Language Resources


Hebrew & Aramaic - Biblical & Classical

Dictionaries and Lexicons

A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature
(Luzac/Putnam, 1903) - by Marcus Jastrow

Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament
(1906) - by H.W.F. Gesenius

Bible Study Tools Lexicon
searchable Brown-Driver-Briggs database, keyed to Strong's, KJV and ASV

Lexicons - Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius for OT, Thayer's for NT- from bible.crosswalk.com:

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian

United Bible Societies - SDBH
online Biblical Hebrew lexicon with semantic domain information

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project
lexicon, bibliography and resources


Grammars

Hebrew for Christians Grammar Pages
a fairly complete and well organised manual

Books on Grammar:

A Compendium of Hebrew Grammar (McGlashan, 1847) - by W. De Burgh
A Grammar of the Hebrew Language (3rd ed.; Taylor and Walton, 1891) - by H. Hurwitz
A Hebrew Primer  (Bagster, 1878) - by C. Ball
A New Practical Hebrew Grammar  (Leypoldt and Holt, 1868) - by S. Deutsch
Accidence of Hebrew Grammar  (Herder, 1918) - by H. Coffey
An Introductory Hebrew Grammar  (17th ed.; T&T Clark, 1901) - by A.B. Davidson
Elements of Hebrew by an Inductive Method  (7th ed.; American Publication Society of Hebrew, 1886) - by W. Harper
Ewald’s Introductory Hebrew Grammar  (trans. F. Smith; 3rd ed.; Asher, 1870) - by H. Ewald
Exercises in Hebrew Grammar  (Allen, Morrill, and Wardwell, 1847) - by H. Hackett
Gesenius’s Hebrew Grammar  (17th ed.; Appleton, 1875) - by W.H.F. Gesenius, rev. by E. Rödiger, trans. T. J. Conant
Hebrew Grammar  (University of Missouri, 1877) - by Alexander Meyrowitz
Introductory Hebrew Method and Manual  (Scribner, 1896) - by W. Harper
Manual of Hebrew Grammar  (Luzac, 1898) - by J.D. Wijnkoop, trans. C. van den Biesen
Outlines of Hebrew Grammar  (Brockhaus, 1877) - by G. Bickell

Books on Nouns:

Basic Grammar of Hebrew Nouns - by Ralph W. Klein

Books on Syntax

Syntax of the Hebrew Language of the Old Testament  (8th ed.; T&T Clark, 1891) - by H. Ewald

Books on Verbs


Discussion groups

B-Hebrew
Forum

Miscellaneous

tool to create forms of Hebrew verbs

Scholars' Gateway
creating a parsing engine for Hebrew and various other projects


Greek - Classical, Septuagint & New Testament


Grammar

Vol. 1, Introduction, Orthography, and Accidence 
- by Henry St. John Thackeray (Cambridge University Pres, 1909)

Lexicons

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian

A Lexicon of Symmachus' Special Vocabulary in His Translation of the Psalms 
- by Johan Lust, TC 5 (2000); full text

Learning Greek


Biblical Greek: Notes to Croy
Lessons and Charts for NT Greek


Information Technology


Professional Organizations

Discussion group

B-Greek
- e-mail discussion group

Latin

Learning Latin


Digital Latin Lexicon 
free program to download


Aramaic

Dictionaries and Lexicons





Other Languages

Akkadian

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian

Lexica

Vol. 1, A, Part 2 (Oriental Institute, 1968)
Vol. 2, B (Oriental Institute, 1965)
Vol. 3, D (Oriental Institute, 1959)
Vol. 4, E (Oriental Institute, 1958)
Vol. 5, G  (Oriental Institute, 1956)
Vol. 6, H [Het] (Oriental Institute, 1958)
Vol. 7, I/J (Oriental Institute, 1960)
Vol. 8, K (Oriental Institute, 1971)
Vol. 9, L (Oriental Institute, 1973)
Vol. 10, M, part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1977)
Vol. 11, N, part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1980)
Vol. 12, P (Oriental Institute, 2005)
Vol. 13, Q  (Oriental Institute, 1982)
Vol. 14, R  (Oriental Institute, 1999)
Vol. 15, S  (Oriental Institute, 1984)
Vol. 16, S [Tsade]  (Oriental Institute, 1962)
Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 1  (Oriental Institute, 1989)
Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 2  (Oriental Institute, 1992)
Vol. 17, S [Shin], part 3  (Oriental Institute, 1992)
Vol. 18, T  (Oriental Institute, 2006)
Vol. 19, T [Tet] (Oriental Institute, 2006)
Vol. 21, Z (Oriental Institute, 1961)

Grammar

Articles and Essays

Word order variation of the verbal sentences in Amqi Akkadian
- by J P van der Westhuizen, Journal of Semitics 6/2 (1994)



Sumerian

Lexicography

Sumerian Lexicon
- compiled by John A. Halloran

History



Symbolic Counting Tokens from the Early Near East 
- by John A. Halloran; includes photographs

Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative  (Berlin mirror)

Sumerian Language Page
- maintained by John A. Halloran



Ugaritic

Grammar

The Third Masculine Plural of the Prefixed Form of the Verb in Ugaritic 
- by Deborah L. Dobrusin, Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 13 (1981) 5–14

Introduction to Ugaritic Grammar
- an online course



Syriac

Lexicon

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian



Translation Projects


The New English Annotated Translation of the Syriac Bible
- by Konrad D. Jenner, Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 2.2 (1999)

Coptic

Lexicon

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian

Coptic dictionary | search
amalgamation of Coptioc dictionaries, searchable





Arabic

Lexicon

2LetterLookup
Click on the first two letters to find words in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Latin, Syriac, Akkadian

Arabic-English Lexicon by Edward William Lane, ?, root A
Perseus' Lexicon in searchable text form and Unicode Arabic





Miscellanious

Other portals

Northwest Semitic Links
+ + + Fachverbindungen ins Internet + + + collected by Dr. Reinhard G. Lehmann. Forschungsstelle für Althebräische Sprache und Epigraphik / Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew & Epigraphy, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz

 

Pages of Links

iTanakh.org by R. Christopher Heard
LixiCity - for a wide variety of ancient languages


Comments