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    BIOTERRORBIBLE.COM: Despite the fact that the United States and its European Union allies have been researching, planning and drilling for a major bio-terror attack and the subsequent pandemic, the nations of Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea and Syria have been quietly set up over the last decade as potential bio-terror scapegoats. Based on the evidence available, it appears that the U.S., Israel and South Korea may be the future victims of major false-flag bio-terror attacks.

    While the world is distracted by the rhetoric and propaganda of a nuclear Iran, the bio-terror aspect of Iran has largely flown under the radar. It is possible that Iran will scapegoated in the upcoming war of bio-terror and its subsequent worldwide pandemic.

    Title: Iran And Weapons Of Mass Destruction
    Date:
    2012
    Source:
    Wikipedia

    Biological Weapons

    Iran has advanced biology and genetic engineering research programs supporting an industry that produces world-class vaccines for both domestic use and export. The dual-use nature of these facilities means that Iran, like any country with advanced biological research programs, could easily produce biological warfare agents.

    A 2005 report from the United States Department of State claimed that Iran began work on offensive biological weapons during the Iran–Iraq War, and that their large legitimate bio-technological and bio-medical industry "could easily hide pilot to industrial-scale production capabilities for a potential BW program, and could mask procurement of BW-related process equipment". The report further said that "available information about Iranian activities indicates a maturing offensive program with a rapidly evolving capability that may soon include the ability to deliver these weapons by a variety of means".

    According to the Nuclear Threat Initiative, Iran is known to possess cultures of the many biological agents for legitimate scientific purposes which have been weaponised by other nations in the past, or could theoretically be weaponised. Although they do not allege that Iran has attempted to weaponise them, Iran possesses sufficient biological facilities to potentially do so.

    Iran ratified the Biological Weapons Convention on 22 August 1973.

    Chemical Weapons

    Iran has experienced attack by chemical warfare (CW) on the battlefield and suffered hundreds of thousands of casualties, both civilian and military, in such attacks during the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War. As a result, Iran has promulgated a very public stance against the use of chemical weapons, making numerous vitriolic comments against Iraq's use of such weapons in international forums. Iran is not known to have resorted to using chemical weapons in retaliation for Iraqi chemical weapons attacks during the Iran–Iraq War, though it would have been legally entitled to do so under the then-existing international treaties on the use of chemical weapons which only prohibited the first use of such weapons. Following its experiences during the Iran–Iraq War, Iran signed the Chemical Weapons Convention on 13 January 1993 and ratified it on 3 November 1997. In the official declaration submitted to OPCW Iranian government admitted that it had produced mustard gas in 1980s but that ceased the offensive program and destroyed the stockpiles of operational weapons after the end of war with Iraq.

    A U.S. Central Intelligence Agency report dated January 2001 speculated that Iran had manufactured and stockpiled chemical weapons – including blister, blood, choking, and probably nerve agents, and the bombs and artillery shells to deliver them. It further claimed that during the first half of 2001, Iran continued to seek production technology, training, expertise, equipment, and chemicals from entities in Russia and China that could be used to help Iran reach its goal of having indigenous nerve agent production capability.However the certainty of this assessment declined and in 2007 the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency limited its public assessment to just noting that "Iran has a large and growing commercial chemical industry that could be used to support a chemical agent mobilization capability."

    Iran is a signatory of the Chemical Weapons Convention, which bans chemical weapons, delivery systems, and production facilities. Iran has reiterated its commitment to the CWC and its full support for the work of the OPCW, in particular in view of the considerable suffering these weapons have caused to the Iranian people. Iran has not made any declaration of a weapons stockpile under the treaty (Wikipedia, 2012).

    Title: Iran Said To Be Producing Bioweapons
    Date: May 15, 2003
    Source:
    Washington Post

    Abstract: Iran has begun production of weaponized anthrax and is actively working with at least five other pathogens, including smallpox, in a drive to build an arsenal of biological weapons, according to an opposition group that previously exposed a secret nuclear enrichment program in the country.

    The group, Mujaheddin-e Khalq, citing informants inside the Iranian government, says the anthrax weapons are the first fruits of a program begun secretly in 2001 to triple the size of Iran's biowarfare program. The push for new biological weapons was launched in parallel with a more ambitious campaign to build massive nuclear facilities capable of producing components for nuclear bombs, said officials of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political arm of the Mujaheddin, which seeks the overthrow of the Iranian government.

    "We can say with certainty that the Iranian regime now has the capability of mass production of biological material for weapons use," Alireza Jafarzadeh, the council's U.S. representative, said in an interview. The group has scheduled a news conference today in Washington to release more details.

    Although many weapons experts believe Iran maintains at least a rudimentary biological weapons program, few details are known. The CIA, in an unclassified report released this year, said Iran "probably" maintains an offensive biological weapons program and likely "has capabilities to produce small quantities" of biological agents.

    The opposition group's claims, if true, would suggest that Iran's pursuit of biological weapons is more aggressive than previously believed.

    The Mujaheddin-e Khalq, also known as the People's Mujaheddin, is listed by the State Department as a terrorist group, though weapons experts and intelligence officials say many of the group's past claims about Iranian weapons programs have been largely reliable. The group first exposed a massive nuclear facility built near the town of Natanz to make enriched uranium, which can be used for commercial nuclear power plants or to make nuclear weapons.

    In recent weeks, the Mujaheddin has been fighting for survival after some of its Iraq-based military camps came under attack by U.S. forces during the war. Although the Mujaheddin claimed neutrality in the U.S.-led campaign against Iraq, the Bush administration decided to bomb Mujaheddin bases in an apparent attempt to thaw relations with Iran. Later, the U.S. Central Command arranged a cease-fire that allowed the group to keep many of its weapons and maintain its camps. But then the Bush administration decided to actively seek its surrender.

    Mujaheddin officials said the timing of the release of their report on Iran's biowarfare program was unrelated to their problems with the U.S. government. Jafarzadeh, the spokesman, said the Mujaheddin had been gathering information about the program for months and had received critical new details from inside the Iranian government within the past few days.

    The expansion of Iran's biological weapons program was spelled out in a four-page document called the "Comprehensive National Microbial Defense Plan," which was approved by Iran's Supreme National Security Council in 2001, Jafarzadeh said. The plan called for a tripling of the country's bioweapons production capacity by 2003, and divided responsibilities across a network of research facilities linked to Iran's armed forces or Revolutionary Guard.

    A single director coordinates the activities of five government agencies involved in the program and reports directly to Iranian President Mohammad Khatami, the officials said. Among the key facilities are the Center for Genetic Biotechnology and Engineering Research, located at Malek Ashtar University in northern Tehran, and new bioresearch facilities attached to Tehran's Imam Hussein University and the Shaheed Maysami complex west of the capital, the officials said.

    While Iran in the past has relied on foreign suppliers for advanced equipment such as industrial fermenters for growing pathogens, the country now can produce nearly all the critical parts, the officials said. Jafarzadeh said Iran's biological, chemical and nuclear programs have all progressed rapidly under the leadership of Khatami, a man regarded in the West as a moderate and reformer.

    Among the pathogens being weaponized under the plan are anthrax, aflatoxin, typhus, smallpox, plague and cholera, Jafarzadeh said. Mujaheddin officials were unable to produce hard evidence to support the claim, but they described specific research facilities and named individual scientists who were placed in charge of the effort. Jafarzadeh said experts were recruited from several countries, including North Korea, Russia, China and India, to assist the effort.

    "The report about smallpox was very carefully assessed and verified," Jafarzadeh said.

    No nation is known to have produced smallpox weapons other than the Soviet Union, which destroyed its stocks in the early 1990s. Although various reports have suggested that other nations experimented with smallpox -- most notably North Korea and Iraq -- the claims have never been verified.

    Weapons experts reacted cautiously to the group's claims, especially the report about smallpox. But several said the group's description of Iran's bioweapons program seemed plausible.

    "It can't be dismissed out of hand," said William Potter, director of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. "There is no doubt the Iranians have been very interested in such weapons. We know they left their calling cards at various institutes in the former Soviet Union seeking to recruit experts in the field."

    David Albright, a nuclear weapons expert and former member of a U.N. nuclear weapons inspection team in Iraq, said he could not verify the claims but said the group provided solid leads in the past. "Often their information is correct, in part because they have reliable human sources well placed in the Iranian government," Albright said. "And they release information that you can check -- information that is actionable" (Washington Post, 2003)

    Title: Iran Making Bioweapons, Exiles Say
    Date: May 15, 2003
    Source: Sun Sentinel


    Abstract:
    Iran has begun production of weaponized anthrax and is actively working with at least five other pathogens, including smallpox, to build an arsenal of biological weapons, according to an opposition group that previously exposed a secret nuclear enrichment program in the country.

    The group, Mujaheddin-e Khalq, citing informants inside the Iranian government, says the anthrax weapons are the first fruits of a program begun secretly in 2001 to triple the size of Iran's biowarfare program. The push for new biological weapons was launched in parallel with a more ambitious campaign to build massive nuclear facilities capable of producing components for nuclear bombs, said officials of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political arm of the Mujaheddin, which seeks the overthrow of the Iranian government.

    "We can say with certainty that the Iranian regime now has the capability of mass production of biological material for weapons use," Alireza Jafazadeh, the council's U.S. representative, said. The group has scheduled a news conference today in Washington to release more details.

    The opposition group's claims, if true, would suggest that Iran's pursuit of biological weapons is more aggressive than previously thought.

    The Mujaheddin-e Khalq, also known as the People's Mujaheddin, is listed by the State Department as a terrorist group, though weapons experts and intelligence officials say many of the group's past claims about Iranian weapons programs have been largely reliable. The group first exposed a massive nuclear facility built near the town of Natanz to make enriched uranium, which can be used for commercial nuclear power plants or to make nuclear weapons.

    Jafazadeh said the Mujaheddin had been gathering information about the program for months and had received critical new details from inside the Iranian government within the past few days.

    The expansion of Iran's biological weapons program was spelled out in a four-page document called the Comprehensive National Microbial Defense Plan, which was approved by Iran's Supreme National Security Council in 2001, Jafazadeh said. The plan called for a tripling of the country's bioweapons production capacity by 2003 and divided responsibilities across a network of research centers linked to Iran's armed forces or Revolutionary Guard.

    Among the pathogens being weaponized under the plan were anthrax, aflatoxin, typhus, smallpox, plague and cholera, Jafazadeh said. Mujaheddin officials were unable to produce hard evidence to support the claim, but they described specific research centers and named scienstists who were placed in charge of the effort.

    Weapons experts reacted cautiously to the group's claims, especially the report about smallpox. But several said the group's description of Iran's bioweapons program seemed plausible (Sun Sentinel, 2003).

    Title: Iran's Bioweapons Are Fiercer, Tehran Opposition Group Says
    Date: May 16, 2003
    Source:
    UCLA

    Abstract: Iran has aggressively expanded its biological-arms program and can now deliver deadly agents through weapons systems, according to a group opposed to the nation's fundamentalist government.

    Iran's program is focused on the production of weapons-grade anthrax , typhus, smallpox, plague and cholera, said Alireza Jafarzadeh, the U.S. representative of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an arm of the Mujahedin-e Khalq, or MEK.

    "Our sources have confirmed that the Iran regime is capable of delivering biological weapons and inflicting massive casualties," Mr. Jafarzadeh told a news conference here on what he described as a growing danger posed by Tehran's weapons of mass destruction.

    "We need to get the attention of the policy makers about the threats of the Iran regime," he said.

    The MEK gained credibility this year when it disclosed an Iranian nuclear enrichment program and other weapons production information that was later verified by U.S. officials. The State Department lists the MEK as a terrorist group, while MEK officials say the designation was made to appease Iran's government. The MEK, which has military bases in Iraq, has come under attack by U.S. forces and recently agreed to disarm.

    MEK officials said the evidence of Iran's bioweapons activities was gathered in the past several months from informants in Iran, although the group didn't produce documents to support the allegations. The disclosures, if true, could strain diplomatic relations further between the Bush administration and Iran, which Mr. Bush has placed, with Iraq and North Korea, on his "axis of evil."

    Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said Thursday that the U.S. has reason to believe senior leaders of al Qaeda, the global terrorist organization, are hiding in Iran and strongly suggested that the Iranian government knows of their presence. Secretary of State Colin Powell has referred recently to findings by the International Atomic Energy Agency that Iran has a vigorous nuclear weapons program.

    Iran has said its technical programs are used for peaceful purposes to benefit its citizens.

    In an attempt to ease relations with the U.S., Iranian President Mohammad Khatami this week in Lebanon condemned Monday's terrorist attack in Saudi Arabia that claimed more than 30 lives, including eight Americans. But Mr. Khatami expressed support for Hezbollah, the Lebanese militant group that the U.S. regards as a terrorist organization.

    In a recent unclassified report, the Central Intelligence Agency said Iran "already has stockpiled blister, blood and choking agents -- and the bombs and artillery shells to deliver them -- which it previously has manufactured." The report also concluded that Iran is "vigorously pursuing programs to produce indigenous weapons of mass destruction -- nuclear, chemical and biological -- and their delivery systems."

    Soona Samsani, president of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, said that the MEK had received information that the Iranian government is carrying out a plan to consolidate several university biological weapons research and military production programs. The programs were initiated in 1985, during the war with Iraq, when Baghdad used biological and chemical weapons.

    Ms. Samsani named the chief scientists and locations of weapons facilities throughout the country and said that Iran plans to increase the number of researchers to 11,000 within a few years, from about 3,000 now. She also claimed that Iran was receiving technical assistance and equipment from China, India, North Korea and Russia (UCLA, 2003).

    Title: Iran Denies Has Banned Weapons Or Shelters Al Qaeda
    Date: May 16, 2003
    Source:
    UCLA

    Abstract: Iranian government officials strongly denied on Friday that Iran was producing weapons of mass destruction or was sheltering members of Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda network.

    A senior government official denied allegations by an exile opposition group, the National Council of Resistance of Iran, that Tehran had biological weapons armed with anthrax, smallpox and typhoid.

    "I strongly deny that we have biological weapons because we do not need any banned weapons," the official, who asked not to be identified, told Reuters.

    President Bush has dubbed Iran part of an "axis of evil" and accused the Tehran government of sponsoring terrorism and developing nuclear arms.

    Bush's national security adviser, Condoleezza Rice, reiterated U.S. criticism of Iran on Wednesday, accusing it of being one of the world's leading "sponsors of terror."

    She said the United States had raised alarms about Iran's nuclear weapons programs and also believed it allowed al Qaeda to operate from its territory.

    Iran's Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi rejected those accusations on Friday as "baseless."

    "The Islamic Republic of Iran, based on its own principles, is very serious and resolved to combat terrorism and its nuclear programs are very transparent and peaceful," Asefi was quoted by the official IRNA news agency as saying.

    The agency also said Asefi rejected U.S. accusations that leaders of al Qaeda were living in Iran. The United States blames the group for the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York and Washington.

    The National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political wing of the People's Mujahideen Organisation, provided a list of names and places at a Washington news conference on Thursday where it said biological weapons were being produced.

    The group, which previously exposed the existence of Iran's Natanz uranium enrichment facility the United States says is part of a nuclear weapons program, did not provide any evidence to back up its new claims on biological weapons, but said its information came from Iranian government sources.

    The Iraq-based Iranian rebel group started surrendering to the U.S. military last week under a deal that effectively ends it operations as a fighting force.

    "The Mujahideen are making these accusations against Iran because of the recent U.S. pressure on them," the Iranian official who declined to be identified said on Friday.

    Iran insists its ambitious nuclear program is purely for the peaceful generation of electricity.

    A U.S.-led war launched in March against Iran's western neighbor, Iraq, toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. Washington had accused Baghdad of developing banned weapons of mass destruction (UCLA, 2003)

    Title: U.S. Report Finds Active Biological Weapons Programs In Iran, North Korea, Russia And Syria
    Date: September 7, 2005
    Source: NTI


    Abstract:
    The U.S. State Department has found that Iran, North Korea, Russia and Syria are maintaining biological weapons programs, the Associated Press reported last week (see GSN, March 29).

    The State Department also found that China still has “some elements” of a biological weapons program, while experts failed to agree on Cuba’s bioweapons production capacity, AP reported.

    The findings were outlined in the State Department’s “Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments” report. The congressionally mandated report, covering the two-year period ending in December 2004, details individual country’s WMD capabilities and missile proliferation efforts, according to AP.

    According to the report: Based on available intelligence, Iran is believed to have an offensive biological weapons program; North Korea has a “dedicated, national-level effort to develop a BW capability; Russia “continues to maintain” a weapons program; and Syria would be in violation of the Biological Weapons Convention if it was a member.

    China “maintains some elements of an offensive BW capability,” while Cuba has at least a “limited offensive BW research and development effort,” the report found (George Gedda, Associated Press/Baltimore Sun, Aug. 30).

    China rejected the report’s findings, according to Voice of America.

    “These statements are far from the truth, and are irresponsible,” said Zhang Yan, director general of the Chinese Foreign Ministry's arms control department. “We hope that the U.S. side will stop such erroneous practices, and we also express our strong dissatisfaction” (Luis Ramirez, Voice of America, Sept. 1).

    Russia has also challenged statements made in the report regarding its weapons programs, RIA Novosti reported last week.

    “Those are not new accusations,” the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement. “The Russian Foreign Ministry has had to comment on similar points in other ‘research papers’ that put Russia in a group of countries violating nonproliferation agreements without providing any evidence many times before.”

    The Foreign Ministry said the report presents “a one-sided and distorted picture of the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.”

    Russia said the State Department offered no evidence that it has failed to honor its Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological Weapons Convention commitments (NTI, 2005).

    Title: Iranian Weapons Of Mass Destruction: Biological Weapons Program
    Date: October 28, 2008
    Source: CSIS
    (37 Page PDF)

    Abstract: Any analysis of Iran’s biological weapons effort must be even more speculative than an analysis of its chemical and nuclear weapons efforts, and the details of its missile programs. Many claims can be traced back to hard-line opponents of the regime that have uncertain to dubious credibility. Others provide important insights into Iran’s potential capability, but do not prove Iran has an active program, or that it has ever produced such weapons. As is the case with Iran’s other potential efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, Iran denies that it currently has such programs, although – as is the case with chemical weapons – some statements imply it may have had such programs in the past. Similarly, the statements of the US government have the same internal problems and contradictions as those relating to chemical weapons, while too little data is available from other governments to get a picture of their official position or the judgments of their intelligence communities. Another problem in trying to gain insight into Iran’s biological weapons programs is that these types of programs are easy to conceal due to the small-scale equipment and dual-use raw materials needed in the production process. Biological agents are easier and cheaper to produce than either nuclear materials or chemical warfare agents, and the necessary technology is widely available and relatively easy to acquire. The fact of the matter is that any nation with even modestly sophisticated biopharmaceutical industrial capabilities is capable of producing biological agents. But weaponizing and storing weaponized biological agents is a much more complex process. A number of NGOs have made considerable contribution to the analysis of Iran’s programs, but they are forced to rely on uncertain reports and unreliable sources. Biological weapons also present the problem that there is no meaningful separation between defensive and offensive efforts. Effective defense requires access to effective biological agents. The facilities necessary to develop, and produce, such weapons can be very small compared to those for chemical and nuclear weapons. Biological weapons activities can easily be concealed in organizations, facilities, and even universities; which serve medical, biological manufacturing, and research purposes – although sometimes at the cost of a significant risk in safety. Moreover, the steady expansion of civil biotechnology, food processing, and pharmaceutical activities makes dual-use equipment commercially available that can be used to produce even the most advanced biological agents and a combination of Iran’s use of covert purchasing networks and steadily weakening controls – particularly over used and surplus equipment – have further weakened already weak export control efforts.

    A History of Uncertain Judgments and Indicators

    There have been reports that Iran has had biological weapons programs ever since the first years of the Iran-Iraq War. For example, US officials began to provide background briefings 1982 that Iran had imported suitable type cultures from Europe and was working on the production of mycotoxins -- a relatively simple family of biological agents that require only limited laboratory facilities for small-scale production. One of the first research facilities was established in 1986 under the Iranian Pasteur Institute, and around the same time a similar research program on producing myotoxins began at Vira Laboratory.

    Many experts believed that an Iranian biological weapons effort had been placed under the control of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), which had elements and subsidiaries known to have tried to purchase some equipment that could be used for the development and production of such weapons.

    Actual Programs or Potential Capability

    A long chronology of reports surfaced from 1982 onwards, many in the form of official, unofficial, and opposition group background briefings. For example, U.S. and British intelligence sources reported in August 1989 that Iran was trying to buy two new strains of fungus from Canada and the Netherlands that can be used to produce mycotoxins. German sources indicated that Iran had successfully purchased such cultures several years earlier.

    Some universities and research centers were linked to the biological weapons program. The Imam Reza Medical Center at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology were identified as the end users for this purchasing effort, but it is likely that the true end user was an Iranian government agency specializing in biological warfare. These reports intensified in the early 1990s, after the post-Gulf War discovery of Iraq’s massive BW program. It is not clear, however, whether these reports describe real or potential activities, and whether the increase in reports since the early 1990s was the result of increases in Iranian activity or the assumption that Iran either had paralleled Iraq’s efforts or was reacting to their disclosure.

    Reports surfaced in the spring of 1993 that Iran had succeeded in obtaining advanced biological weapons technology in Switzerland and containment equipment and technology from Germany. According to these reports, this led to serious damage to computer facilities in a Swiss biological research facility by unidentified agents. Similar reports indicated that agents had destroyed German biocontainment equipment destined for Iran. More credible reports by U.S. experts indicate that Iran might have begun to stockpile anthrax and botulinum in a facility near Tabriz, can now mass manufacture such agents, and has them in an aerosol form. None of these reports, however, can be verified. As is the case with chemical weapons, the fact some reports were relatively specific did not mean that they proved accurate. But Iran does have increasingly sophisticated industries, and there sophisticated research facilities and universities could easily serve as a front for illicit BW-activities, and offer legitimate excuses for dual-use imports, as was the case in Iraq prior to 1990. It can also be reasonably assessed that except for Pakistan, Iran is the most advanced nation in the Muslim world in the production and use of industrial chemicals and biotechnology. All of this information compounds the uncertainties and ambiguities associated with Tehran’s biological warfare intentions and capabilities (CSIS, 2008).

    Title: Missile Test-Fired By Iran Has Potential Bioweapon Capabilities
    Date: February 4, 2010
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: Iran has announced the successful test firing of a new satellite-carrying rocket containing an "experimental capsule" with live species inside that has raised the spectre of potential biological or chemical attacks.

    The launch of the Kavoshgar 3 rocket has been condemned by the United States as a "provocative act," and comes at a time when the U.S. has openly said that it was upgrading its missile defense systems in countries neighboring Iran.

    Suspicions currently center on the test firing representing a potential test for a long-range nuclear, biological or chemical weapon. The Islamic regime in Iran denies that there is a link between its missile and nuclear programs.

    The test launch also has raised fears as it comes only days before February 11, a date on which Iranian President Ahmadinejad said the Islamic Republican would deliver a blow to "global arrogance."

    The rocket’s experimental capsule, which allows animals to survive a space journey, can also carry a weaponized virus or chemical weapon, experts fear. The Iranian regime is presumed to possess such weapons and, with this new rocket, would be able to deliver them to the other side of the world.

    Before such an event is possible, however, Iran would need to fine tune the rocket’s accuracy and munitions dispersal (Bio Prep Watch, 2010)

    Title: Iran Capable Of Biological Warhead Attack On Europe
    Date: July 1, 2010
    Source: Bio Prep Watch


    Abstract: U.S intelligence officials believe Iran may be poised to launch a major missile attack on Europe with missiles that could be tipped with biological or chemical warheads.

    Defense Secretary Robert Gates, thebulletin.us reports, recently told the Senate Armed Services Committee that Iran’s missile arsenal contains both liquid and solid-fuel intermediate-range ballistic missiles and that the threat was the basis of a new U.S. missile defense plan, called “Phased Adaptive Approach,” for NATO allies.

    “It would more likely be a salvo kind of attack, where you would be dealing potentially with scores or even hundreds of missiles,” Gates told the committee, thebulletin.us reports. “One of the elements of the intelligence that contributed to the decision on the phased adaptive array was the realization that if Iran were actually to launch a missile attack on Europe, it wouldn’t be just one or two missiles or a handful.”

    The plan, set for completion by 2020 and already approved by NATO, calls for deployment of SM-3 sea-based missile defenses aboard Aegis-class cruisers in the Mediterranean Sea.

    “This would give us the ability to protect our troops, our bases, our facilities and our allies in Europe,” Gates told thebulletin.us.

    Gates noted that North Korea also posed a major threat to Europe.

    “I think by 2020 we may well see it from other states, especially if we’re unsuccessful in stopping Iran from building nuclear weapons,” Gates said (Bio Prep Watch, 2010).

    Title: Iran May Have Carried Out Bioweapons Activities
    Date: February 7, 2011
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: Iran may or may not have carried out prohibited chemical or biological weapons activities, according to a United Kingdom-based think tank.

    The International Institute for Strategic Studies said in a 128 page report on Iran’s nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities that it cannot be determined from public information what exactly their activities have been. It also noted that claims against Iran may have been exaggerated, according to Reuters.

    The influential think tank also noted that Iran could probably make a nuclear weapon in as little as one to two years, though industrial sabotage and the Stuxnet worm have probably slowed its development plans.

    Iran and the United States are in an extended standoff over Iran’s nuclear program, which Tehran says is peaceful, but the United States believes exists to make nuclear weapons, Reuters reports.

    The IISS says that the program was dented by the Stuxnet computer worm, which many believe was created by the United States or Israel to cripple the program, Reuters reports. Iran says the worm affected computers at its primary nuclear plant, but did not affect its regular operations.

    Western and other intelligence agencies have tried to slow international smuggling to make it more difficult for Iran to obtain necessary equipment.

    "I think the world has been pleasantly surprised by the limitations that have been imposed on the program through industrial sabotage and the Iranians' reliance on inefficient methods," Mark Fitzpatrick, director of the IISS non-proliferation and disarmament program, said, according to Reuters (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: Leaked Cable Warns Of Iranian Chemical Weapons Plant
    Date: April 22, 2011
    Source: Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: According to a U.S. cable sent by Secretary of State Hilary Clinton that was recently released by WikiLeaks, Iran has a secret chemical weapons plant near the city of Qom, Iran.

    In the cable, Haaretz.com reports, Clinton requested that the U.S. embassy in Beijing take action against Zibo Chemet, a Chinese company involved in the transfer of equipment, insight and technology to Iran.

    The cable, which is dated July 24, 2009, says that Zibo Chemet supplied vital equipment for Iran's chemical weapons program.

    Under regulations of the Australia Group, which supervises the sale of sensitive chemical technology, equipment and materials, such sales are forbidden. China is a member of the Australia Group.

    "We have new information indicating that Zibo Chemet transferred technology for the production of glass-lined reactor equipment to Iranian customers, significantly enhancing Iran's ability to produce indigenously chemical equipment suitable for a chemical warfare program," the cable says, Haaretz.com reports.

    The cable requests that the Beijing embassy pass information about Zibo Chemet to the Chinese government. It also demands aggressive action to force the firm to cease shipments.

    According to Haaretz.com, Zibo Chemet was blacklisted by the U.S. in April 2007 after suspicions arose that it had supplied similar equipment to Iran, North Korea and Syria (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: Iran May Have Supplied Libya With Chemical Weapons Shells
    Date: November 22, 2011
    Source:
    Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: According to U.S. officials, President Obama's administration is currently investigating whether Iran supplied the Libyan government of Muammar Gaddafi with hundreds of special artillery shells for chemical weapons that Libya kept secret for decades.

    The shells, which Libya filled with highly toxic mustard agent, were uncovered in recent weeks by revolutionary fighters in central Libya at two separate sites. Both of the sites are under heavy guard and round-the-clock surveillance by drones, Libyan and U.S. officials said, the Washington Post reports.

    The discovery of the shells has prompted a U.S. intelligence led probe into how the Libyans obtained them. Several sources said early speculation had fallen on Iran.

    A U.S. official with access to classified information confirmed that there were “serious concerns” that Iran had provided Libya with the shells, albeit some years ago, according to the Washington Post. In recent weeks, U.N. inspectors have released new information indicating that Iran has the capacity for developing a nuclear bomb, a charge officials in Iran have long rejected. Confirmed evidence of Iran’s provision of the specialized shells may worsen international tensions over the country’s alleged pursuit of weapons of mass destruction.

    One U.S. official said Iran may have sold the shells to Libya after the end of its eight year war with Iraq, in which the Iraqis used nerve and mustard agents against tens of thousands of Iranian troops, the Washington Post reports.

    Four diplomatic and American sources said that the shells contain sulfur mustard, popularly known as mustard gas. Mustard gas is a liquid that is rapidly absorbed and causes debilitating respiratory damage and burns. Victims are unaware of their exposure for several hours but then experience swollen eyes, accelerated breathing trouble, widespread blisters, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and, in severe cases, loss of sight or death. There is no antidote, and recovery, if possible, takes months of skilled medical care
    (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: Iran Dismisses Connection To Libyan Chemical Weapons
    Date: November 28, 2011
    Source:
    Bio Prep Watch

    Abstract: Iran has dismissed a United States news report implicating it in a chemical weapons cache that was uncovered in Libya.

    A spokesman for Iran said that the country was actually a champion in the fight to eradicate such arms. The spokesman was responding to a Sunday Washington Post report that quoted an anonymous U.S. official who said that special artillery shells made by Iran and filled by Libya with mustard gas were discovered in recent weeks at two different sites, AFP reports.

    "About the arms delivery to the regime of (toppled Libyan leader Muammar) Gaddafi…The West would do better to look to itself, because Iran has always been at the forefront in the fight against chemical weapons," Ramin Mehmanparast, the foreign ministry spokesman for Iran, said, according to AFP.

    Mehmanparast said that Iran had experience as a victim of chemical weapons, when Iraq used mustard gas its troops during the 1980-1988 war.

    "Western countries have to answer how certain nations supplied the Iraqi regime with such weapons during the Iran-Iraq war," Mehmanparast said, AFP reports.

    Officials in Iran said that Western countries supplied Baghdad with the chemical weapons for the war.

    The shells were uncovered by revolutionary fighters in central Libya. Both of the sites are under round-the-clock surveillance by drones, the Washington Post reports
    (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).

    Title: US Troops Imitate Invasion Of Iran With Arab Allies
    Date: May 29, 2012
    Source:
    RT

    Abstract: Around 12,000 troops from more than 19 nations are wrapping up a massive military training drill in the Middle East. But for some of those servicemen, these exercises might be just the beginning of something much bigger to come.

    The United States, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan are just a sampling of the many countries — along with European allies — that have been involved in the nearly month-long Eager Lion 2012 exercise expected to end this week. Although much of the drills have been kept under wraps, it isn’t a secret that these states have spent the last month cooperating together through mock combat drills and comprehensive training. Some sources overseas report, however, that as many as 3,000 troops aligned with US forces have conducted a simulated landing and attack on Iran, preparing America and its allies for a war that becomes more likely by the day.

    Intelligence sources speaking to Israel’s Debka news agency report that US troops and other forces aligned with America recently staged a landing on a Jordanian beach that was immediately followed by a military seizure of fortified mountain bases and command posts. The exercise was meant to emulate an attack on Iran and accompanies other drills that witnesses say show off just what America’s foes face if they continue to put the heat on the United States and its pals abroad.

    Speaking of a drill assumed to be a mockup of a raid on Syria, Major General. Awni el-Edwan, Chief of staff of the Jordanian Operations and Training Armed Forces, says, “The exercise is not connected to any real world event,”reports CNN. “This has nothing to do with Syria. We respect the sovereignty of Syria. There is no tension between the Syrians and us. Our objectives are clear.”

    Others, however, say that the intentions of the Eager Lion 2012 drills are obvious.

    Gen. James Mattis, head of the US Central Command, visited both sections of the exercise led by American troops in Jordan, adds Debka. Should the US officially attack either Syria or Iran, Gen. Mattis will be the head of the military forces there. Additionally, intelligence sources speaking with the Israeli outlet reveal that Gen. Mattis has recently sought approval from US President Barack Obama to deploy a third aircraft carrier to the Middle East to increase America’s presence.

    The United States currently has two massive aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf area, both the USS Abraham Lincoln and USS Enterprise, and CNN adds in their report that the Air Force has sent six of the stealth F-22 fighter jets to the neighboring United Arab Emirates.

    The US is believed to be engaged in exercises involving the Navy and Air Force in operations on the land, air and sea, with the US Special Operations troops also working in tandem with Jordanian special forces units in counterterrorism to put both teams on the same page.

    Debka reports that, during Eager Lion 2012, a command post was also established by around 700 US Marines onboard the USS New York amphibious transport dock that was stationed in the Red Sea. The entire exercise there, they say, was “clearly visible” to observers in a neighboring Israeli port. Only days earlier, Debka reported that Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak told his country that “all options remain on the table” involving an attack on Iran, and that the Jewish state will strike first if necessary, even without the assistance of American forces.

    "There is no need to tell us what to do, and we have no reason to panic. Israel is very, very strong, but we do know that the Iranians are accomplished chess players and will try to achieve nuclear capabilities,” said Barak (RT, 2012).

    Title: Report: Syria Used Iran’s Help To Expand Chemical Weapons Stockpile
    Date: July 31, 2012
    Source:
    BioPrepWatch

    Abstract: Syria grew its chemical weapons supply in recent years with help from Iran and with the use of front organizations to buy equipment, according to a recently released report.

    The increase in the country’s arsenal allegedly took place despite attempts by Western countries to block the sale of dual-use technology and precursor chemicals to Damascus, the Washington Post reports.

    A cable from 2006 recounts a presentation from German officials to the Australia Group, an informal forum for 40 nations, in addition to the European Commission meant to protect the spread of chemical weapons. The cable described the cooperation between Syria and Iran on the development of a new chemical arsenal.

    “Iran would provide the construction design and equipment to annually produce tens to hundreds of tons of precursors for VX, sarin, and mustard (gas),” a U.S. diplomat said in the cable, according to the Washington Post. “Engineers from Iran’s DIO (Defense Industries Organization) were to visit Syria and survey locations for the plants, and construction was scheduled from the end of 2005-2006.”

    In addition, documents as recent as 2010 show the European Union providing $14.6 million worth of equipment and technical assistance to the Syrian Ministry of Industry. Some of the assistance was meant for chemical plants. Spot checks on how the equipment was used were stopped in May 2011 when the EU imposed sanctions on Syria.

    Records have also shown the purchase of chemical weapon precursors by Syria.

    James Quinlivan, the senior operations research analyst at the RAND Corporation, said that it was difficult to prevent Syria from developing its chemical arsenal.

    “Certainly a lot of equipment is obviously dual use: A lot of equipment bears a close similarity to that in a pesticide plant,” Quinlivan said, according to the Washington Post. “You can see that there’s a large overlap between civilian and military uses. The person selling chemicals does not have to know they’re selling chemicals for military use: Basic precursors have hundreds of uses. For the country building the program, it’s like high school chemistry — how simple do you want your ingredients to be? How many steps can you take toward a chemical weapon? I think you do have to credit Syria with the ability to assemble a weapon from precursors” (BioPrepWatch, 2012).

    Title: Iran Plans To Create Defense Center For Biological Threats
    Date: August 22, 2012
    Source:
    BioPrepWatch

    Abstract: Iran plans to create a biological defense center to help the country counter biological threats, according to the director of the Passive Defense Organization.

    Gholam Reza Jalali, the director of the PDO, said the organization’s general policy is to counter biological, cyber and nuclear threats along with other modern issues such as electromagnetic and electronic threats, the Mehr News Agency reports.

    In December, Jalali said that security concerns could cause the country to move its uranium enrichment facilities.

    “Our vulnerability in the nuclear area has reached the minimum level, (however) if circumstances require it, the uranium enrichment facilities will be relocated to safer places,” Jalali said, according to the Mehr News Agency. “If Americans and Israelis had been able to launch strikes to damage our nuclear facilities, they would certainly have done so.”

    Jalali said in June that the country’s cyberdefense was also a major priority after Iran was the target of multiple attacks in the past few years.

    “The important point is that we develop mechanisms for cyber defense in a way that we will be able to defend the country against new viruses,” Jalali said, according to the Mehr News Agency.

    The director said that the country was solely focused on cyberdefense and had no plan to launch cyber attacks on other nations (BioPrepWatch, 2012)

    Title: In One Trench: Iran And N. Korea Unite Against 'Enemies'
    Date: September 1, 2012
    Source:
    RT

    Abstract: Iran and North Korea have signed an agreement to collaborate in the fields of science and technology, showing that nearly a decade of US efforts to isolate the two states internationally might have actually pushed them closer together.

    Iranian state television said President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and North Korea's nominal head of state Kim Yong Nam were both present in Tehran for the signing of the agreement on Saturday.

    The two states will cooperate in biotechnology, engineering, renewable energy, sustainable development, research, joint laboratories and the environment, and facilitate more student exchanges, Reuters cites Iranian Labor News Agency (ILNA) as saying.

    On the same day, Iran's First Vice President Mohammad Reza Rahimi called for the strengthening of economic ties between the two states, the agency cites Iranian state TV as reporting.

    North’s Korea’s No. 2 was in Tehran along with 119 other world leaders for the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement. The summit, whose agenda included nuclear disarmament, human rights and the korean conflict, is one of the few multilateral forums in which Pyongyang participates. It had previously been speculated that North Korea’s supreme leader Kim Jong-un would be in attendance.

    Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei met with Kim Yong Nam and was quick to underscore the force underpinning growing collaboration between the two states.

    "The Islamic Republic of Iran and North Korea have common enemies, because the arrogant powers do not accept independent states," the ILNA quoted Khamenei as saying.

    Khamenei’s harsh rebuke was most almost certainly targeted at the United States, which vilified the two states as being part of an "Axis of Evil" (along with Iraq) in 2002 despite the lack of any overt ties between the three states.

    Iranian and North Korean officials have previously characterized their countries as being in "one trench" in the fight against the United States and the West. Western powers have accused them, meanwhile, of being close partners in nuclear and missile technologies.

    In April, an Iranian delegation comprising more than 10 ballistic missile engineers reportedly traveled to North Korea to observe Pyongyang’s failed attempt to send a long-range rocket into space, Kyodo News reported. The failed launch sparked widespread condemnation in the West.

    The Japanese news agency said the two countries pledged to deepen cooperation on bilateral “strategic projects”later in July, which analysts argue could include efforts to develop high-altitude missile and nuclear development.

    The United States has regularly accused Tehran and Pyongyang of being state sponsors of terrorism, though the US removed North Korea from the lists of states involved in terrorist activity in 2008.

    Both states have also incited Western ire for their nuclear weapons programs, both alleged and proven. North Korea for its part withdrew from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 2003, with Pyongyang publicly announcing two years later it had developed nuclear weapons.

    "We had already taken the resolute action of pulling out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and have manufactured nuclear arms for self-defense to cope with the Bush administration's evermore undisguised policy to isolate and stifle the DPRK,” a foreign ministry statement at the time read.

    Iran remains a party to the NPT, and has denied any attempts to actively acquire or develop a nuclear weapon, insisting that its uranium enrichment program is for civilian purposes only, a view shared by the majority of experts around the world. However, repeated charges that the Islamic Republic’s nuclear program has fallen short of the country’s NPT obligations have made Iran the target of an increasingly harsh sanctions regime, and a potential strike by neighbor Israel (RT, 2012)