Greetings! This is Bikas. My brief CV is as follows: Born in Dec.
1952, in Calcutta, to Bimal K. Chakrabarti and Pratima Chakrabarti.
Got my Ph. D. Degree from Calcutta
University in 1979. After that, I was post-doctoral fellow at Department
of Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford and then at
Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne.
I joined Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics as faculty in 1983.
Married to Mrs. Kaberi Chakrabarti. Have two
sons: Kalyan Sundar Chakrabarti and Anindya Sundar Chakrabarti.
At present, Sr. Professor (Former Director),
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata
and Visiting Professor of Economics, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata.
I have professional interest in
statistical physics, condensed matter physics,
computational physics, and their application to social sciences.
See my papers, reviews or books.
Our ideas on quantum search techniques, together with the researches from a number of other groups, have led to important developments recently. The advantages of quantum tunneling (through steep but narrow effective barriers) in searching for the global solution(s) of NP-hard problems (avoiding the innumerable localized ones), shown first by us in 1989 and in the subsequent works on Quantum Annealing have ultimately led to an exciting development of a class of special-purpose (Analog) Quantum Computers. Some of its remarkably successful versions are now available commercially (e.g. , by D-Wave Systems) :
In 2015 NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory installed the D-Wave 2X having over 1000 qubits, which is understood to be hundred
million times faster for some typical computationally hard jobs
: See the (highlighted) last part of the entry "CITATIONS OF OUR WORK INCLUDE" for some typical recent citations in this context.
Authored/co-authored more than 180 papers in refereed journals,
7 reviews [1 in Eur. Phys. J. B, 2 in Phys. Rep. &
4 in Rev. Mod. Phys. (out of
a total 34 reviews published in RMP so far, authored/coauthored by
at least one scientist from India, since 1929; source:
'Affiliation' India search at the journal site -- Errata excluded)], 9
books [3 Cambridge Univ. Press, 2 Oxford Univ. Press, 2 Springer, 2 Wiley-VCH].
According to Web of Science, my papers have received more than 3000
citations (with the highest cited paper having more than 290 citations)
and my Hirsch index is 27 and according to
Google Scholar, my
publications (including books) have received more than 7000
citations (with the highest cited paper & book each having more than 300
citations) and my Hirsch index is 39 (and i10-index 113). According to
ResearchGate, my RG score is in the top 2.5% of its members'.
A few representative
♦ (Review) Papers :
- Dynamic Transitions and Hysteresis
(with M. Acharyya), Reviews of Modern Physics (1999)
- Kinetic Exchange Models for
Income and Wealth Distributions (with A. Chatterjee), European Physical
- Quantum Annealing and Analog Quantum
Computations (with A. Das), Reviews Modern Physics Physics (2008)
- Failure Processes in Elastic Fiber Bundles
(with A. Hansen & S. Pradhan), Reviews of Modern Physics(2010)
- Statistical Physics of Fracture, Friction and
(with S. Biswas, T. Hatano, N. Kato & H. Kawamura), Reviews of Modern Physics
Mechanics of Competitive Resource
Allocation using Agent-Based Models (with A. Chakraborti,A. Chatterjee,
D. Challet, M. Marsili & Y.-C. Zhang), Physics Reports (2015).
♦ Books :
Econophysics of Income & Wealth Distributions (with A. Chakraborti, S. R. Chakravarty & A. Chatterjee), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (2013)
- Sociophysics: An Introduction (with P. Sen), Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford (2014)
- Quantum Phase Transitions in Transverse Field Spin Models:
From Statistical Physics to Quantum Information (with G. Aeppli,
U. Divakaran, A. Dutta, T. F. Rosenbaum & D. Sen),
Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge & Delhi
Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown & Earthquake
(with S. Biswas & P. Ray), Wiley-VCH, Berlin (2015).
- Quantum Spin Glasses, Annealing and Computation
(with S. Tanaka & R. Tamura), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge & Delhi (2017)
Supervised Ph.D. theses of:
S. S. Manna (1987)
* A. K. Roy (1988)
* P. Ray (1989)
* M. Ghosh (1992)
* P. Raychaudhuri (Sen) (1993)
* K. Barat (1995)
* M. Acharyya (1996)
* A. Dutta (2000)
* P. Bhattacharyya (2000)
* A. Misra (2001)
* A. Chakraborti (2003)
* S. Pradhan (2005)
* A. Chatterjee (2008)
* A. Das (2008)
* A. Ghosh (2014)
* S. Biswas (2015) * A. Rajak (Jointly with A. Basu; 2016) .
Journal Editorial Board member of: ♦ European Physical Journal
B (present) ♦ Indian Journal of Physics (present) ♦ Journal of Economic
Interaction and Coordination (present) ♦ Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (present)
♦ Natural Science (past)
♦ Pramana -- Journal of Physics (past) ♦ Scientific Reports (present) ♦ SciPost (present)
Book Series Editor of: ♦
Physics of Society: Econophysics
& Sociophysics (with M. Gallegati, A. Kirman & H. E. Stanley)
of Cambridge University Press
♦ Statistical Physics of Fracture & Breakdown (with Purusattam Ray), Wiley:
I, II, III, IV
CITATIONS OF OUR WORK INCLUDE:
Editorial of Topical Issue on Physics in
The European Physical Journal B, Vol 57 (2007) pp 121-125, incorporating
2 of ours, in an Editorial Choice-list of 21 "exemplifying pioneering"
(earliest in 1872)
in "Economy & Political
♦ Discussions on "pioneering"
"Chakrabarti's research group" (p 187; pp 185-206) in Applied
Partial Differential Equations (by P A Markowich) Springer, Berlin
Entry on Econophysics (by J. Barkley Rosser, Economist)
in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Ed., Vol 2,
Macmillan, NY (2008), pp 729-732, beginning with "According to Bikas
Chakrabarti (...), the term 'econophysics' was neologized in 1995
at the second Statphys-Kolkata conference in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta),
India ..." . * Also, Econophysics has been assigned
the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS)
number 89.65Gh by the American Institute of Physics.
Discussions on "influential" papers (p. 2803)
from "Kolkata School" (p. 2808; pp. 2800-2826; see also pp. 2792-2800)
in Encyclopedia of Complexity &
System Science, Vol. 3, Springer, New York
Discussions on "influential" (p. 1705) & "elegant" (p. 1711)
from "Kolkata School" (p. 1711) by V M Yakovenko (Physics) & J Barkley Rosser (Economics) in Reviews of Modern Physics (2009).
Feature article on "The Physics of our Finances", saying "So in
2000, Bikas Chakrabarti's team in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
in Kolkata, India ... [introduced another model with distributed savings,
and with] this tweak, the model correctly reproduced the whole
wealth distribution curve ... If these simple models do capture something
of the essence of the real-world economics, then they offer some
good news." , p. 41, New Scientist, 28 July, 2012
[See reproduced in the last section of this document].
♦ Special issue on "Econophysics: Perspectives & Prospect",
saying "The physicists, however, did not present a parallel
perspective of this social science, at least not until recently
when eminent physicists like Eugene H. Stanley, Bikas K. Chakrabarti,
J. Doyne Farmer, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud and many others having
joined the fray to create this new field which has now started to
gain academic respect. ... As mentioned, Kolkata, India, occupies a
crucial role in the history of this new science which has amongst
its pioneers an Indian face, too. Bikas Chakrabarti of Saha
Institute of Nuclear Physics, an eminent condensed matter physicist
in his own rights, is, along with Stanley, one of the foremost
contributors to this field. ...", in the
and "... He (Bikas) likes to make something really happen. So he
started to have meetings on econophysics and I think the
first one was probably in 1995 (he decided to start it in 1993–1994).
Probably the first meeting in my life on this field that I went to
was this meeting. In that sense Kolkata is — you can say — the nest
from which the chicken was born and Bikas gets, deservingly so, a lot
of credit for that because it takes a lot of work to have a meeting
on a field that does not really exist, so to say! After all who is
going to come? If you have a meeting on standard fields like
superconductivity there are many people who were happy to come to
India to attend that meeting, but econophysics was something
different. So he should get a lot of credit for this. ..." ,
said Eugene Stanley in his Interview (pp. 73-78) in
Society & Management Review, Vol. 2 (July 2013)
© 2013 Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, SAGE Publications.
♦ The book Interacting Multiagent Systems, Oxford Univ. Press (2014) by Pareschi & Toscani (Dept.
Math., Univs. Ferrara & Pavia) dicussed the "Chakraborti-Chakrabarti model"
as well as "Chatterjee-Chakrabarti-manna model" of income/wealth
distributions in sections 5.3 (p. 167),
5.7 (pp. 205-210) and elsewhere. * In their paper Physica A (2016), Pareschi, Velluccci &
Zanella (Dept. Math., Comp. Sc. & Engg., Univs. Ferrara & Rome) say "After
the seminal models for wealth/opinion exchange
for a multi-agent system
introduced in Chakraborti & Chakrabarti (European Physical Journal B, 2000), Toscani (Communications in Mathematical
Sciences, 2006) and Sen & Chakrabarti (Sociophysics: An Introduction, Oxford
Univ. Press, 2013) some recent works considered ...". * The book
Guidance of an Enterprise Economy, MIT Press (2016)
by Shubik & Smith (Math. Inst. Economics, Yale
University & Santa Fe Institute) noted: "It was shown in Chakraborti
& Chakrabarti (European Physical Journal B, 2000) that uniform saving
propensity of the agents constrains the entropy maximizing dynamics in
such a way that the distribution becomes gamma-like, while (quenched)
nonuniform saving propensity of the agents leads to a steady state
distribution with a Pareto-like power-law tail (Chatterjee, Chakrabarti
& Manna, Physica A, 2004). A detailed discussions of such steady state
distributions for these and related kinetic exchange models is provided
in Econophysics of Income & Walth Distributions (Chakrabarti, Chakraborti,
Chakravarty & Chatterjee, Cambridge University Press, 2013)." in pp. 75-76
and elsewhere. * Also, the book "Macro-Econophysics",
Cambridge University Press (to be published in 2017) by
Aoyama, Fujiwara, Ikeda, Iyetomi, Souma & Yoshikawa (Depts.
Physics & Economics, Univs. Kyoto, Hyogo,
Niigata, Nihon & Tokyo) begins with a "Foreword" coming from B. K. Chakrabarti.
FOCUS article "Breakthrough in Quantum Computation", saying
"A new class of
quantum computers utilizing quantum tunneling has been achieved
(as pioneered by D-Wave with their 128 superconducting logic elements).
The idea of computation using quantum annealing technique was first mooted
by a group of Calcutta based scientists ..." in its Editorial Note
and "... The seminal proposal (of Bikas Chakrabarti and his team from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta) was taken up by other groups in the world ...",
said Indrani Bose in
Science & Culture (Indian Science News Association),
Vol. 79 (Sept-Oct, 2013)
pp. 381-382. See also
the FOCUS article "Quantum
Annealing & Computation: A Brief Documentary Note", Science & Culture
(Indian Science News Association),
Vol. 79 (Nov-Dec, 2013) pp. 485-500
see arxiv version
For recent discussions, see Nature Physics (March 2014) by Boixo et al. (Univ. S. California,
ETH, ...) saying "The phenomenon of quantum tunneling suggests that it
can be more efficient to explore the state space quantum mechanically in a
quantum annealer [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti Physical Review B (1989);
Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki & Nishimori,
Physical Review E (1998)]." ; * International Journal of Quantum
Information (June 2014) by Cohen & Tamir (Tel Aviv & Bar-Ilan
Univs.) saying "Quantum annealing was first discussed by Ray
et al. in 1989 [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review (1989)]."; * and the collection of 'Discussion & Debate' papers
on Quantum Annealing: The Fastest Route to Quantum Computation? European Physical
Journal: Special Topics (January 2015), where e.g.,
Silevitch, Rosenbaum & Aeppli (Univ. Chicago, Caltech, Swiss Fed. Inst.
Tech., ...) say "A quantum computer has the potential to
exploit effects such as entanglement and tunneling and that appear on the
atomic and molecular size scales to solve such problems dramatically
faster than conventional computers [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti,
Physical review B (1989); Farhi et al., Science (2001); Santoro et al,
Science (2002), Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008);
Johnson et al., Nature (2011)].".
- Heim et al.
(ETH & Google, Zurich) in
Science (April 2015)
say "Quantum annealing
[Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical
Review B (1989); Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters
(1994); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998);
Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews
of Modern Physics (2008)] uses quantum tunneling
instead of thermal
excitations to escape from local minima, which can be advantageous in systems
with tall but narrow barriers, which are easier to tunnel through than to
thermally climb over.".
Mandra, Guerreschi, and Aspuru-Guzik (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ. ) in their
Physical Review A (December 2015) begin
with the introductory sentence "In 2001, Farhi et al. [Science
(2001)] proposed a new paradigm to carry
out quantum computation ... that builds on previous results developed by the
statistical & chemical physics communities in the context of quantum
annealing techniques [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B
(1989); Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998);
Finnila et al., Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Lee & Berne, Journal of
Physical Chemistry A (2000)].".
- Boixo et al. (Google, NASA Ames, D-Wave Group, ...; & acknowledging
discussions with Farhi, Leggett, et al.)
in their Nature Communications (January 2016) start
the paper with the sentence "Quantum annealing
[Finnila et al. Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki &
Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., arXiv (2002);
Brooke et al., Science (1999);
Santoro et al., Science (2002)]
is a technique inspired by classical simulated annealing [Ray,
Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989)] that
aims to take advantage of quantum tunnelling.".
- Tran et al. (Quantum AI Lab & Intelligent Systems Division, NASA Ames, ...)
in their Technical Report no. WS-16-12, Proc. 30th AAAI Conf. on AI (March 2016) on 'Scheduling a Mars Lander ' say "While
large-scale universal quantum computers are likely decades away, special
purpose quantum computational devices are emerging. The
first of such are quantum annealers, special purpose hardware designed
to run quantum annealing [Farhi et al.,
arXiv (2000); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics
(2008); Johnson et al. Nature (2011); Smelyanskiy et al.,
arXiv (2012)], a metaheuristic that can make use of certain
non-classical effects, such as quantum tunneling and quantum interference
[Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008); Boixo
et al., arXiv (2014)]
for computational purposes.".
- Wang, Chen & Jonckheere (Dept. Electr. Engg., Univ. S. California) begin their
Reports (May, 2016)
by saying "Quantum annealing ...
is a generic way to efficiently get close-to-optimum solutions in many NP-hard
optimization problems ... (&) is believed to utilize quantum tunneling
instead of thermal hopping to more efficiently search for the optimum solution
in the Hilbert space of a quantum annealing device such as the D-Wave
[Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989); Kadowaki &
Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998)].".
Matsuura et al. (Niels Bohr Inst., Yukawa Inst., Tokyo Inst. Tech., Univ.
S. California) in their Physical Review Letters (June, 2016)
introduce by saying "Quantum annealing, a quantum
algorithm to solve optimization problems [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical
Review E (1998); Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989);
Brooke et al., Science (1999); Brooke et al., Nature (2001); Santoro et al.,
Science (2002); Kaminsky et al., Quantum Computing (Springer, 2004)]
that is a special case of universal adiabatic quantum computing, has
garnered a great deal of recent attention as it provides an accessible path
to large-scale, albeit nonuniversal, quantum computation using present-day
La Cour, Troupe & Mark (Appl. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas at Austin) write
in the Introduction of their
Journal of Statistical Physics (June, 2016) , "A related
optimization procedure, quantum annealing, has been proposed for solving hard
optimisation problems [Farhi et al, Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews
of Modern Physics (2008)]. ... Several generations of devices that implement
quantum annealing for the Ising model have been built by D-wave systems, Inc.
and used to solve a variety of optimisation problems ... .".
Muthukrishnan, Albash & Lidar (Depts. Physics, Chemistry, Electrical
Engineering, ..., Univ. S. California) write
in the Introduction of their
Physical Review X (July, 2016) , "It is often stated that
quantum annealing [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989);
Finnila et al. Chemical Physics Letters (1994); Kadowaki &
Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das &
Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)] uses tunneling instead
of thermal excitations to escape from local minima, which can be advantageous
in systems with tall but thin barriers that are easier to tunnel through
than to thermally climb over [Heim et al., Science (2015); Das &
Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008), Suzuki, Inoue & Chakrabarti,
Quantum Ising Phases & Transitions, Springer (2013)]. ... We demonstrate that
the role of tunneling is significantly more subtle ...".
Knysh (NASA Ames, California) in his investigations in
Nature Communications (August, 2016) on
some eventual "bottlenecks", starts by
writing "Quantum algorithms offer hope for tackling computer
science problems that are intractable for classical
computers. ... Those problems are targeted by the quantum
adiabatic annealing algorithm [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review
E (1998); Farhi et al., arXiv (2000); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews
of Modern Physics (2008)]."
Takata et al (Japan
Sc. & Tech. Agency, Univ. Tokyo, Stanford Univ.) in their
Scientific Reports (September, 2016) write "Meta-heuristic
algorithms have been vastly studied to attack this (NP -hard)
intractable problem. Simulated annealing (SA) is one of the most
prevalent and successful methods in practice. Quantum annealing
(QA) [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998); Das & Chakrabarti,
Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)] has been proposed as a
method which can potentially give better solutions than SA.
The hardware to implement QA has also been recently developed
and its true performance is under consideration.".
- Wild et al. (Depts. Phys. & Engg., Harvard Univ., Caltech, CUNY, Tech. Univ. Munich, Univ. California Berkeley) in their Physical Review Letters (October 2016)
start by saying "The adiabatic theorem provides a powerful tool to
characterize the evolution of a quantum system under a time-dependent
Hamiltonian. ... Adiabatic evolution can also serve as a platform for
quantum information processing [Farhi et al., arXiv 2000; Farhi et al.,
Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008);
Bapst et al., Physics Reports (2013), Santoro & Tosatti, Journal of
Physics A: Math. Gen. (2006); Laumann et al., European Physical
Journal: Spl. Top. (2015)]."
- Chancellor et al. (Depts. Phys. & Engg., Univs. Durham, Oxford, London)
in the introduction of their
Scientific Reports (November, 2016) say "There have been many
promising advances in quantum annealing, since the idea
that quantum fluctuations could help explore rough energy landscapes
[Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical Review B (1989)], through
the algorithm first being explicitly proposed [Finnila et al. Chemical
Physics Letters (1994)], further refined [Kadowaki &
Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998)], and the basic concepts
demonstrated experimentally in a condensed
matter system [Brooke et al., Science (1999)]. ... For an overview ...
please see Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)".
- Rams, Mohseni & del Campo (Instute of Physics, Krakow, Google Quantum
AI, Venice, CA & Univ. Massachusetts, Boston) start their
New Journal of Physics (December, 2016) paper with the sentence
"Techniques to control or assist adiabatic dynamics are of broad interest
in quantum technologies, including quantum simulation and quantum computation
[Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008), Cirac & Zoller,
Nature Physics (2012)].".
- Ohzeki (Tohoku University) start his Scientific Reports (January, 2017)
paper with "Quantum annealing (QA)... was originally proposed as a numerical
computational algorithm [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical Review E (1998)]
inspired by simulated annealing [Kirkpatrick, Gelatt & Vecchi,
, and the exchange Monte Carlo simulation [Hukushima & Nemeto Journal
of the Physical Society of Japan (1996)]. In QA, the quantum tunneling
effect efficiently finds the ground state even in the many-valley structure
of the energy landscape therein [Ray, Chakrabarti & Chakrabarti, Physical
Review B (1989), Apolloni, Carvalho & de Falco, Stochastic Process & their
Applications (1989), Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews of Modern Physics (2008)]."
- Dridi & Alghassi (1QB Information Technologies, Vancouber) in their
Scientific Reports (February, 2017) mentions in their introduction
"Prime factorization also
connects to many branches of mathematics; two branches relevant to us
are computational algebraic geometry [Cox et al., Using Algebrig Geometry,
Springer, 1998] and quantum annealing [Kadowaki & Nishimori, Physical
Review E (1998); Farhi et al., Science (2001); Das & Chakrabarti, Reviews
of Modern Physics (2008)].".
AWARDS & DISTINCTIONS:
- Young Scientist Award of INSA (1984)
- Professeur Invité, University of Paris, UP13, Lab-PMTM, CNRS (1988)
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award, CSIR India (1997)
- Fellow, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore (Elected, 1997)
- Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (Elected, 2003)
- Honorary Visiting Professor, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (2007- )
- Outstanding Referee Award of the American Physical Society (2010)
- Professeur Invité, École Centrale Paris (2010)
- J C Bose National Fellow, DST India (2011-'20)
- Excellent Reviewer Award, Physica A, Elsevier (2013)
- Fellow, SciPost Editorial College (Physics) (2016)
- Executive Editor (Region: India)
European Physical Journal B (2016- )
- Phone: +91 33 2321 4869 (direct)
+91 33 2337 5345 (extn. 2453)
- Fax: +91 33 2337 4637
- E-mail: bikask.chakrabarti[at]saha.ac.in