Abstract: An ethnic bioweapon (biogenetic weapon) aims to harm only or primarily persons of specific ethnicities or genotypes.
History of Ethnic Bioweapons
One of the first fictional discussions of ethnic weapons is in Robert A. Heinlein's 1942 novel Sixth Column (republished as The Day After Tomorrow) in which a race-specific radiation weapon is used against a so-called "Pan-Asian" invader.
In 1997, U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to the concept as a possible risk. In 1998 some biological weapon experts considered such a "genetic weapon" a plausible possibility, and believed the former Soviet Union had undertaken some research on the influence of various substances on human genes.
The possibility of a "genetic bomb" is presented in Vincent Sarich's and Frank Miele's book, Race: The Reality of Human Differences, published in 2004. The authors believe that information from the Human Genome Project will be used in just such a manner.
In 2005 the official view of the International Committee of the Red Cross was "The potential to target a particular ethnic group with a biological agent is probably not far off. These scenarios are not the product of the ICRC's imagination but have either occurred or been identified by countless independent and governmental experts."
Israeli "Ethno-Bomb" Controversy
In November 1998, The Sunday Times reported that Israel was attempting to build an "ethno-bomb" containing a biological agent that could specifically target genetic traits present amongst Arab populations. Wired News also reported the story, as did Foreign Report.
The article was quickly denounced as a hoax. Microbiologists and geneticists were skeptical towards the scientific plausibility of such a biological agent. The New York Post, describing the claims as "blood libel", reported that the likely source for the story was a work of science fiction by Israeli academic Doron Stanitsky. Stanitsky had sent his completely fictional work about such a weapon to Israeli newspapers two years before. The article also noted the views of genetic researchers who claimed the idea as "wholly fantastical", still others admit that the weapon was theoretically possible.
A planned second installment of the article never appeared, and no sources were ever identified. Neither of the authors of the Sunday Times story, Uzi Mahnaimi and Marie Colvin, have spoken publicly on the matter.
Russian ban on export of biological samples
In May 2007, Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that the Russian government banned all exports of human biosamples. The report claims that the reason for the ban was a secret FSB report about on-going development of "genetic bioweapons" targeting Russian population by Western institutions. The report mentions the Harvard School of Public Health, American International Health Alliance, United States Department of Justice Environment and Natural Resources Division, Karolinska Institutet and United States Agency for International Development (Wikipedia, 2012).
Title: Israel Has 'Ethnic Bullet' - Bio-Weapon Could
Date: November 5, 1998
Title: Israel's Ethnic Weapon?
Date: November 16, 1998
Abstract: Israel is reportedly developing a biological weapon that would harm Arabs while leaving Jews unaffected, according to a report in London's Sunday Times.
The report, citing Israeli military and western intelligence sources, says that scientists are trying to identify distinctive genes carried by Arabs to create a genetically modified bacterium or virus.
The "ethno-bomb" is reportedly Israel's response to the threat that Iraq may be just weeks away from completing its own biological weapons.
The "ethno-bomb" program is based at Israel's Nes Tziyona research facility. Scientists are trying to use viruses and bacteria to alter DNA inside living cells and attack only those cells bearing Arabic genes.
The task is very complex because both Arabs and Jews are Semitic peoples. But according to the report, the Israelis have succeeded in isolating particular characteristics of certain Arabs, "particularly the Iraqi people."
Dedi Zucker, a member of the Israeli parliament, denounced the research in the Sunday Times. "Morally, based on our history, and our tradition and our experience, such a weapon is monstrous and should be denied."Last month, Foreign Report claimed that Israel was following in the ignominious footsteps of apartheid-era research, in their supposed efforts to develop an "ethnic bullet" (Wired, 1998).
Title: Genetic Engineering Biological "Ethnic" Weapons Loom On The Horizon
Date: January 21, 1999
Abstract: Biological and genetic weapons designed to kill specific ethnic or racial groups are no longer the stuff of science
fiction, British researchers said Thursday. A designer plague that would only kill Serbs or a toxin engineered to affect Israelis or Kurds does not exist yet but advances in biotechnology and the mapping of all human genes could be misused to develop lethal
weapons within five to 10 years. Dr Vivienne Nathanson, the head of health policy research at the British Medical Association (BMA), said genetic information is already being used to enhance biological weapons.
"It would be a tragedy if in 10 years time the world faces the reality of genetically engineered and possibly genetically targeted weapons," she told a news conference to launch a new book entitled "Biotechnology Weapons and Humanity." "It is not technology and information that is available today, but it is becoming increasingly available. We do have a window of opportunity
before weapons of that type are manufactured to make sure we have effective measures of prevention."
The book by Professor Malcolm Dando, of the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford in northern England, paints a terrifying picture of the power of biological weapons. The release of 220 pounds of anthrax spores from canisters planted in a major city could wipe out up to three million people. The book traces the history of the development and use of biological weapons and warns that scientific knowledge has been exploited in the past and is likely to be misused in the future unless international action is taken.
"We believe biological weapons will become an increasing weapon in terrorist activity," said Nathanson. "An ethnically targeted weapon becomes more of a reality." The designer weapon works on a similar principle to gene therapy but instead of replacing faulty genes that don't work it exploits genetic variations to target its victims. For example, micro-organisms could be genetically engineered to attack known receptor sites on the cell membrane or viruses could be targeted at specific DNA sequences inside cells.
William Assche, the chairman of the BMA's board of science and education, said the report is designed to raise public, medical and political awareness about the dangers of biological weapons. It urges the international community to strengthen the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention to improve verification procedures. It also calls on doctors and scientists to protect the integrity of their work and to monitor the potential use of genome mapping. "Getting rid of weapons once they are produced is very difficult. Governments may be reluctant to give up weapons that the rest of the world find unacceptable. Terrorists certainly will be," said Nathanson. "We still have the chance to strengthen the ban on these weapons. We must do so now and we must make sure the ban is policed effectively" (Reuters, 1999).
Title: Genetic Weapons: A 21st-Century Nightmare?
Date: March, 1999
Abstract: The spectre of new biological weapons made possible by the mapping of the human genome makes it more urgent than ever to prevent biotechnology research from being hijacked for evil purposes
It sounds like science fiction, but like many another prediction that was once dismissed as far-fetched it may become a reality.
Scientists have warned that recent advances in biological research could eventually lead to the creation of a new type of biological arsenal capable of targeting a specific group of human beings with common genetic characteristics, as may be the case with certain ethnic groups.
"It will unfortunately be possible to design biological weapons of this type when more information on genome research is available," says Dr Vivienne Nathanson, head of science and health policy at the British Medical Association (BMA), the body which represents the medical profession in the United Kingdom.
This terrifying prospect may be an unwelcome piece of spin-off from research being carried out under the Human Genome Project (see box), an international scientific effort to map and sequence the genes in the human body and find out more about human DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the molecule which provides the biological instructions to make a human being.
Repairing Defective Genes
Late last year, genome research achieved a breakthrough when scientists for the first time deciphered the full genetic programming of an animal. The creature was a microscopic roundworm known as Caenorhabditis elegans, but because worms and humans have turned out to share many genes in common, the worm genome is regarded by biologists as an essential basis for understanding how the human genome works.
Scientists say a detailed understanding of genetic mechanisms of human beings will help them to find out the causes of many diseases. For example, knowledge of an individual's genetic make-up will enable doctors to predict whether or not a specific drug will work on a particular patient, allowing therapies to be more accurately targeted. Similarly, genetic testing for predisposition to a range of illnesses could become feasible, and by using what is known as gene therapy doctors would be able to replace deficient genes or repair defective ones.
However, genome research may turn out to have a grim downside.
It has proved that biologically there are more similarities between human beings than differences, further dissolving traditional prejudices of race and ethnicity. However, differences do exist, and if investigations provide sufficient data about ethnic genetic differences between population groups, it may one day be possible to target the groups with dangerous micro-organisms.
One specialist who takes this eventuality very seriously is Malcom R. Dando, Professor of Peace Studies at Bradford University, England. In Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity, a newly published report which he wrote for the BMA, he examines the whole question of how the revolution in biotechnology might be used to attack the genetic constitution of an ethnic group.
"The social and ethical safeguards which may prevent ethnic conflict and weapons development need to be discussed urgently," he said in an interview. Although scientists agree that the technology to produce ethnic weapons is not a reality now, some feel there is a real chance that it may be developed within the next ten years. "No need to wait till the project is completed. Efforts to regulate genetic research should begin now," says Dando.
Prof. Dando says the world community is already struggling to eliminate existing biological weapons. These weapons, which carry agents spreading deadly diseases like anthrax and other lethal toxins, can devastate human beings without causing damage to buildings or infrastructure. Experts say that a few hundred kilograms of a "weaponized" bacterial preparation has the potential to wipe out up to three million inhabitants concentrated in a city like New York.
The apartheid regime in South Africa is widely believed to have developed forms of biological weaponry for use against the black population. In the past, however, countries have rarely used such biological weapons in warfare, partly because of their fear of eliminating friendly populations and killing their own combatants. The new developments in genetic research described by Professor Dando would remove these limitations.
Genetic information is already being used in some countries to "improve" biological weapons, e.g. by equipping them with agents to provide increased antibiotic resistance - and it is likely that this trend will accelerate as the knowledge and understanding of its applications become more widely known.
In the Hands of Terrorists or Cult Groups
The problem of the proliferation of biological weapon research has been aggravated by fall-out from the collapse of the former Soviet Union. Most of the nearly 30,000 scientists who were involved in biological research in the USSR during the 1980s are now out of a job because of the country's economic difficulties. Last year, some of them disclosed that they had been approached by certain countries which have shown particular interest in learning about microbes that can be used in war to destroy or protect crops, as well as genetic engineering techniques that could be used to make deadly germs for which there may be no antidotes.
Dando argues that scientists in countries that belonged to the former Soviet Union should be diverted from involvement in programmes with sinister motives by schemes such as scientist-to-scientist exchanges, joint research projects and the conversion to civilian use of laboratories and institutes once associated with the Soviet military effort.
One prospect that alarms arms control experts is that biological weapons will fall into the hands of terrorist or cult groups. Twelve people were killed and 5,000 injured in the Tokyo subway in 1995 in an attack launched by the Aum Shinrykyo cult using sarin, a lethal nerve gas that produces asphyxia. Investigations later revealed that the cult group had had no problem in recruiting scientists to work on biological weapons but could not employ the weapons due to lack of a proper delivery system.
As a first step in coping with the problem of potential new biological weapons, arms control experts are calling for the bolstering of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), an international treaty signed in 1972. The convention prohibits its signatories from developing, producing, stockpiling and acquiring biological weapons.
Dando points to the fact that though 142 nations have signed the convention so far, this has not deterred countries from developing or obtaining knowledge on biological weapons. "This is mainly because there is no verification system attached to the convention," he says.
Monitoring the Uses of Genome Mapping
"The threat of new genetic weapons is clearly going to be an ongoing problem for the international community," says Michael Moodie, President of the U.S.-based Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute. "Such weapons are covered by the current treaty, but this needs to be strengthened by an effective verification protocol and fully implemented so we can be sure states comply with their obligations. A variety of tools should be used, including arms control, export controls and enhanced intelligence capability to monitor countries of concern."
The BMA report cited earlier says professional scientists and physicians should shoulder their ethical responsibilities and take no part in biological and genetic weapon projects. It calls for close monitoring of developments in biotechnology worldwide and open debate, particularly in relation to the use of genome mapping. However, "These measures can minimize the threats but not eliminate them," says Nathanson.
There is also growing concern about the misuse of genetic information available on Internet. Scientists worldwide share information on new findings in biological research through Internet which could be manipulated by private groups. Nathanson says Internet service providers have an ethical obligation to ensure information on biological weapons is not available on their websites (UNESCO, 1999).Title: Genetic Bullets - Ethnically Specific Bioweapons
Date: January 4, 2000
Abstract: One of the most interesting findings of the Human Genome Project was just how closely related all humans are and just what a myth the concept of race really is. The differences between individual humans are, in fact, much greater than the differences between groups of humans. Many of those early findings were contained in a 1000 page tome published by Princeton University Press entitled The History and Geography of Human Genes. Stanford researchers, for example, came to the conclusion that the DNA of Europeans was composed approximately of 65% Asian types and 35% African types, making the so-called white race a hybrid of two older types of human DNA.
Ominously, the Human Genome Project is currently being conducted under the auspices of the Energy Department, which also oversees America's nuclear weapons arsenal. While the similarity of the DNA of all humans seems to argue against the feasibility of "gene weapons," British and other scientists were not so sure. In October of 1997, Dr. Wayne Nathanson, chief of the Science and Ethics Department of the Medical Society of the United Kingdom, warned the annual meeting of the Society that "gene therapy" might possibly be turned into "gene weapons" that could potentially be used to target certain gene groups possessed by certain groups of peoples.
Nathanson warned that such weapons could be delivered to humans not only in the anticipated forms such as gas and aerosol but also might be introduced into water supplies. Backing off of any suggestion that such weapons might be capable of eliminating the majority of the world's population all at once, he suggested that the weapons might be used not only to induce death but to cause sterility and deformed births in the targeted groups. The result, just as certain as genocide but a slower, more insidious and therefore potentially undetectable attack. Current estimates of the cost of developing a "gene weapon" were placed at around $50 million, still quite a stretch for isolated bands of neo-Nazis but well within the capabilities of covert government programs.
The former Soviet Union, for example, was said to have developed a gene weapon utilizing the transplantation of the microbes that caused "liegu fever" into germs of ordinary wine yeast, which would have allowed the yeast to spread what the Soviets predicted would have been a "genocidal" plague of liegu fever. On another occasion the Soviets attempted to combine the genes of cobra venom with the influenza virus, which would have made for a deadly combination indeed. It was unclear, however, if the Soviets (whose potential enemies ran the gamut from Germans and Latvians to Chinese and Pakistanis) had intended to target any particular group. What was clear was the potency of the weapon. It was estimated that a mere 20 grams of liegu fever virus could potentially kill up to 5 billion people.
According to a story reported by the Sunday London Times (11-15-98), though curiously underreported by US media except for brief mention in Wired and the Village Voice, the government of Israel may have already successfully developed genetically specific "ethnic bullet" bioweapons which target Arabs. The report, which originated with the London based Foreign Report and quotes an "unconfirmed report" which originated in South Africa, states that the research was originally a joint Israeli and South African effort, and that the South African weapons would have targeted Blacks.
It may be recalled that South Africa recently became the first nation in the world to abandon its nuclear weapons arsenal, the origins of which were also the result of a joint venture with Israel. When an Israeli government spokesman was asked to confirm the existence of the ethnic bullet, he was evasive but did not deny its existence. "We have," he told Foreign Reports, a "basket full of strategic surprises which we will not hesitate to use if we feel that the State of Israel is under serious threat."
Israel is probably not alone in this sort of bioweapons development. Michael Risconscuito, the principal informant for investigative reporter Danny Casalaro (Casalaro died mysteriously a decade ago while researching the Justice Department's purported theft of an intelligence software called PROMIS), alleged to Pacifica Radio that he had also been part of a secret intelligence effort to develop genetically specific bioweapons that could potentially reduce the earth's population by a full two-thirds. After Casalaro's death, Risconscuito went public and was strangely then almost immediately arrested on drug charges. He remains in prison.
Scientist have called for a "definitely enforceable order to ban gene weapons, an important first step to the control of this perhaps most ultimate weapon. Certainly an international consensus on this issue is far preferable than continuing to ignore the issue until it is too late. Unlike genetically specific bioweapons, the absolute feasibility of such a ban is suspect. Indeed, if the experts are correct and genetically specific bioweapons can be developed for a mere $50 million, it puts them well within the reach of well-funded terrorists such as Osama bin Laden who already has expressed a desire to eliminate at least two groups, Israelis and Americans.
The reported existence of the Israeli ethnic bullet will almost predictably trigger a gene weapons arms race in the Middle East. Worse still the research and development of such weapons can be carried out in amazingly small facilities that are next to impossible to monitor. Perhaps most ominously, the "science" of genetically specific bioweapons is still in its infancy and no one knows if breakthroughs might reduce the cost of their production to the point that small and extremely malevolent groups such as the neo-Nazis may attempt to bring about a new Final Solution (Rense, 2000).
Title: Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces And Resources For A New Century
Date: September 2000
Abstract: "... the art of warfare ... will be vastly different than it is today ... 'combat' likely will take place in new dimensions ... advanced forms of biological warfare that can 'target' specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool" (PNAC, 2000).
Title: Pentagon Tests Ethnically-Targeted Crowd
Date: February 19, 2002
Source: Sunshine Project
Abstract: US Army documents released under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) reveal disturbing efforts to design crowd control weapons that target people on an ethnic basis. The weapons, a group of foul-smelling chemicals called malodorants, are being developed for US soldiers to use overseas.
According to the Sunshine Project, the US has crossed a dangerous line. Successful or not, development of any ethnic weapon is intrinsically racist, and the international community should consider their development, stockpiling, or use by any country a violation of international law.
The Sunshine Project has obtained US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command contracts that detail testing of malodorant chemicals on human subjects. Malodorant weapons are used to provoke vomiting and psychological effects including fear and panic.
Almost sixty years ago, the US developed a nauseating 'bathroom odor' chemical for use as a weapon. But according to the Army, the old malodorant will not work outside of the US and Western Europe, because "it was found that people in many areas of the world do not find 'fecal odor' to be offensive, since they smell it on a regular basis." Therefore, according to the Army, new agents are needed for overseas missions. These new malodorants are to be specifically adapted for their victims. According to a 1998 document: "The objective of this work is the development of a comprehensive set of [malodorants] that can be applied against any population set around the world to influence their behavior." (See the source of this and other quotes [PDF].)
The documents describe the Army research procedure. A group of subjects selected "based on a diversity of geographic origins and cultural heritage" is systematically exposed to candidate malodorants to develop "culture-response data" based on ethnic categories. That data is aggregated into "odor response profiles" that suggest the types and quantities of malodorants necessary to "elicit a favorable behavioral response" (i.e. incapacitation, panic, or flight) when used for crowd control on a particular ethnic group.
Malodorants themselves generally do not cause serious injury or death; but their physical and psychological effects can be very powerful. They can be loaded in shells, grenades, mortar rounds, and other devices. Malodorants can be used to control civil unrest (e.g. to halt protests), and in combination with lethal weapons as a 'force multiplier' in counterinsurgency and close combat in urban and enclosed areas.
The documents generally do not include details about research subjects and how researchers categorize them. Some experiments have been conducted outside the United States, or on immigrants. A February 2000 draft report refers to testing on "a group of South Africans" (See this page of the report). Another Army document contains unexplained images of indigenous women and girls from Panama or Colombia and southern Africa. Additional pictures appear to be from Africa and Asia, and one shows a boy dressed as a typical US high school student. (See this slide [PDF].)
Past research on ethnic weapons has been rare. The last known attempt to create ethnic weapons was a widely condemned program conducted in the 1980s by the apartheid regime of South Africa, which tried to develop an agent to selectively sterilize black women.
The new US malodorant program began in 1998 and is the first known US work on population-specific weapons since "Project Agile" in 1966. In Agile, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) commissioned the Battelle Institute to assess the possibility of making malodorants to specifically target Vietnamese people. Agile was short-lived and did not reach a laboratory phase.
The US Army Soldier Chemical and Biological Command (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland) has important partners in the malodorant research. The US Marine Corps-managed Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program (JNLWP, Quantico, Virginia) is funding the research. Contracts signed with the Monell Chemical Senses Center of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, include DAAD13-99-M-0071 ("Behavioral Odor Study") and DAAD13-98-M-004 ("Establish Odor Response Profiles").
By Pentagon standards, the research is a small program, with five scientists. Contracts between SBCCOM and Monell total US $195,000. The overall budget is unclear because the Marine Corps and Army also conduct work internally, whose details have not been released. JNLWP is, however, very active developing new delivery technology for malodorants including chemical mortar rounds and payload systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.
Ethnic Weapons: Prima
Whether the malodorants work or fail, research on any ethnic weapon raises serious legal questions and could set a very dangerous precedent. If the Pentagon saw any major legal barriers to ethnic weapons it would not have approved the malodorant research. The Pentagon's conclusion that ethnic weapons are permissible must be challenged. All such weapons should be universally considered intrinsically racist and to repudiate international law. To do this, governments should establish that the development, stockpiling, or use of ethnic weapons is prima facie evidence of intent to violate international law prohibiting racism, including prohibitions on genocide.
Inside the US, the malodorants research program must be cancelled, and the secretive Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program opened to public scrutiny and transparency. Among the questions that the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program must publicly discuss is how its focus on building weapons systems that primarily target civilians is legally and ethically justified.
Sunshine Project's Research on Malodorants
Early last year, the Sunshine Project began investigating US military work on malodorants and calmatives (another type of crowd control agent). The Project's underlying concern is that some of these weapons may violate treaties prohibiting chemical and biological warfare.
In July 2001, the Project published "Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Calmatives and Malodorants". In the course of preparing that paper, cryptic language in Army documents caused the Project to become concerned that some crowd control research was designed to develop population-specific weapons. Some Army documents indicated it was pursuing a single 'one-size-fits-all' malodorant that would affect people equally, regardless of ethnic background. But other Army papers showed a disturbing preoccupation with ethnicity. After publishing the first paper, the Sunshine Project filed additional FOIA requests, the results of which are first reported here.
The information (and all double " " quotes) in this news release is from the Army response to a FOIA request from October 2001, which was not answered (and then only partially) until February 2002. Additional FOIA requests on this topic are pending, the results of which will be presented in Sunshine Project publications (Sunshine Project, 2002).Title: On Race-Targetable Biological Weaponry
Date: August 10, 2003
Abstract: You may have wondered about the recent suspicious death of Dr. David Kelly, a microbiologist in the UK with connections high in the Tony Blair administration. What did he know? What did he say .... when, and to whom? Was he killed because he 'knew too much'? "... former member of the Knesset (Israeli parliament), Dedi Zucker, caused a storm ... when he claimed that the institute (the Institute for Biological Research, one of the most secret places in Israel).was "trying to create an ethnic specific weapon" in which Arabs could be targeted by Israeli weapons."
Are these people being killed in order to hush a scandalous, monstrous fact of recent research in this field -- that secret services in major countries are investigating how to kill off whole races of people with germ weapons -- even developing the means to do that? What accounts for the appearance of AIDS (HIV), and now SARS, which have predominantly victimized people of other than European ancestry? That may not really apply, but what of the facts in this matter? Do people high up in Israeli and US government really intend to develop germ weapons that will selectively attack or kill off certain races of people?
The fake presidency -- the Bush regime -- is known to be influenced by individuals who advocate this kind of research ... in fact, specifically calling for the "political usefulness" of gene-targetable bio-weapons (see the quote and reference below). Several of these individuals have strong links to Israel; possibly even dual citizenship: Here is a quote from their most important policy document:... the art of warfare ... will be vastly different than it is today ... “combat” likely will take place in new dimensions ... advanced forms of biological warfare that can “target” specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool." From 'Rebuilding America's Defenses' the leading policy "white paper" of the Project for a New American Century (PNAC), which has essentially dictated Bush regime "defense" policies since early 2001:
This is why I call them PNACzi's. Credited with this incredible yet frightening nonsense are the following higher-ups in the current false US "presidential" regime: Paul Wolfowitz, then with the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University I. Lewis Libby, then with the Wall Street firm of Dechert Price & Rhoads ... and the following well-known "neo-cons":
2. Stephen Cambone, National Defense University
3. Eliot Cohen, Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University
4. Devon Gaffney Cross, Donors' Forum for International Affairs
5. Thomas Donnelly, Project for the New American Century
6. David Epstein, Office of Secretary of Defense, Net Assessment
7. David Fautua, Lt. Col., U.S. Army
8. Dan Goure, Center for Strategic and International Studies
9. Donald Kagan, Yale University
10. Fred Kagan, U. S. Military Academy at West Point
11. Robert Kagan, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
12. Robert Killebrew, Col., USA (Ret.)
13. William Kristol, The Weekly Standard
14. Mark Lagon, Senate Foreign Relations Committee
15. James Lasswell, GAMA Corporation Robert Martinage, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment
16. Phil Meilinger, U.S. Naval War College
17. Mackubin Owens, U.S. Naval War College
18. Steve Rosen, Harvard University
19. Gary Schmitt, Project for the New American Century
20. Abram Shulsky, The RAND Corporation
21. Michael Vickers, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment
22. Barry Watts, Northrop Grumman Corporation
23. Dov Zakheim, System Planning Corporation
Some of these may now be employed by the US government as well. In addition, the following personages are listed as principal policy determiners for the PNAC cabal itself, and authored the PNAC's 'Statement of Principles':
2. William J. Bennett
3. Jeb Bush
4. Dick Cheney
5. Eliot A. Cohen
6. Midge Decter
7. Paula Dobriansky
8. Steve Forbes
9. Aaron Friedberg
10. Francis Fukuyama
11. Frank Gaffney
12. Fred C. Ikle
13. Donald Kagan
14. Zalmay Khalilzad
15. I. Lewis Libby
16. Norman Podhoretz
17. Dan Quayle
18. Peter W. Rodman
19. Stephen P. Rosen
20. Henry S. Rowen
21. Donald Rumsfeld
22. in Weber
23. George Weigel
24. Paul Wolfowitz
The astute observer will recognize several current Bush regime officials and other previously involved in Republican administrations. The not-so-astute reader will recognize the name of the faux-president's brother Jeb Bush, the current Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, and Eliot Cohen, who, along with the scandalized Richard Perle, sits on the Defense Policy Board as an advisor to Rumsfeld.
Now details are surfacing that indicate great controversy and skullduggery around the development of 'germ weapons' that can be targeted by race (Peace, 2003).
Title: Dead Microbiologists Linked To Ethno-Specific BioWeapons
Date: August 10, 2003
Abstract: Hello, Jeff Note the following excerpt from the article enclosed. I remember when I first read each news report about the death of separate microbiologists. Absolutely no one considered the fact that the deaths of the various microbiologists, especially the first five -- Dr. Que, Wiley, Schwartz, Paschnek and Dr. Nguyen -- were related. The press simply reported each death as it occurred and did not put the deaths together. In essence, no one connected the dots until you and I discussed the connection on your program. It would appear that Dr. Kelly is related to the microbiologist deaths phenomenon. Please note the excerpt below. In the scheme of things, I wonder where Ken Alibek fits in? He is definitely one dot that I believe (allegedly) connects to, not only the microbiologist deaths, but the Anthrax attacks of 2001. I also believe that (allegedly) Don Rumsfeld is another dot. If you remember, when we connected the dots i.e. put the deaths together, I discussed the possibility that each scientist had a "piece of the puzzle" in regard to a "target specific" bioweapon. I am wondering if SARS, somehow fits into the puzzle? Was SARS developed in China, or Israel? Does make one wonder.
Excerpt: "The two American scientists he had worked with were Benito Que, 52, and Don Wiley, 57. Both microbiologists had been engaged in DNA sequencing that could provide "a genetic marker based on genetic profiling". The research could play an important role in developing weaponized pathogens to hit selected groups of humans "identifying them by race. Two years ago, both men were found dead, in circumstances never fully explained."
Title: Microbiologists With Link to Race-Based Weapon Turning Up Dead More on Kelly ... True or False?
Date: August 10, 2003
Source: American Free Press
Abstract: The 59-year-old British scientist was involved with ultra secret work at Israel's Institute for Biological Re search. Israeli sources claim Kelly met institute scientists several times in London in the past two years. Israel has not signed the Biological Weapons and Toxins Convention, an international treaty ratified by more than 140 countries. It forbids the development, possession and use of offensive biological and chemical weapons. The CIA, FBI and MI5 are now examining Kelly's connections. Their findings could form part of the British government's inquiry into the background of Kelly's death, which opened last week.
The intelligence investigation is believed to have originated in Washington, where it emerged that Kelly had contacts with two companies in the U.S. bio-defense industry. One of the men he was in touch with was a former Russian defector, Kamovtjan Alibekov. When he arrived in America, he changed his name to Ken Alibek. He is now president of Hadron Advanced Biosystems -- a company specializing in medicines against biological terrorist attacks. Kelly was himself considering resigning from his senior post at the Ministry of Defense to work in America. Before his death, he had been discreetly 'head-hunted' by two companies.
One was Hadron Advanced Biosystems, which has close ties to the Pentagon. Hadron describes itself as "a company specializing in the development of technical solutions for the U.S. intelligence community". Hadron also has links to William Patrick, who has five classified patents on the process of developing weaponized anthrax. He is a bio-warfare consultant to both the Pentagon and the CIA. The other company is Regma Biotechnologies -- one that Kelly helped its founder, Vladimir Pasechnik, to set up in Britain, arranging for it to have a laboratory at Porton Down, the country's chem-bio warfare defense establishment. Regma currently has a contract with the U.S. Navy for "the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of anthrax". Kelly had told family friends he wanted to go to America so that he could obtain the specialized treatment his wife, Janice, requires. "He also felt that working in the U.S. private sector would relieve him of the intense pressures which came with his government work", said a colleague in the Ministry of Defense. The two American scientists he had worked with were Benito Que, 52, and Don Wiley, 57. Both microbiologists had been engaged in DNA sequencing that could provide "a genetic marker based on genetic profiling". The research could play an important role in developing weaponized pathogens to hit selected groups of humans -- identifying them by race.
Two years ago, both men were found dead, in circumstances never fully explained. In November 2001, Que left his laboratory after receiving a telephone call. Shortly afterward he was found comatose in the parking lot of the Miami Medical School. He died without regaining consciousness. Police said he had suffered a heart attack. His family insisted he had been in perfect health and claimed four men attacked him. But, later, oddly, the family inquest returned a verdict of death by natural causes.
Many questions remain about Que's death: Who was the mystery caller who sent Que hurrying from his lab hours before he was scheduled to leave? What attempts did the police make to track the four mystery men -- after admitting Que was the "probable" victim of an attempt to steal his car? What were his links to the U.S. Department of Defense? What happened to his sensitive research into DNA sequencing? How close were his connections to Kelly? A few days after Que died, Wiley disappeared off a bridge spanning the Mississippi River. He had just left a banquet for fellow researchers in Memphis. Weeks later, Wiley's body was found 300 miles down river. As with Que, his family said he was in perfect health. There was no autopsy. The local medical examiner returned a verdict of accidental death. It was suggested he had a dizzy spell and fell off the bridge.
Again, there remain many unanswered questions concerning Wiley's demise: Why did Wiley park his car on the bridge? Why did he leave the keys in the ignition and his lights on? Why was Wiley's car facing in the opposite direction from his father's house, which was only a short distance away? What happened to his research into DNA sequencing? How close were his connections to Kelly? Kelly, himself an expert on DNA sequencing when he was head of microbiology at Porton Down, had been kept fully abreast of the two men's research.
The death of a third microbiologist -- Vladimir Pasechnik, 64 -- has left even more questions. Kelly had played a key role in debriefing Pasechnik when he fled to Britain in 1989, bringing with him details of Russian plans to use cruise missiles to spread smallpox and plague, the Black Death of medieval times, which killed a third of Europe's population. Before the plans could be brought to completion, the Soviet Union had collapsed. Pasechnik had warned Kelly and his MI6 debriefers that the weapons could be used by terror groups -- using missiles obtained from China or North Korea. Kelly, with government approval, had helped Pasechnik create Regma Biotechnologies. Regma was allowed to set up a laboratory in Porton Down. Research there is classified as top secret.
However, in August 2002, the company obtained a contract with the U.S. Navy for "the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of anthrax". On Nov. 16, 2001, Pasechnik was found dead in bed -- 10 days after he and Wiley had met in Boston to discuss the latest developments in DNA sequencing. It was only a month later that Christopher Davis, a former MI6 officer and a specialist in DNA sequencing as a potential weapon, announced Pasechnik's death. Davis had retired from MI6 and settled in Great Falls, Va. He confirmed to a reporter that Pasechnik was dead -- from a stroke -- a month after the microbiologist had been buried. Details of the postmortem were not revealed at an inquest, in which the press was given no prior notice.
Colleagues who had worked with Pasechnik said he was in good health. Why was it left to Davis to announce Pasechnik's death? Who authorized the announcement? Did an MI6 pathologist conduct the autopsy, as one source close to the service claims? Why did Pasechnik continue to visit Porton Down up to a week before his death? Who authorized his security clearance to enter one of the most restricted establishments in Britain? Kelly's links to the Institute of Biological Research in the Tel Aviv suburb of Nes Zions are also intriguing. His connection to the secret biological plant began in October 2001, shortly after a commercial flight en route from Israel to Novosibirsk in Siberia was blown up over the Black Sea by a Ukrainian surface-to-air missile. All on board the flight were killed, including five Russian microbiologists returning to their research institute in Novosibirsk -- a city known as the scientific capital of Siberia. It has 50 facilities and 13 universities.
Many questions remain about the death of these five scientists. Why did Mossad send a team to Ukraine to investigate the crash? What became of their report after it was submitted to the Israeli government? Why do the Ukrainian authorities still insist they cannot reveal the name of the dead microbiologists? Did Pasechnik know them -- or, more importantly, did Kelly? The Institute for Biological Research is one of the most secret places in Israel. Only Dimona, the country's nuclear facility in the Negev desert, is surrounded by more secrecy. Most of the institute's 12 acres of facilities are underground. Laboratories are only reached through airlocks. There have been persistent reports that the institute is also engaged in DNA sequencing research. One former member of the Knesset (Israeli parliament), Dedi Zucker, caused a storm ... when he claimed that the institute was "trying to create an ethnic specific weapon" in which Arabs could be targeted by Israeli weapons (Peace, 2003).
Title: Could You Make A Genetically Targeted Weapon?
Date: October 28, 2004
Abstract: You could try, but probably wouldn't want to be around when you released it. The prospect that rogue scientists could develop bioweapons designed to target certain ethnic groups based on their genetic differences was raised this week in a report by the British Medical Association (BMA).
The report, Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity II, warns that construction of genetic weapons "is now approaching reality". Such "genetic bombs" could contain anthrax or bubonic plague tailored to activate only when genes indicated the infected person was from a particular group.
The report says the combination of human genome studies, the development of vectors capable of introducing harmful material to cells and new ways to disrupt genes should raise concerns about potential misuse.
Malcolm Dando, professor of peace studies at Bradford University and author of the BMA report, says: "The problem is that the same technology being developed to create new vaccines and find cures for Alzheimer's and other debilitating diseases could also be used for malign purposes."
The BMA, which dismissed the idea of genetic weapons in a 1999 report (Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity I), has lifted its new concerns from the work of a German group called the Sunshine Project. It looked at how mutations in our genome called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differ between specific ethnic groups and concluded: "Genome data in public databases revealed that hundreds, possibly thousands, of target sequences for ethnic specific weapons do exist. It appears that ethnic specific biological weapons may indeed become possible in the near future."
Rather than specifically triggering the toxic effects of organisms such as anthrax, the Sunshine project warned that weapons based on a new medical technique called RNA interference could shut down vital genes. If the sequence of the target gene varies between two different populations the technique could be used to interrupt key body functions in one population and not the other. "If as little as 10% or 20% of a target population would be affected, this would wreak havoc among enemy soldiers on a battlefield or in an enemy society as a whole," the group said.
Others say the concerns are exaggerated. "Trying to find a weapon that affects quite a few of one ethnic group and none of another ethnic group is just not going to happen," says David Goldstein, who studies population genetics at University College London. "Because all groups are quite similar you will never get something that is highly selective. The best you would probably do is something that kills 20% of one group and 28% of another."
groups in question are also far broader than those associated with
ethnic conflict. Geneticists can only distinguish between people with
ancestry traced to regions such as Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and East
Asia (Guardian, 2004).
Title: Mexicans Are Now Endangered By Ethnic Specific Bio-Weapons
Date: May 20, 2009
Abstract: Mexican President Felipe Calderon may have made a grave mistake in allowing the creation and foreign funding of the "Instituto Nacional Mexicano de Medicina Genetica" (INMEGEN) which recently completed the mapping of genetic markers in Mestizos and Indigenous ethnic groups in Mexico. The Mexican genetic map project was undertaken with minimum publicity and very little public input. The project took four years to complete and cost approximately 25 million dollars.
The project results were just announced on May 11 mostly through the former Minister of Health of Mexico Julio Frenk who is now collaborating with Harvard University in Massachusetts. Julio Frenk is a Mexican Jew with ties to Neocons at Harvard University. He was a controversial Minister of Health under President Vicente Fox and was criticized by the Catholic Church for his policies of reducing Mexico's population. Frenk was accused by the Archbishop of Mexico City Norberto Rivera Carrera of the mass distribution of the morning after pill to Indigenous women through government health clinics. Presidents Calderon and Fox are both members of the Partido Accion Nacional (PAN) which is a lot like the Republican Party in the USA.
Harvard University is one of many centers for research concerning ethnic or race specific biological weapons. These weapons target and kill only people with certain genetic markers such as those that the Mexican genome project identified in Mestizos and Indigenous groups (ie. Mexicas, Zapotecas etc.). In fact, the Harvard Neocon Steve Rosen is a significant participant in these efforts. Rosen is a Professor of National Security and Military Affairs at Harvard and is one of the authors of "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Project for a New American Century" which on page 60 says "... the art of warfare ... will be vastly different than it is today ... 'combat' likely will take place in new dimensions ... advanced forms of biological warfare that can 'target' specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool." Other contributors to "Rebuilding America's Defenses" were Neocons (Zionists) Paul Wolfowitz, Alvin Bernstein, Eliot Cohen, David Epstein, Abram Shulsky, Dov Zakheim, Aaron Friedberg and others.Microbiologists have been warning about ethnic specific bio-weapons for many years now. In 1998 Dr Vivienne Nathanson, Chief of Health Policy Research of the British Medical Association, warned that certain countries had active research programs into ethnic specific biological weapons. That same year the London Times published a report that Israel was developing an ethnic specific bio-weapon to target Arabs(Palestinians) at its secret Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) located in Ness Ziona which is about 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. A scientist quoted in the report said, "They have succeeded in pinpointing a particular characteristic in the genetic profile of certain Arab communities, particularly the Iraqi people." The report was later affirmed by David Dedi Zucker, a member of the Knesset (Israeli parliament).
In addition, in 2007 the Islamic Republic of Iran reported that the USA, in cahoots with Israel, was in the process of producing and testing ethnic specific bio-weapons. At an international conference, Iranian General Mir Feysal Bagherzadeh said that the US, in collaboration with the Zionist regime of Israel,were preparing for sinister biological warfare. General Bagherzadeh said, "... they are seeking to manufacture a weapon which could kill specific peoples in a limited geographical area." The General further pointed out that the move should be considered as a case of genocide, "because they intend to massacre specific peoples and ethnicities" with the help of this weapon. He said a number of US experts were conducting activities and research in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the same line. General Bagherzadeh also said, "... during a crash of a Thai plane, the US and Israeli experts were looking for the corpses of Iranian nationals in a bid to provide for their needed genes." The general added, "The US and Israel are seeking to manufacture a new generation of weapons in an effort to immunize themselves and annihilate other nations and peoples."Today there are indications that the Swine Flu virus, A(H1N1), which has devastated Mexico was engineered in a laboratory. The virus is very similar to the Spanish Flu virus that killed millions in 1918. The Spanish Flu virus is also a type A(H1N1) with a few genetic differences. The 1918 Swine Flu virus genome has been sequenced by virologist Jeffery Taubenberger of the US Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) which makes it possible to now create a variety of A(H1N1) viruses with different characteristics.
It may be that the Neocons have now implemented their goal outlined in their manifesto "Rebuilding America's Defenses." That goal was stated very clearly on page 60 of the document and that was to implement "... advanced forms of biological warfare that can 'target' specific genotypes..." Why have Mexicans been the only ones to die in large numbers in the current Swine Flu pandemic? The graphic below shows very clearly that even though the Swine Flu has now spread widely in North America, it has been primarily Mexicans that have died from the infection. Out of 117 deaths reported on May 6, 115 have been Mexicans. The other 2 were non-Mexicans whose health was already compromised.
Has the Pentagon and the Neocons implemented a test of an ethnic specific bio-weapon in Mexico with the unwitting cooperation of the Mexican government through the recently completed genome mapping of Mexicans and the Harvard University connection? Only time will tell. One thing for sure though, we must be more vigilant than ever if we are to survive as a people. Also, a sincere warning for all other peoples of the world; it may be us today but tomorrow it may be you! (Atzaln, 2009).Title: The Concise Argument: Are Ethnically Targeted Weapons Worse Than Other Weapons?
Date: July, 2009
Source: Journal of Medical Ethics
Abstract: Genetic engineering may make it possible to develop biological weapons that primarily target certain ethnic groups. It is often claimed that there is something particularly pernicious about such weapons—for instance, because they are “racist”. Jacob Appel analyses whether ethnically targeted weapons are morally worse than other biological weapons that are not targeted, except in the sense that all weapons are used in a targeted way to kill or injure an enemy. Appel argues that targeted bioweapons are not worse than non-targeted ones in the context of warfare.
Two main arguments sustain this conclusion. First, that, in warfare, enemy soldiers are killed primarily because they are enemy soldiers, not because they belong to a particular ethnic group. And, second, that “Any harm done as a result of ethnic categorisation is dwarfed by the deaths of thousands or millions that are likely to result from biological warfare…”. Appel calls for further discussion and, given the provocative nature of the conclusion, this will surely be forthcoming. One outstanding question is, for example, whether Appel’s arguments hold outside of classical warfare. Are they valid in cases of ethnically based insurgency or more generally if bioweapons are used for internal repression? (Journal of Medical Ethics, 2009).
Title: UK, Israel Seeking To Develop SARS-Like Race-Specific Bio-Weapon
Date: October 9, 2012
Source: Press TV
Abstract: British and Zionist health experts are working on a SARS-like race-specific bio-weapon, which could be capable of creating a global threat through triggering a massive ethnic cleansing, it has been claimed.
The claim was made following the identification by the World Health Organization (WHO) of a new SARS-like race-specific virus that targets people of Middle Eastern decent. The original SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) resulted in the death of numerous people in Hong Kong.
The Zionist-led Israeli regime has been seeking to spot specific genes carried by human of Arab decent in an attempt to develop a race-specific bio-weapon that could covertly be exposed to Arab populations in order to commit a massive ethnic cleansing whenever necessary.
Anonymous intelligence sources have also claimed that work is underway to create genetically modified bacterium/virus as a bio-weapon which could be deployed through the air or water supply.
According to intelligence sources Israeli Defense, working with a British defense apparatus at Porton Down, is seeking to produce this race-specific bio-weapon.
Earlier in September, the first case of SARS-like virus was indentified in Qatar. The victim was transferred to Britain, where it was discovered that the coronavirus was similar to SARS as far as its structure is concerned. The second case was a Saudi-born woman who died after being attacked by the new virus.
The symptoms of the new SARS-like virus have been said to be fever, cough and other respiratory signals.
SARS suddenly surfaced between November 2002 and July 2003. An estimated 8,098 people of Asian descent were infected and 774 of them succumbed to the race-specific virus (Press TV, 2012).