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The Big Bang Theory is Absurd

formerly titled

Some Big Bang Supporting Assertions Challenged


By Vincent Sauvé



A resource for Big Bang skeptics and critics. Hyper links provided below are to more pages of Big Bang cosmology critics and other Big Bang theory doubters who are on the non creationist side of the topic. 


Purpose and Introduction

The purpose of this website is to provide the public with reasons to be skeptical of Big Bang cosmology. Why do this? Big Bang supporters have been presenting a cosmology to us that is incredibly absurd. For instance, they tell us that the entire universe arose from an infinitely hot and dense region, much smaller than an atom. Can this be described as anything but absurd? There are scientists who don’t have a problem with describing our universe, or some aspect of it, as being absurd. Well, there was a time when the observed paths of the planets, with their temporary apparent retrograde motions, seemed to be quite absurd. This visual absurdity was the result of the primitive, egocentric practice of placing the Earth at the center of the cosmos. Was Nature absurd then, or was it peoples' understanding of the situation that was absurd? This is the premise that I work with:  We will always have a choice between either an absurd Nature, or peoples' view of Nature being absurd. My study of the history of science has taught me that Nature is never absurd, but peoples' ideas about Nature often are.

Besides the absurdity of the whole thing, it is my view that Big Bang cosmology is the sophisticate's creation story. The expression Big Bang cosmythology is fitting. For whenever I dug deep into an aspect of modern day cosmology, I discovered that the real history, combined with reasonable logic, doesn't provide for a kind view of the whole affair. Rather, it seems to be a massive (conscious or unconscious) pandering to the prejudice of a culture brought up on the belief of a creator who created us, and the entire cosmos. For much more on this point click here.


Note added July 2000 after some conversations with others:

Although I am one of several people who critique the Big Bang for its creationist aspects, this does not necessarily mean that an infinite non expanding universe is atheistic. Atheism is much more compatible with a universe infinite in time and space. Yet, most peoples' view of God is of an infinite being. It seems likely that an infinite being would want something to do during his (or her?) infinite existence. Wouldn't His creation also be infinite? Does it really make sense that He could be content with himself (or other gods?) for all eternity before He decides to create a universe? An infinite universe and an infinite God are quite compatible concepts. This site is only a threat to those who hold to a view of a special creation event whether it is 6,000 years ago or 13,000,000,000 years ago.



If one has beliefs that the universe is, or should be, a certain way, it is only natural that one gives importance to corroborating evidence or arguments that enhance the beliefs.  None of us are without our influences, whether they are cultural, religious, philosophically idealist, materialist or whatever.  My personal prejudice is that of atheistic materialism; of a universe infinite in space and time, in eternal motion, and of the conservation of matter and energy.

Now for a few arguments by Big Bang creationist boosters for a finite expanding universe.  The pro arguments are from George Smoot and Keay Davidson’s book Wrinkles in Time.  The con arguments are not found in their book, which is suggestive of their prejudice for a “created” universe. The pro arguments are not necessarily their original arguments, but since they treat the arguments as valid without giving criticism, they are included as pro arguments.

The arguments presented here are made more concise to save space.


Pro
:  The effects of gravity on an infinite universe would lead to an unstable situation in which there would be a collapse into a giant fireball. A way out was suggested by Newton and involves having the stars be uniformly distributed. This thereby resolves the problem that the slightest movement of a single star would trigger gravitational perturbations throughout the system, leading to collapse into a single heap or alternatively into countless heaps.

Con:  In an infinite universe uniform distribution is not necessary. Imbalances lead to the formation of stars, solar systems, galaxies, indeed, everything we already see. There is absolutely no ground to believe that an infinite universe could collapse. Gravity is nullified at certain scales, scales that are related to the inhomogeneity/homogeneity of matter, and to motion, if the motion is free moving or free falling (inertial motion).  The strongest gravitational effect is to be found at the edge of a massive body or conglomeration of matter. There is no edge to an infinite universe. As a thought experiment visualize what the gravitational result is for any body at the center of any larger more massive body. It does not matter how much matter surrounds you. The gravitational effect is zero if you were able to find yourself at the center of the moon, earth or the sun. (Thought experiments are valuable even if impossible to perform. We are just considering gravity here. If necessary, visualize being in a ten foot sphere that shields you from temperature and pressure, et cetera.)  Being at the center of a more massive body in inertial motion is the same as being anywhere in inertial motion in an infinite universe. For more on this topic click here .

Pro:  The sky is dark. If the universe were infinite every line of sight would be filled with stars and the sky would be white hot. The solution can't be in the knowledge that interstellar clouds of matter dim and block the light because starlight would eventually heat the clouds until they glowed, making the night sky burn brightly. The solution is that the universe is finite in time and the universe expands; light from the more distant stars is still speeding toward us but hasn't reached us yet.

Con:  Our solar system has been here for a very long time, some 4.5 billion years. The planets, moons, and even the dust in our solar system must (obviously) be dissipating and transforming the heat from our sun and the little we get from the rest of the cosmos (The chemistry of our biosphere is a good example of how radiation from our star is converted to other non heating uses). The universe may be infinite, but the lifetime of stars is not. The typical lifetime of luminous stars is 10 billion years. To fill a static universe with starlight in thermodynamic equilibrium with stars requires that stars shine continuously for 10^23 years—many, many times longer. (See: Edward Harrison, "Another look at the Big Bang," Nature, Vol. 352, 15 August 1991, p. 574). The sky is only dark in the visible spectrum. The universe is illuminated at the wavelengths that we can't see such as the wavelength that corresponds to the microwave temperature of 2.7K.  Being that all bodies with temperatures above absolute zero emit electromagnetic radiation, this may simply be the mean temperature of a quasi-static infinite universe, as some scientists have suggested. (See: Paul Marmet, Science, Vol. 240, p. 705, 1988)

Pro:  We live in a universe whose space is currently expanding. The cosmological redshift is due to the stretching of light by the expansion of space. The light from distant galaxies takes longer to reach us and thus is stretched to longer wavelengths by expanding space than is light from nearby galaxies. Hence, expansion of space produces the Hubble law. If space expands at a constant rate, this relationship is the linear Hubble law—the redshift is proportional to distance.

Con: (a) Expanding space is a nonsensical concept. Only material things can be logically described as capable of expansion. Expanding space-time metric seems to be something invented by Big Bang cosmologists because of the dilemma they face of a universe that, at the scale of 300 million light years, appears to be roughly homogenous and isotropic—a geometry properly characteristic of an infinite non expanding universe.  Because of this, the expanding balloon analogy is presented (as in their book) to attempt to visualize how the homogenous expansion works.  The problem (with their analogy) that they cannot overcome is that our universe has four dimensions—three spatial dimensions, and one dimension that describes motion and change which we refer to as the time dimension. The balloon analogy is one spatial dimension short of that needed to describe our real universe.

Particle physicist Steven Weinberg and astrophysicist Martin Rees had this to say in reply to questions by readers of New Scientist:  “Popular accounts, and even astronomers, talk about expanding space. But how is it possible for space, which is utterly empty, to expand? How can “nothing” expand? ‘Good question,’ says Weinberg. ‘The answer is: space does not expand. Cosmologists sometimes talk about expanding space—but they should know better.’ Rees agrees wholeheartedly. ‘Expanding space is a very unhelpful concept.’ ” (See: "All you ever wanted to know about the big bang..." New Scientist, 17 April 1993, pp. 32-3).

(b) Hubble, in actual fact, was a life-long doubter of velocity being the cause of cosmological redshifts*. And, (surprise) his linear law of redshifts applied to a non expanding universe. Here is one of many examples from his writings:  [In the following quote, for those of you new to the history of astronomy, "nebulae" as used here is to be translated as "galaxy," explained at my web page on Hubble's views.]

“Since the corresponding velocity of recession is the same fraction of the velocity of light, the nebulae in the most distant cluster observed, if they are actually receding, will appear 13 per cent fainter than they would appear if they were stationary. The difference is small but, fortunately, the measures can be made with fair accuracy. The results may be stated simply. If the nebulae are stationary, the law of red shifts is sensibly linear; red shifts are a constant multiple of distances. In other words, each unit of light path contributes the same amount of red shift. On the other hand, if the nebulae are receding, and the dimming factors are applied, the scale of distances is altered, and the law of red shifts is no longer linear.”
(See: Edwin Hubble, "The Problem of the Expanding Universe," American Scientist, Vol. 30, No. 2, April 1942, pp. 110-1)  For more see the Hubble link below.


* Today (January, 26, 2012) I discovered, after more than a dozen years presenting the truth about Hubble, that finally, a major monthly science publication published a letter by two researchers that challenges the fairy tale that Hubble discovered an expanding universe. From the last paragraph:

    "There is great irony in these false-hoods still being promoted today. Hubble himself never came out in favor of an expanding universe; on the contrary, he doubted it to the end of his days. It was Lemaitre who was the first to combine theoretical and observational arguments to show that we live in an expanding universe."  

See: "Lemaitre's Hubble relationship" in the letters section, page 8, August 2011, Physics Today.


Those last words are the letter writers opinions based on their acceptance of popular theory. In my, and in Hubble's opinion, the cosmological redshifts are caused by something else besides velocity.



For comments please contact:

Vincent Sauvé  at  vsskeptica@gmail.com




ON THE SUBJECT OF REDSHIFTS

This section will feature comments and links to other sites that will be of value to those of us who are skeptical or critical of the widely accepted interpretation that redshifts equate with velocity in the case of galaxy groups expanding away from other galaxy groups, which is the foundation of the expanding universe idea.

Let me be clear that I am not saying that a light source moving away from us will not cause a redshift, it certainly does. But there are other things that can cause a redshift as well.

An idea that I think has a lot of merit and is worth further investigation as an alternative interpretation for cosmological redshifts is the idea that quanta loses “energy”, (also referred to as “momentum”) by way of gravitational interaction. This is also referred to as “Gravitational viscosity” in Ernst Fischer’s abstract of his paper: “Global momentum loss in a non expanding universe,” (Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 190, no. 1, April 1992, pp. 149-153.) Also see the abstract of his paper "A cosmological model without singularity," (Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 207, no. 2, September 1993, pp. 203-219).

Big Bang supporters Sten Odenwald and Rick Fienberg wrote in their article Galaxy Redshifts Reconsidered (Sky & Telescope, February 1993, pp 31-5):

“As noted with a hint of frustration by cosmologists such as Steven Weinberg and Jaylant Narlikar and John Wheeler, ‘The frequency of light is also affected by the gravitational field of the universe, and it is neither useful nor strictly correct to interpret the frequency shift of light...in terms of the special relativistic Doppler effect.’ ”

Note that it is often asserted that “Big Bang cosmology is based on Einstein’s general theory of relativity.”  With regard to this, it is of absolute importance to keep in mind that Einstein and others applied general relativity theory to a model that is finite.  Relativity theory does not dictate that the universe is finite. (More on this subject will be found in my essay “Is the Big Bang Cosmology Good Science, Or ‘Creation Science’ Par Excellence” available by mail without charge, and at the link at the end of the paragraph at the first CON argument above.) When either Newton’s mechanics or relativity theory is applied to an infinite model there will be no overall contraction or expansion.




Other pages of this site:

If author is not referred to here that means the writing was done by myself.


Why Does the World Exist?; Why Does the Universe Exist?; Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing?  New


Letter to Mercury, magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific regarding a 2002 article "A Universe From Nothing" by Alex Filippenko


The Big Bang Religion: Scientists Speak For Themselves


Letter to a friend regarding George Smoot's book Wrinkles in Time


Letter: Evidence for and against expansion and evolution of the universe


Physics or Metaphysics? A review of Victor Stenger's book The Unconscious Quantum


Letter: Flawed alternatives to Big Bang cosmology: a Plasma cosmology model


An eloquent Letter to the Editor: No start, no end of universe,  by Joseph Curran


Adolf Grunbaum and Paul Davies line up on the side of creationism


Chapter 15 from The Cult of the BIG BANG by William C. Mitchell


Is Dark Matter Just Molecular hydrogen?


Edwin Hubble...And The Myth That He Discovered An Expanding Universe


Letter to Skeptical Inquirer regarding the fantastic nature of BB cosmology


My letter to the editor of Mercury explaining why Alex Filippenko's Big Bang from nothing article should leave skeptics unconvinced.

 Click here




Interested in Einstein's relativity theory, or a clear understanding of space and time? See my essay:

Why Time is Absolute, and Relative, But Never Universal



Suggested links not hosted at this website: 


Optical Forces as a Redshift Mechanism: the "Spectral Transfer Redshift''  By Louis Marmet    NEW


Thanks to my prodding, A.K.T. Assis and M.C.D. Neves' History of the 2.7 K Temperature Prior to Penzias and Wilson  is now available on the Internet. This is a very important paper.  From their abstract: "We show that the models based on a Universe in dynamic equilibrium without expansion predicted the 2.7 K temperature prior to and better than models based on the Big Bang."


Margaret Wertheim's superb concise articles on cosmology as part of her Faith and Reason series for PBS


Why the Big Bang is Wrong  by John Kierein


Did the Universe Have a Beginning?  by Tom Van Flandern


Janus-Faced Cosmology  by Robert L. Oldershaw


Big Bang Cosmology Meets an Astronomical Death and A New Non-Doppler Redshift  by Paul Marmet


Cosmology and the Big Bang  by David Pratt (I do not endorse the authors theosophy comments. Otherwise, the article is a nice introduction to BB cosmology.)


The Big Bang Myth  by Keith Stein 

Quantum Gaps in the Big Bang Theory:
Why our best explanation of how the universe evolved must be fixed--or replaced

The above is the exact title from the front of the April 2011 issue of Scientific American.  Finally, a leading contributor to the idea of cosmic inflation comes clean and discusses the serious untenable issues with the idea. (I don't think cosmic inflation has ever been worthy of being called a theory.)



New and Old Galaxies Show Up in All the Wrong Places

In an infinite universe it would be expected that there is a mixed population of new and old galaxies both near and far in time and space. The news report is at the bottom of the online Discover article linked above. In the print magazine the article is on page 61, Jan. 2006.



An Open Letter to the Scientific Community

by many scientists critical of the Big Bang model.



 It's official:  The Big Bang is now a real religion!

Check out this surprising email correspondence. 



The Case Against Cosmology

By M.J. Disney

Abstract:

It is argued that some of the recent claims for cosmology are grossly overblown. Cosmology rests on a very small database: it suffers from many fundamental difficulties as a science (if it is a science at all) whilst observations of distant phenomena are difficult to make and harder to interpret. It is suggested that cosmological inferences should be tentatively made and sceptically received. 



In standard BB theory, cosmological, as opposed to Doppler, redshifts are the result of expanding empty space. The idea that empty space, as part of a space-time metric can have the properties we normally associate with material bodies, is unsatisfactory to many of us. Additionally, we should doubt that the universe is expanding because the geometry of galaxy distribution is what one would expect of an infinite non expanding universe, i.e., we don't observe galaxy clusters being closer to other galaxy clusters in the distant (deep-time) universe. Yet, in addition to Doppler shifts, there are also cosmological redshifts. These cosmological redshifts need an explanation (other than the hypothesized and unsatisfactory expanding space idea). A physics professor from France contacted me informing me of some papers he has published that suggest a mechanism that may account for cosmological redshifts.

A Doppler-like strong light-matter interaction

The difficult discrimination of Impulse Stimulated Raman Scattering redshift against Doppler redshift

By J. Moret-Bailly



Not infrequently, it is claimed by Big Bang supporters that various light elements can only be accounted for by processes during the first moments of the hypothesized Big Bang event. This paper advances the position that a BB event was not necessary, 
and that stars can account for these light elements.

The Origin Of Helium And The Other Light Elements

By G. Burbidge and F. Hoyle


An essay I highly recommend on the subject of the unproved and ad hoc nature of much of the new physics. Modern cosmologies marriage with the new physics should be cause for concern for Big Bang advocates.

The new physics--Physical or mathematical science? 

By Robert L. Oldershaw



The Big Bang
  This is a chapter from the
 book Reason in Revolt. To purchase it click here.  Be sure to read the sections An Empty Abstraction and Thoughts in a Vacuum. This is very good writing from two Marxist theoreticians.



Glenn Borchardt
, director of the Progressive Science Institute is starting to make his book The Scientific Worldview available online .  Much of his book is valuable in showing why the Big Bang paradigm is nonsense. There is much food for thought in his book.  Glenn is one of the people who co-signed a letter to 
Skeptical Inquirer with me.

Update: Glenn has published his book, now renamed  The Ten Assumptions of Science: Toward a New Scientific Worldview. It is available at http://www.scientificphilosophy.com


I'm now hosting on my site a very important paper by Paul Marmet that explains how the cosmological Doppler effect can easily be accounted for by the new discoveries of molecular hydrogen throughout the universe. We now have the alternative explanation for cosmological redshifts that doesn't involve creationist nonscientific assumptions.  Click here


COSMOLOGISTS STRETCH TO EXPLAIN BIRTH OF GALAXIES

Click here

"...in most models the result is more or less predetermined by the assumptions initially put in."
"All it means [is] that they've put in a prescription that more or less guarantees that they need to get out this particular answer."

Charles Steidel
--Astronomer at the California Institute of Technology


 
Here's a fun tongue-in-cheek essay:

 What Big Bang?  by Alexander T. Shulgin



"Are you sure that the anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are really cosmological rather than purely Galactic in origin?"
[Authors desired title. Actual title may be "A conspicuous increase of Galactic contamination over CMBR anisotropies at large angular scales"] See this link for the abstract and paper:  http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/9903460

Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics 30.3.1999.

By Martin Lopez Corredoira

[I have what I believe may be referred to as an offprint of the abstract and the full 15 page paper. This paper is more oriented to the professional astronomer/cosmologist than is most of the other papers I recommend to my visitors, nevertheless, this paper is quite noteworthy. Particularly interesting comments like the following make the paper worth a read for the non-professional]:

 "One remarkable feature of MBRAs that rouses suspicion about their relationship to our Galaxy is the coincidence of the typical angular size of their structures with the typical angular size of nearby clouds. These structures have an appearance very similar to the clouds observed in other frequencies."


For another story along the same lines as this one but by a different researcher see this story:


http://news.discovery.com/space/cosmic-background-radiation-big-bang-120615.htm



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