Physics of Soul

 
The Physics of Soul - The Quantum Qualitative Reality

 

  • The Building Blocks
  • The Vital Secret
  • The Foundation of Nature and Life
  • The Structure of Dynamic system
  • Three Levels of Stress Management and Information Flow 

Corrections to old Science - Knowing the Structure of soul 

  • The difference between light and material matter
  • Origin of Mass, Gravity and Energy
  • The Secret of Quantum Qualitative Reality – The Truth of Force and Action and Reaction
  • Re-Visualizing Mechanical world - a key step to New World
  • Creativity and informatation build up in Biological System

What ever I speak here is the distilled product of relentless effort to put the vision of nature reveled to me on to a simple foundation that could be comprehended by all. I request the reader to put some attention to it. I repeat here, what I wrote in the previous page because of extreme importance to the vision of nature we are going to develop.


The Building Blocks

A perpetual flow system can be figured from a number 8, with one of the arm being smaller than the other in a quantum manner, say a 4:3 ratio. This would have slightly bent structure See Fig-3F. This picture can be brought into existence by asymmetrical twisting of one sphere from out side. This means two quantum of opposite twisting force, which has non-equilibrium leads to one quantum observed asymmetry [first critical point or first order of creation]. The system is asymmetrical but an external symmetry [perfect 8] can come when another quantum step of twisting is effected [second critical point]. See Fig -3F. However, this external symmetry is balanced by two asymmetrical opposing Spiritual forces inside the system. See Fig-4
 

Two aspect needs to be noted here

1] The two asymmetrical twisting forces were external to the system in the initial state

2] They are internal after second step of winding. With the second step, a system that is externally balanced results. The internal asymmetrical Spirit acts as the balancing aspect. In this state the system is relatively stable for external and internal force acting on it. It can wind and unwind by a unit. See Fig – 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Vital Secret

The observed motion of the above particle manifest because of the Quantum Dance what is important to note is that this observed motion manifest because of the movement of the spirit from the external world into the internal world and vice-versa. This one observation is of extreme importance to explain nature and life at the particulate level, beyond genes to the Soul Level we will deal with it later.

 

Here we have ended with two spiral units that are twined. These units have spiral flexibility within themselves. They consist of three spiral units with fourth unit being concealed and give direction to the spiral. It can be unwinding or winding. See Fig- 5

 

 
 
The whole system visualized above can wind or unwind between two limits. If it is unwound to first critical state it collapses, it also collapses and unwinds when it is pushed to the upper state or the third critical point. A Quantum Collapse leading to Quantum Dance occurs when it is pushed to these limits. Here the system flips and the left turns right and right turns left and the flow direction changes. [In the spatial dynamic vision, the system turns inside out we will see it later].

 

Now the reader should note down two vital points that we have introduced about the fundamental building block of nature

1] They exist as three component system

2] They exist in pairs.

The number 3 has universal significance and emerges as key number in every field. I can go on pointing to a huge list. But let me restrict to catch your attention to two important areas. It was noted that the ratio of acceleration two interacting bodies is always 3.This observation stands out in the mechanical world, but no one enquired why? Similarly, the biological information is a Triplet Code. The former tells us that energy is exchanged in units of three and the latter tells us all information has three components. This leads to simple conclusion that information is related to energy exchange.

 

The forces acting on the above system has two possibilities. First possibility of pushing the system back to the first critical point is impossible, because the instinct of the system works to reach a stable state. No individuated Spirit within can grow beyond the whole so as to effect this. This means time cannot flow backwards. The law of transfer of energy tells that it can only occur in quantum manner. This means quantum collapse becomes inevitable in time. The Spirit that created the balance opposes any attempt to push it to the third critical point and this manifest as the God’s law. The law was a resistive factor. But quantum reality speaks that time cycle is inevitable. Anything that takes birth should die and get new born. Thus the system exists in Quantum Dance. The Quantum Dance is crucial aspect of nature and is discussed in the site in depth. [http://www.geocities.com/consciousness123/index.htm]. The only equilibrium state the system can reach is the relative equilibrium around second critical point.

 

The Foundation of Nature and Life

The nature needs to be understood from knowing the instinct of the system. Beyond the second critical point the instinct of the system works against the time force. See Figure – 5A.  

The system wishes to exist dancing between the first and third critical points. When the system is pushed to the third critical point it collapses and goes into new order with change in the direction of the flow.  The law of the Creator not to eat form the tree at the center now becomes a scientific reality.

 

 

 
 

The Dynamic System

What we visualized is a system existing in one left and right frame. We noted that space has 3 left and right frames. This means to visualize a dynamic system in space we have to visualize 3 folded systems, which fills the 8 component space. Let us now visualize the formation of the dynamic system. There are two ways.

 

1] We can assume that the Spirit within the above system [Fig-4] goes external and  causes a division through twisting such that a two world system forms into four world system. Now this four world system also has a relative stable state in which it wishes to exist. This in the next step of twitching goes to form 8 component systems. This system in fact is 8 layered, with each layer opposing the immediate next layer by 22.5 degrees. They form 4 layered systems with each layer comprising of a pair of path. One directs to the center the other directs away from the center. They could be visualized as three layered system with an inner, middle and outer in the ratio 2:4:2 ratios [1:2:1]. These paths form spiral pathways leading to the center and away from the center.   

 

2] An alternate way is to visualize a particle AB existing in 4:3 [see Fig -4] twining and forming a pair, with another particle CD also having 4:3 ratio. Here AB/CD have a ratio 4:3 and B=C. In the second step, it forms another twining relationship with another similar particle EFGH. Here ABCD/EFGH has 4:3 ratio relationships and B=C, E=B, C=G

 

The above system forms a dynamic system in space. Important fact to be noted is that the layers oppose the immediate next layer by 22.5 degrees. The opposition grows with every step and after the fourth step they become opposed by 90 degrees. The first and last layer oppose by 180 degrees.

 

Three Levels of Stress Management and Information flow

Now the Above system is dynamic in space. It is quite flexible to external stress manifesting as winding or unwinding force. It has three levels of stress management. When subjected to peak of first level, the left and right component of individual particle AB collapses changing the direction of the flow. This is the first level of information exchange and balancing process. In the second step, the individual component AB opens up to exchange flow and information with its pair CD. In the third state they exchange information with the opposite world to strike the balance. See Fig – 6 A

 

 

 
 
 
 

This phenomenon can be observed in both Living and Universal system. Every reader should take note of this.

 

1] In biological system it manifest as breathing that vitalizes the system. In the material world it manifest as day and night cycle, where the time/energy flow occurs giving the stability to system.

 

2] In the second level of stress and quantum collapse, manifest as the mitotic renewal of information. It should be recalled that every life, renews its biological information periodically. This means it is related to 24 hour day and night cycle. Biological information is a means by which left and right exchanges energy and attains new order. This secondary level of organization superimposes the first level. In the material level it can be compared to peaking of climatic cycles and giving way to the opposite.

 

3] A third level of organization occurs when the two worlds collapse to create new out of the old. This happens when the system reaches the third critical point. Here one of the world disappears into opposite to emerge as new system where the direction of the flow in the whole system changes. In short the system turns inside out changing the direction of the flow. Because of the non-equilibrium design, it manifests as spinning and curved displacement in space. Thus, we see natural motion as spinning and curved displacement in space. In a biological system this manifests as meiotic division and reproduction. These three processes are described in the Figure - 6 A and B

 

The Figure is self explanatory. The system wishes to exist in the relative state, expanding and contracting within the limits. But under the force of time the system is forced to collapse and go into new order.

 

Now let me call briefly the function of energy flow in earth system. The design of earth is such that when west awakes to sunlight, simultaneously east sleeps to darkness. When the light peaks in the west, it gives birth to darkness and simultaneously east peaks in darkness and gives birth to light. One cycle of light here consists of 24 hours and there are two worlds and they are balanced by the energy flow happening in opposite directions. The energy flow in earth thus is comparable to double pump or human Heart.  This means 24 hour day and night cycle forms the breath of the universe. The 12 month climatic cycle forms mitotic information renewal. The universe appears as a living system, it should have beginning and end and new beginning. This means there should be a phase where the Father or Light or Holy Spirit exists hidden in the Mother and creates. Knowing this would help us transform from material to biological vision of nature and reinvent the ancient Spiritual system that was known to our ancient people. We will deal with it later.

 

Above 3 folded or eight-component systems can be visualized as the indestructible Soul of a living system that survives time and its force acting on it. It can be visualized as 8 panned balancing systems. Now, birth and death, the diversity of life, the development of information and body and everything about biological system could be understood as a process of the instinct of the system to maintain its balance and perpetuate against the misbalancing force acting on it from the external world. Before we go to understand the intricacies of life and living universe, let us put straight some aspect of the foundation of science


 
Correction to Old Science – knowing the Structure of Soul

The science we are aware and impregnated into the mind of society over several centuries has many flaws. If you stand aside and ask questions such as “why”, “what” and “how” you begin to unfold the ignorance on which we the humanity exist and function. Our knowledge and picture of nature is built on the knowledge of gravity and mass, yet no one can answer what gives gravity or mass to matter. We exploit light and matter, yet we do not know what is matter, what is light. We do not know how wave particle duality exist, why speed of light is the maximum speed, why uncertainty, why genetic code is a triplet code, why genes exist as pairs, why double helical, why mitotic and meiotic division. Why cells renew the information periodically, why pairs of chromosomes, what is life? This list is endless.

The science is developed on assumptions. But with the advancement of science the basic assumptions have broken down distorting the vision of nature. Newton’s time the world was visualized as determinable machine. When Einstein came, the world vision changed into relativity. When Uncertainty Theory came, the world vision changed into randomness. With the emergence of non-liner science a word vision of chaos and order emerged. However, a wholesome reality of what nature really is and how it functions in time has remained beyond the comprehension of Humanity.  What the scientist of the modern world has achieved is the creation of complexity and confusion, leaving human mind highly disordered and without strong platform on which they can rest and function.

Let us now see some of these questions.

 

The Difference between the Light and Material Matter

There appears great confusion in science to differentiate light and matter particle. Let us now look at this from our exercise.


We saw a particle in the form of number 8. See Fig -3F above. We can assume this as light matter that consists of two Spirits “A” and “B” in the ratio 4:3. It is unstable in space. The first order of stability in space is formed when two such particles “AB” and “CD” twine such that AB/CD have ratio 4:3 and B=C. This is matter or atomic particle.

We can view this as first atom of the periodic table [hydrogen]. Einstein equation E=mc2, suggest they are formed from the collision of two light particles. Now this atom has a chosen twist, right or left, determined by the twist of the dominant particle. In 8 component space for every particle that is right twisted, there exists a left twisted particle.  Thus they go to form H2 molecule. H2 molecule because of its pairing is more stable in space. This means everything is created in pairs. In dynamic space that has eight components they are created in 2 pairs.

A second and higher level of stability is formed when two atoms ABCD and EFGH are fused to form a single atom. This we know is helium. Here again ABCD/ EFGH should exist in the ratio 4:3. This ratio is vital and universal, with out this the system will fail to communicate and exchange energy. Now we can visualize the whole elements of periodic table formed from the collision of pairs of light particle. Hydrogen is formed from the collision of one pair of particle; helium is formed from 2 pairs, Lithium is made from three pairs, beryllium is made with 4 pairs and so on.  

All systems including the inert elements are born in pairs with a left or right twist orientation. Together they form one. The inert elements because of their structure and design in space are independent stable systems in space. But in directed time, they need to unite and exchange energy in order to gain stability. They can be understood as male and female particles which from one.

Note – This simple vision, I am sure will appeal to modern world, but if you care to give it a thought, the existing models can fuse into

Our thinking invariably means there exist two worlds one is recessive and the other is dominant. A helium atom is dynamic in space. We know it is inert and that it does not form chemical bonds and reacts only to the, heat [energy or Spirit] induced winding and unwinding.  They exist in pairs. Now recall the picture of earth with west and east separation or day and night cycle how they are designed to balance see Fig - 7 . We will discuss its importance later



Origin of Mass, Gravity and Energy

The origin of gravity, mass and energy, is a question that has lasted from the beginning of science. They form the pivot of modern material world and yet we lack a vision and proper understanding of it.

Our understanding of the particle tells us that energy state of a system comes from non equilibrium in space and this manifest as mass and gravity. In other words the gravity to matter comes from the non-equilibrium in space. We already noted that Space has eight components and three left and right frames. A particle that we visualized earlier as light particle exists in one frame of left and right and is highly unstable. The first order of stability in space is formed when two such system pairs. This we noted as matter particle. See Fig –8A. 


The second order of stability is formed when two such system in 4:3 ratios fuses. We visualized it as the inert system, the system is stable against physical force and they thus do not form bonds. But for every right winding system there exist left winding system. The winding is determined by the dominant particle. The Figure – 8B is self explanatory.



They form a dynamic system in space capable self balancing through opposing forces. They can wind and unwind due to heat induced winding and unwinding of the system.

It is important to note that the instinct of the system is to attain a higher equilibrium state in space and thus attain stability. Any system that has attained certain equilibrium in space will work to defend its equilibrium when it is stressed. 

This inert system calls for our attention for the following point.

1] They exist in pairs. Thus fits the picture of dynamic system we visualized.

2] Their design in space makes them inert to physical force acting on them in ordinary conditions. They have three level of stability and information exchange in space that we discussed before. They are capable of winding and unwinding. Their stability is endangered when the heat induced winding reaches a critical state. They force to readjust to heat induced climatic changes continuously. In other world they react to unwind and wind in response to day and night cycles of energy.

3] Unlike the other elements which tend to form complex molecules and compounds to gain stability to external forces disturbing the acquired balance, these elements   tend to develop information and complexity around this information. To understand information build up, just imagine the above inert system as 8 panned balance. When the balance is upset, it can strengthened by adding matter to the pan to oppose the external stress. This information however is should be dynamic. In the sense it is movable between the pans depending on the cyclic and directed changes in the environment. Thus information mixing and changing of the left and right of the information system is an important aspect all life. What survives in the process is the underground particle. I call this particle as the Living Particle or the Soul of Life. What we see as complex living system is the evolution of this one particle against time and forces acting on it.    

These dynamic particles, which we assumed as Living Particle or Soul, exist as pairs and are incomplete against directed time. Thus they need to unite and exchange energy and information from time to time. This accounts for the third level of stability, which manifest as reproduction or creation of new out of the old.

In short behind every life there is an inert element that has a form of spatial stability. This inert particle is dynamic. When the external material environment bound by centripetal or gravitational force stresses and disturbs its equilibrium. It works to oppose these disturbances and protect its equilibrium. The inert particle acts like 8 panned balances that is capable balancing its self by addition of weight when its equilibrium is disturbed. When stressed to near critical state, it adds matter on top of its eight component structure such that the stress acting on it from nature and disturbing its equilibrium can be opposed. This accounts for creativity and information building. During cell division they work to balance the left and right. Various genetic phenomenon such translocation, inversion, crossing over, linkage etc, can be understood as instinctive balancing process occurring in life. 

This explains the breathing and periodic renewal of information’s in biological system. This dynamic vision led me to make a vital conclusion that information or genes in biological system are not paired as we think, but actually 4 paired. This in turn led me to visualize the basic foundation and working of modern day allopathic system of medicine and compare it with, ancient Ayurveda and other systems of medical practices. It also led me visualize how a homeopathic system of medicine works.

Here we are seeing, the foundation of information and formation of body from a Soul particle. The Soul here acts as a balance capable of balancing it self and grow against the centripetal or gravitational stress force acting on it. But it does not mix with matter. This dynamic system could be visualized as Soul that survives in a body. It fits the characteristics of Soul described in Spiritual scriptures such as Vedas, Bible, and Bhagavad-Gita. It led me to visualize an inert particle at the center of life and differentiate plant, animal and human system by the structure of particle. See article “Beyond Genes” and “Secret of Consciousness” in author’s site http://www.geocities.com/consciousness123/index.htm

This dynamic system or Soul can be Figured from day and night cycle, where the system is balanced by opposing wheels [See Fig-17] and is capable of turning inside out such that  when day peaks the seed of darkness emerges from it and simultaneously the night peaks and the seed of light emerges from it. Here we are visualizing the Spirit of the system moving and causing the motion of the system. Under the second law of thermodynamics, the Spirit force declines and eventually gets directed to death or darkness. Then the Spirit/Soul or Light hide within the darkness and emerges from it in time. See Fig – 6. This is creation phase taking place in the womb.

Note- I have introduced a revolutionary and sensible vision of life. Readers who are educated, in modern day universities would find it difficult to comprehend it. But if you put little bit of effort to understand it, it can open whole realm new thinking that can bring life and health, peace and order back to the population. I understand I need to expand this part, in relation to modern and changing thinking in biology. But here at this point I restrict to the seed, and hope to come back to this seed thought in a new book if time and energy permits. 

The Secret of Quantum Qualitative Reality – The Truth of Force and Action and Reaction

The vision of force and action and reaction we hold in our mind by our education in science is that of straight line. However, if you take time to observe nature we note that this vision is wrong. Force is a curvature in space and is spiral in nature. The observed quantum action takes place, when 3 quantum curvature forming spiral with one unit direction towards expansion and contraction is effected. A quantum particle is visualized as below and always exists in pairs. In a dynamic system it exists in four pairs.  


 

The pairs of these particle exists in twined state with relative equilibrium as shown in Fig - 4



They are stable to external influence winding and unwinding by a unit. But they resist any unilateral force of winding that pushes the system into the third critical state or back to the first critical state. Here ratio of equilibrium turns into a non-equilibrium ratio 3:1 and leads to action and reaction. The left flips into right vice-versa. In a dynamic system it is a three steps process that leads to turning inside out.

Every system in nature thus has two fundamental ways of action.

1] If the system is in non-equilibrium it seeks new relative equilibrium and stabilization in space.

2] If the system is in relative equilibrium or stable in space, it works to maintain and protect its equilibrium. It is capable of showing creativity to resist the force and grow against the force.

The instinctive resistance force against disturbance of relative equilibrium in matter system leads to the formation of complex molecules in near non-equilibrium states. Complex molecules thus resist the external force acting on it better than the individual systems.

An inert system that has stability in space has inherent potential to resist the mechanical forces, but does respond to heat induced winding and unwinding. Thus they develop information and an elaborate complex system resulting in plant, animals and humans systems.

It should be noted that all quantum action and reaction is a three step process and the action takes place when it is pushed to the third critical point. These three steps are shown below


 



In the first phase there is maximum resistance and the system has maximum order. But the resistance decreases with time. In the second level disorder increases. When it crosses the second critical point, the resistance is maintained through disorder. But when the system reaches the third critical point the system breaks down and goes in to new order. This manifests as observed action and reaction. All action and reaction however small or big should have these steps.

The systems resist the disturbance in the near critical state to form complex systems. In biological system it forms information build up. The formation of complexity helps the system survive against the external stress pushing to the third critical point and the collapse. Thus systems form a family, community and so on. However time direction is inevitable

In a billiard ball when the external force reaches the third critical point it manifest as reaction which is observable as motion. In contrast in a biological system and nature the action is resisted with information that is built up and has an apparent complex organization which extends the time. It has the ability to diffuse the external force and develop information to over come it. Only when it fails the system collapses, dies and disintegrates. It is capable neutralizing the action such that the system survives and works in different steps to gain new order.

These visions, when understood have potential to bring vital changes in every field of science. It can create path ways to understand the immense potentials of ancient knowledge systems and its superiority for human health and existence. I invite the priest of temple of science to give some thought to this simple reality.    

 

Re-Visualizing Mechanical world - a key step to New World

The mechanical world largely depends on Newton’s vision of force and its manifestation. Even today in spite of mechanical world giving way to, relativistic and uncertainty world, we still largely have the same vision when it comes to force and its interaction. In the above chapter we discussed how the force is a curvature in space and how it contains three curved units with a time component. 

This explains the qualitative aspect of action and reaction. For example if we want to produce a movement of a ball weighing 100 kg. We need to over come this weight first. Just imagine a small child trying to push it. Where has the force gone? The force that the child produced should have affected the ball but it was not sufficient to produce the observed motion or produce quantum action. The quantum action we noted is a three step process and the system collapses when it reaches third critical point and the ratio becomes 3:1.

In the Newtonian mechanics we have no answer for the force acting prior to quantum action. Suppose we visualize force as a curvature or winding phenomenon disrupting the symmetry of the ball in space. Then we can understand that the Childs force did act on the ball but it was not sufficient to push the system into third critical state at which the system collapses turning inside out and goes into new order. However in the action the child has developed information. The process of motion has two phases as shown in Figure -10




The system yield to the action of force with a jump, then it begins to reorder producing reaction. If one has to accelerate the system, a new quantum of force needs to be applied, before the reaction begins. Our vision does not change the mechanics, but can probably give insight to advance mechanics to reduce the loss of energy. It can take our understanding of nature and the universe to higher level. It is up to people working in the field to think of it.

This thought and vision when united with non linear science which tells us that when a system is stressed to near critical limit it is capable of showing creativity, gives us complete picture of nature that is built by simplicity but appears complex.

The reader should note the similarity and dissimilarity between Quantum action in material world and living system. In biological system it is controlled and extended in time due to developed information system that resist the external force. In material world it is uncontrolled. 

The important thing about this vision of force is that it can explain the qualitative aspects of quantum world that is evident in biological world. It can explain creativity of material world and information build up in living system. It can explain evolution and diversity. This knowledge when extended gives new dimension to our thinking and has unlimited potential for application in all the fields of human interest.

Creativity and Information Build up in Biological system

The creativity comes from the Spirit of the building blocks and it can be different types

1] Two light particles forming a matter particle or hydrogen atom is creativity that gives higher level of stability in space

2] Two hydrogen atoms forming a pair in space to form H2 molecules is creativity that gives higher stability in space. The formation chemical bonds to form complex molecules also can be understood from this perspective.

3] However the inert element such as helium, neon, argon and so on is symmetrical in space. We know they cannot from chemical bonds, but they are amenable to heat induced changes.

These inert elements by virtue of their structure in space can with stand the physical stress very effectively up to certain point depending on how closer it is the bigger system of which it is part. However, the system is amenable heat induced stress. And it needs to unwind and wind back in relation to the day time and energy manifesting as day and night cycle, climatic cycle and so on.

These inert elements when stressed to near critical limit can add on matter on to the system to oppose the external force acting on it. This gives us the picture of information building in living system. In short inert system fits the picture of souls that survive and perpetuate through information.

The inert system is part of whole system where time and energy is changing in cyclic manner. It should be noted all life exist in 12 hour day and night cycle, 12 month climatic cycle, and 12 year cycle and so on. This means the soul in order to survive make constant changes in the system. It survive the local fluctuations through breathing process, it survives the day and night, by unwinding and creating new information periodically against time and changing the left and right. It survives bigger time cycle, by meiotic division and reproduction where it creates new body out of he old thus conquers time.  

 

Life and Nature cannot be understood unless we understand creativity, information buildup and the complexity of living system. The complexity now could be understood as the product of 4 pairs of opposing forces acting from the environment on the Center or Soul. Se fig -11


This inert molecule could be understood as Soul and this led me to conclude that the fundamental unit of biological system is not paired, but 4 paired built in time.  It is a dynamic unit, connected to similar units in a dynamic manner. This can explain the complexity of life. The cores consist of six units the other two forms the linking units.

Now important thing is that Soul is a system that is balanced in space and it consists of two units. ABCD and EFGH [we discussed this previously]. They not only build information, but can separate to create its mirror images using matter from the body and thus create two worlds out of one. Thus there are two levels of defense for Soul against the forces disturbing it.

1] Information build up

2] Creation of two and multiples of two worlds out of one.   

The quantum collapse and reorganization in biological world needs to be understood from Life cycle that involves four stages, with a fifth stage where order is created out of disorder. These four stages are Birth to childhood, the first part of adulthood, the second part of adult hood, where “I” manifests, and the old-age that leads into death. Life is designed with fifth stage that is concealed in the four part cycle, where in the Father, the Creator gets concealed in the Mother to recreate and conquer time cycle and death.

Here it breaks down the old and creates new body out of the old. This means death does not exists. This conception and growth involves information renewal and advancement and creation of new worlds out of the old. If you visualize even one dynamic system or Soul or life in nature, then the nature cannot collapse into a point. The dynamic system can take the gravitational forces and convert into anti-gravitational force. This invariably means answer to our fundamental questions of nature cannot come from material world but from living world. The universe is living and it needs to be understood in biological way. This gives credence to the ancient knowledge system.   

If I am to put it in scientific and simple manner, nature is the product of two systems one is having non-equilibrium in space and the other is having equilibrium in space. The latter is enclosed in the former. Visualize the Soul enclosed in the body.  The body by virtue of non equilibrium seeks equilibrium, and this manifest as stress on the equilibrium system that it encloses. The equilibrium system takes the forces and releases back into nature as reaction force causing what we visualize as expansion and contraction.  See Fig -11 

 








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