Jewish & Rabbinic Background

Rabbinic Traditions

Primary Sources

Mishnah, Tosephta, & both Talmuds in English & Hebrew, readable (& searchable by members) 

Holy Writings [Hebrew]
Tanach, Mishnah, Tosephta,Talmud etc...

first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah"

first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah"

Dávid Kaufmann and his collection
Kaufmann Mishnah as high resolution scans

compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah

Lieberman Institute
Bab. Talmud & Mishnah from separate manuscripts (Free Registration)


Primary Witnesses

Jewish Sources - Vaiqra Rabbah
Hebrew manuscripts in parallel

View the text from various manuscripts for





Talmud page layout Interactive Guide
with introductions to the main commentaries etc

Hellenistic Judaism


Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement
PACE project on Josephus' Wars -- prof. Steve Mason


<need entries>


Soncino Babylonian Talmud in English
Full text with footnotes, but only 16 tractates.

Rodkinson's Babylonian Talmud in English
Full text but only 22 tractates (+ 3 supplementary tractates).

Rodkinson's omitted portions
These were considered by him to be 'defamatory to the Rabbis'. He thought were inserted by Jewish-Christians

Talmud Manuscripts Project  - (Jewish National and University Library)
- facsimiles of 78 MSS of Babylonian Talmud & Mishnah from 11 libraries

Wikisource Mishnah - (the free library anyone can edit)
An online commuunity project to make a public domain translation with hebrew text. Unfinished. Good explanations in footnotes.


on the OT

French born Levi ben Gershon (1288–1344), whose Torah commentary is to be found here.

Rashi's Commentary on the whole OT
Rashi in English and Hebrew[Rashi has disappeared but hopefully it will come back]

on the Talmud

eDaf Talmud pages and audio explanation
facsimiles of the traditional pages linked to audio translation & explanation

Judaism and the NT

Traditions of the Rabbis in the Era of the New Testament (T-R-E-N-T)
- earliest traditions dated and explained, esp for NT relevance

Into His Own - Perspective on the World of Jesus
Citations from background texts, organised by subject.

Ancient Jewish Accounts of Jesus
Josephus, Celcus, Tertullian, Talmud, Toledoth Yeshu - full texts with introductions..

Talmudic passages about Jesus
Full text of Christianity in Talmud and Midrash by R. Travers Herford and Jesus Christ in the Talmud, Midrash, and the Zohar by Gustav Dalman


Primary Sources

Targums in Aramaic
Onqelos, Pseudo-Jonathan, Neofiti, Fragmentary, & other non-Torah Targums.


Targums in English
Onkelos, Pseudo-Jonathan, Fragmentary trans. by Etheridge. Torah plus a few more.


Anthology & Tales

Legends of the Jews by by Louis Ginzberg
- a readable account conflating all Jewish aggadic literature (footnotes are missing)

Tales And Maxims From The Midrash by Rev. Samuel Rapaport
- large collection of selections from a wide range of Midrashim




Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine
texts of published inscriptions

Archaeology of Jerusalem and the Temple
Ritmeyer is an archaeologist and a graphic designer. His pictures are superb.


Ancient Synagogues
Primary sources and archaeology for ancient synagogues


Jewish Encyclopaedia
For ancient Judaism this is than the modern Encyclopaedia Judaica. Full text and searchable

Bar mitzvah tutor
illustrated encyclopaedias of places, people, plants etc plus


Jewish virtual library
an online encyclopaedia incl. 




Introduction to Judaism
from Biblical to modern times. By a Christian, but very good.

Jastrow's Rabbinic Lexicon
Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature.

Hebrew alphabet & links to teach-yourself
also has intros to almost every other written text form. Amazing!

Mechon Mamre
an Othodox site with very useful tools & texts plus guide to 


Ancient Kettubot - Marriage certificates
- 1200 MSS covering 900 years, searchable. Pictures of the originals are often very beautiful

Early Hebrew Printing by Michael Davidson
- links to manuscripts and editions of Rabbinic texts

Digitized Book Repository Jewish National and University Library
- rare and out-of-print books, mainly in Hebrew

Judaica Libraries and Archives on the Web
- links to significant collections of Judaica around the world

Jewish History Sourcebook
- links and documents covering the whole history of the Jews

Online Texts and Documents Related to Jewish History
- covers ancient to modern, concentrating on actual texts


The Friedberg Genizah Project
Geniza photos & text

Taylor-Schechter Genizah Introduction
Taylor-Schechter collection of the Cairo Genizah documents. Very early Jewish papyri. View the texts 



Digitised library of the Dead Sea Scrolls (high-quality images made using spectral imaging)

Library of Congress Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit
The texts in translation, with pictures and introduction. Also archaeological finds.

Dead Sea Scroll photos and links
Orion Center in Israel. Photos

Index to DJD and an exhaustive 

Bibliography from 1995.

The Great Isaiah Scroll
Photographs, variants, discussion, and translation of the Qumran Isaiah Scroll.


An online scholarly archive of all of Rabbi Dr Louis Jacobs' writings
During his lifetime Rabbi Dr Jacobs published over 500 books, articles and book reviews. The site has been created to enable scholars and researchers to access his works quickly and easily.

Learn Hebrew Prayers: Tutorial- The Vowels
simple rules on how to pronounce Hebrew vowels