Currently, Israel is the only modern nation that has not signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (refusal to engage in offensive biological warfare, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons). Also, Israel is the only modern nation that has signed but not ratified the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (refusal to produce, stockpile and use chemical weapons). Should the world suffer a major bio-terror attack or pandemic, Israel will be the #1 suspect.
Abstract: MKNAOMI was the code name for a joint Department of Defense/CIA research program lasting from the 1950s through the 1970s. Unclassified information about the MKNAOMI program and the related Special Operations Division is scarce. It is generally reported to be a successor to the MKDELTA project and to have focused on biological projects including biological warfare agents—specifically, to store materials that could either incapacitate or kill a test subject and to develop devices for the diffusion of such materials.
During the first twenty years of its establishment, the CIA engaged in various projects designed to increase U.S. biological and chemical warfare capabilities. Project MKNAOMI was initiated to provide the CIA with a covert support base to meet its top-secret operational requirements. The purpose was to establish a robust arsenal within the CIA's Technical Services Division (TSD) and of which was to consist of various lethal and incapacitating materials. This would enable the TSD to serve as a highly maintained center for the circulation of biological and chemical materials.
Surveillance, testing, upgrading, and the evaluation of special materials and items were also provided by MKNAOMI so as to ensure that no defects and unwanted contingencies emerged during operational conditions. For these purposes the U.S. Army's Special Operations Command (SOC) was assigned to assist the CIA in the development, testing, and maintenance procedures for the biological agents and delivery systems (1952). Both the CIA and SOC also modified guns that fired special darts coated with biological agents and various poisonous pills. The darts would serve to incapacitate guard dogs, infiltrate the area that the dogs were guarding, and then awaken the dogs upon exiting the facility. In addition, the SOC was also designated to research the potentials for using biological agents against other animals and crops.
A 1967 CIA memo which was uncovered by the Church Committee was confirmed to give evidence of at least three covert techniques for attacking and poisoning crops that have been examined under field conditions. On November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon abolished any military practice involving biological weapons and Project MKNAOMI was dissolved. On February 14, 1970, a presidential order was given to outlaw all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and nonliving toxins. However, despite this presidential order, a CIA scientist was able to acquire an estimated 11 grams of deadly shellfish toxin from SOC personnel at Fort Detrick. The toxin was then stored in a CIA laboratory where it remained undetected for over five years (Wikipedia, 2012).
Title: Wallace L. Pannier, At 81; Was Germ Warfare
Date: August 8, 2009
Abstract: Wallace L. Pannier,
a germ warfare scientist whose top-secret projects included a mock attack on
the New York subway with powdered bacteria in 1966, has died of respiratory
failure and other natural causes, his widow said. He died Thursday in
Frederick. He was 81.
Mr. Pannier worked at Fort Detrick, a US Army installation in Frederick that tested biological weapons during the Cold War and is now a center for biodefense research. He worked in the Special Operations Division, a secretive unit operating there from 1949 to 1969, according to family members and published reports.
The unit developed and tested delivery systems for deadly agents such as anthrax and smallpox.
In 2004, Mr. Pannier told The Baltimore Sun that team members staged their mock attack on the New York subway in 1966 by shattering light bulbs packed with powdered bacteria on the tracks. They tracked the germs with air samplers disguised as suitcases.
“People could carry a brown bag with light bulbs in it, and nobody would be suspicious,’’ Mr. Pannier told the Sun. After a bulb broke, releasing the powder, “the trains swishing by would get it airborne,’’ he said.
The bacteria used as mock weapons, Bacillus globigii and Serratia marcescens, were believed to be harmless, but have since been classified as human pathogens.
A year earlier, the unit released Bacillus globigii in the air at Washington National Airport and at bus stations in Washington, Chicago, and San Francisco, a 1975 Senate investigation found.
Mr. Pannier also said he had posed as a fisherman, an air-quality tester, and a motorist with car trouble to measure germs leaking from a pharmaceutical plant on the Susquehanna River. The readings would help US spies trying to identify Soviet bioweapons plants (Boston.com, 2009).Title: CIA Did Mock Attacks On City System In '66
Date: March 21, 1995
Source: NY Daily News
Abstract: The CIA staged bizarre mock attacks inside New York's subway system in 1966 to test its vulnerability to terrorist plots like yesterday's deadly nerve gas attack in Tokyo.
In the super-secret Project Naomi sponsored by the CIA, plainclothes U.S. Army agents rode the subways carrying bogus light bulbs filled with supposedly harmless micro-organisms called bacillus subtilis.
The agents smashed the light bulbs on the track beds and street-level ventilation grates so the organisms would spread below on the platforms. Agents later used equipment to gauge how far the organisms had traveled.
The idea was to see how many New Yorkers might perish if terrorists or Communist agents spread lethal gas in the system, according to testimony at Senate hearings in the 1970s and 1980s.
New York straphangers apparently were oblivious to the tests. When bacteria rained down on them from the vents above, they simply "brushed their clothing, looked up at the grating and walked on," the Senate hearings were told.
Project Naomi ran from 1949-69 and involved more than 200 open-air tests in populated areas.
Brig. Gen. William Augerson testified that "under the conditions
established, there was not a threat to the public" during the tests, but
several scientists disagreed (NY Daily News, 1995).