. Pasechnik was heavily involved in DNA sequencing research. He had just founded a company like three other microbiologists working to provide powerful alternatives to antibiotics. Dr. Vladimir Pasechnik was the boss of William C. Patrick III who holds 5 patents on the militarized anthrax used by the United States. Patrick is now a private biowarfare consultant to the military and CIA. Patrick developed the process by which anthrax spores could be concentrated at the level of one trillion spores per gram. No other country has been able to get concentrations above 500 billion per gram. The anthrax that was sent around the eastern United States in the Fall of 2001 was concentrated at one trillion spores per gram.

    Name: Don Wiley (57)
    Specialty: Contagious & Molecular Biologist
    Date: December 16, 2001
    COD: Vanished/Unknown

    Abstract:
    Dr. Don Wiley, a molecular biologist with Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Harvard Universityvanished on December 16, 2001. Wiley was a top deadly contagious virus expert whose abandoned rental car was found on the Hernando de Soto Bridge outside Memphis, TN. He was heavily involved in research on DNA sequencing, and was last seen at around midnight on November 16, leaving the St. Jude's Children's Research Advisory Dinner at The Peabody Hotel in Memphis, TN. Associates attending the dinner said he showed no signs of intoxication, and no one has admitted to drinking with him. One month later, workers at a hydroelectric plant in Louisiana found the body of Don Wiley floating on about 300 miles south of where the molecular biologist was last seen on Nov. 18 at a medical meeting in Memphis. On January 14, 2002 (almost two months later) Shelby County Medical Examiner O.C. Smith announced that his department had ruled Dr. Wiley's death to be "accidental"; the result of massive injuries suffered in a fall from the Hernando de Soto Bridge. Smith said there were paint marks on Wiley's rental car similar to the paint used on construction signs on the bridge, and that the car's right front hubcap was missing. There has been no report as to which construction signs Dr. Wiley hit.

    Name: Set Van Nguyen (44)
    Specialty: Bioweapons/Vaccines
    Date: December 14, 2001
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Set Van Nguyen was found dead in the airlock entrance to the walk-in refrigerator in the laboratory he worked at in Victoria State, Australia. Despite being vented, the room was full of deadly gas which had leaked from a liquid nitrogen cooling system. Nguyen was working on a vaccine to protect against biological weapons, or a weapon itself. In January, 2001, the magazine Nature published information that two scientists, Dr. Ron Jackson and Dr. Ian Ramshaw, using genetic manipulation and DNA sequencing, had created an incredibly virulent form of mousepox, a cousin of smallpox. Coincidentally, Dr. Nguyen had worked for 15 years at the same Australian facility as Jackson and Ramshaw. Now for the intriguing part of this story. On Friday, November 2nd, the Washington Post reported: "Officials are now scrambling to determine how a quiet, 61-year-old Vietnamese immigrant, riding the subway each day to and from her job in a hospital stockroom, was exposed to the deadly anthrax spores that killed her this week. They worry because there is no obvious connection to the factors common to earlier anthrax exposures and deaths: no clear link to the mail or to the media.

    Name: David Schwartz (57)
    Specialty: Biophycisist/DNA Sequencing
    Date: December 10, 2001
    COD: Murder

    Abstract: 
    Dr. David Schwartz was stabbed to death by what appeared to be a sword in rural home Loudon County, Virginia. His daughter, who allegedly identified herself as a pagan high priestess, and three of her fellow pagans have been charged in the murder. Schwartz was extremely well respected in biophysics, and regarded as an authority on DNA sequencing.

    Name: Avishai Berkman (50), Amiramp Eldor (59) & Yaacov Matzner (54)
    Specialty: Microbiologists
    Date: November 24, 2001
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Berkman, Eldor and Matzner were world experts in hematology and blood clotting who all died in a mysterious plane crash. The plane crash came shortly after the Black Sea plane crash (see below)  in which two Israeli microbiologists had been murdered, allegedly by terrorists, including the head of the Hematology department at Israel's Ichilov Hospital, as well as directors of the Tel Aviv Public Health Department and Hebrew University School of Medicine. All world experts in hematology and blood clotting, the five dead microbiologists were the first of eight people which died mysteriously in airplane crashes who had been working on cutting edge of microbiology research in Israel. Four of the five dead scientists were doing virtually identical research which allegedly had major global, political and financial significance.

    Name: Jeffrey Paris Wall (41)
    Specialty: Biomedical
    Date: November 6, 2001
    COD: Suicide/Murder?

    Abstract:
    Jeffrey Paris Wall's body was found sprawled next to a three-story parking structure near his office. Mr. Wall had studied at the University of California, Los Angeles. He was a biomedical expert who held a medical degree, and he also specialized in patent and intellectual property.

    Name: Black Sea Plane Crash/Five Unnamed Microbiologists
    Specialty: Microbiologists
    Date: October 4, 2001
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Four of Five unnamed microbiologists on a plane that was brought down by a missile near the Black sea on the Russian border. Traveling from Israel to Novosibirsk, Russia, on undisclosed business, three of the dead scientists were experts in medical research or public health. The plane is believed by many in Israel to have had as many as four or five passengers who were microbiologists. Both Israel and Novosibirsk are home to cutting-edge microbiological research. Novosibirsk is known as the scientific capital of Siberia with over 50 research facilities, 13 full universities and a population of only 2.5 million people.

    Name: Janusz Jeljaszewicz
    Specialty: Toxins/Infections
    Date: May 7, 2001
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract: To date, the death of
    Professor Janusz Jeljaszewicz has not disclosed. Jeljaszewicz was an expert in Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections. his main scientific interests and achievements were in the mechanism of action and biological properties of staphylococcal toxins, and included the immunomodulatory properties and experimental treatment of tumors by Propionibacterium.

    Name: Linda Reese (52)
    Specialty: Microbiologist/Meningitis
    Date: December 25, 2000
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Linda Reese died three days after she studied a sample from Tricia Zailo, 19, a Fairfield, N.J., resident who was a sophomore at Michigan State University. Tricia Zailo died Dec. 18, a few days after she returned home for the holidays. Dr. Reese was a Microbiologist working with victims of meningitis.

    Name: Mike Thomas (35)
    Specialty: Microbiologist/Meningitis
    Date: July 16, 2000
    COD: Unknown

    Abstract:
    Mike Thomas died a few days after examining a sample taken from a 12-year-old girl who was diagnosed with meningitis and survived. He was a microbiologist at the Crestwood Medical Center in Huntsville.

    Name:
    Walter W. Shervington (62)
    Specialty: AIDS
    Date: April 15, 2000
    COD: Cancer

    Abstract:
    Walter W. Shervington, M.D. died of cancer at Tulane Medical Hospital. He was an extensive writer/ lecturer/ researcher about mental health and AIDS in the African American community.

    Name: Wallace L. Pannier (81)
    Specialty: Germ Warfare Science
    Date: August 6, 1999
    COD:
    Respiratory Failure/Natural

    Title: Wallace L. Pannier, At 81; Was Germ Warfare Scientist
    Date:
    August 8, 2009
    Source:
    Boston.com

    Abstract: Wallace L. Pannier, a germ warfare scientist whose top-secret projects included a mock attack on the New York subway with powdered bacteria in 1966, has died of respiratory failure and other natural causes, his widow said. He died Thursday in Frederick. He was 81.

    Mr. Pannier worked at Fort Detrick, a US Army installation in Frederick that tested biological weapons during the Cold War and is now a center for biodefense research. He worked in the Special Operations Division, a secretive unit operating there from 1949 to 1969, according to family members and published reports.
    The unit developed and tested delivery systems for deadly agents such as anthrax and smallpox.

    In 2004, Mr. Pannier told The Baltimore Sun that team members staged their mock attack on the New York subway in 1966 by shattering light bulbs packed with powdered bacteria on the tracks. They tracked the germs with air samplers disguised as suitcases.

    “People could carry a brown bag with light bulbs in it, and nobody would be suspicious,’’ Mr. Pannier told the Sun. After a bulb broke, releasing the powder, “the trains swishing by would get it airborne,’’ he said.

    The bacteria used as mock weapons, Bacillus globigii and Serratia marcescens, were believed to be harmless, but have since been classified as human pathogens.

    A year earlier, the unit released Bacillus globigii in the air at Washington National Airport and at bus stations in Washington, Chicago, and San Francisco, a 1975 Senate investigation found.

    Mr. Pannier also said he had posed as a fisherman, an air-quality tester, and a motorist with car trouble to measure germs leaking from a pharmaceutical plant on the Susquehanna River. The readings would help US spies trying to identify Soviet bioweapons plants (Boston.com, 2009).

    Name: Jonathan Mann (51)
    Specialty: AIDS/Director of WHO
    Date: September 2, 1998
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Jonathan Mann died in the Swissair Flight 111 crash in Canada. Mann was founding director of the World Health Organization's global Aids program and founded Project SIDA in Zaire, the most comprehensive Aids research effort in Africa at the time, and in 1986 he joined the WHO to lead the global response against Aids. He became director of WHO's global program on Aids which later became the UN AIDS program. He then became director of the Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, which was set up at Harvard School of Public Health in 1993. He caused controversy earlier in 1998 in the media when he accused the US National Institutes of Health of violating human rights by failing to act quickly on developing AIDS vaccines.

    Name: Mary Lou Clements-Mann
    Specialty: AIDS/Vaccines
    Date: September 2, 1998
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract:
    Mary Lou Clements-Mann died in the Swissair Flight 111 crash in Canada. Mann was the longtime head of the Division of Vaccine Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and is well-known for her knowledge and work in HIV and AIDS.

    Name: Dr. Roger Williams
    Specialty: Genertics
    Date: September 2, 1998
    COD: Plane Crash

    Abstract: Roger R. Williams, M.D., professor of internal medicine and a recognized expert in the field of cardiovascular genetics, was the founding director of the Cardiovascular Genetics Research Clinic.  He was one of the medical school's most successful faculty members in obtaining research funding.  After joining the U of U faculty in 1976, he was principal investigator on 21 research grants totaling $18.9 million.  Nearly $16 million of that total was awarded by the National Institutes of Health for investigations into the genetic and environmental determinants of hypertension, characterization of coronary-prone pedigrees, heart attack and stroke deaths in Utah families and other subjects.

    Name: Elizabeth A. Rich (46)
    Specialty: AIDS/Infectious Disease
    Date: July 10, 1998
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract:
    Elizabeth A. Rich, M.D. died in a traffic accident while visiting family in Tennessee. She was an associate professor with tenure in the pulmonary division of the Department of Medicine at CWRU and University Hospitals of Cleveland. She was also a member of the executive committee for the Center for AIDS Research and directed the Bio-safety level 3 facility, a specialized laboratory for the handling of HIV, virulent TB bacteria, and other infectious agents.

    Name: Sidney Harshman (67)
    Specialty: Staphylococcal Alpha Toxins
    Date: December 25, 1997
    COD: Diabetes

    Abstract:
    Sidney Harshman died from complications of diabetes. He was a professor of microbiology and immunology. He was the world's leading expert on staphylococcal alpha toxins.

    Name: Mark Purdey
    Specialty: Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (Mad Cow)
    Date: Unknown
    COD: Fire

    Abstract:
    Mark Purdey was a Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (Mad Cow) scientist and specialist familiar with the expression "abnormal brain protein." Purdey was killed in a house fire just before he went public with a new Mad Cow research paper. Purdey's lawyer was also killed when he driven off the road and a helping veterinarian in the UK BSE inquiry also died in a mysterious car crash.

    Name: Tsunao Saitoh (46)
    Specialty: Abnormal Proteins/Alzheimers
    Date: May 7, 1996
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Dr. Tsunao Saitoh, an expert in abnormal proteins in Alzheimers, was shot and killed along with his young daughter in LaJolla, California. He was found dead behind the wheel of the car, the side window had been shot out, and the door was open. His daughter appeared to have tried to run away but she was also shot dead.

    Name: Jawad Al Aubaidi
    Specialty: Bioweapons Research
    Date: 1994
    COD: Hit & Run

    Abstract:
    Dr. Jawad Al Aubaidi, a graduate doctor from Cornel, was hired to head the mycoplasma biowar research project. One of Dr. Aubaidi's projects was filling payloads of scud missiles with mycoplasma strains. In 1995, Dr. Aubaidi was murdered by the Israelis Mossad. His demise, or, neutralization was made to look like an accident. He was killed in his native Iraq while he was changing a flat tire and was hit by a truck.

    Name: C. Bruton
    Specialty: Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (Mad Cow)
    Date: 1994-1996?
    COD: Car Crash

    Abstract:
    Dr. C. Bruton, a CJD specialist who had just produced a paper on the a new strain of CJD -- was killed in a car crash before his work was announced to the public. Purdey speculates that Bruton might have known more than what was revealed in his paper.

    Name: Jose Trias
    Specialty: Microbiologist
    Date: May 19, 1994
    COD: Murder

    Abstract:
    Jose Trias and his wife were found murdered in their Chevy Chase, Maryland home. They met with a friend of theirs, a journalist, before the day of their murder and told him of their plan to expose HHMI (Howard Hughes Medical Institute) funding of "special ops" research. Grant money that goes to HHMI is actually diverted to special black ops research projects.