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ASA Policies

Out of print books regarding Bhikkhunis


Who trains for Two Years?

It is often assumed that all women must spend two years training as a sikkhamānā (trainee) before ordaining as a bhikkhunī.This article looks at what this really means.

For a more in depth study see the Sikkhmana website

Sects & Sectarianism

This new work by Bhante Sujato includes ground-breaking research examining the origins of Buddhist sectarianism. The work brings together textual and archaeological sources to paint a new picture of the relationships between the schools, especially those of the existing Vinaya lineages.

Now is the Timepdf

Paper presented at the discussion panel with HH Dalai Lama on  the final day of the First International Congress on Buddhist Women’s Role in the Sangha

Dark Matterpdf

Vutthapana and Upasampadapdf

A technical discussion of Vinaya terminology regarding bhikkhuni ordination, suggesting that certain aspects of the bhikkhuni Vinaya texts were preserved in oral tradition of the bhikkhunis themselves, separate from the main redaction tradition of the bhikkhus.

A Painful Ambiguitypdf

An essay on the construction of bhikkhunis as embodied in the early scriptures. The life of the Buddha is designed as a hero myth, and this frames the the origin story of bhikkhunis in mythic, rather than historical, terms.

Bhikkhuni FAQpdf

A conversation with a sceptic.

Gotami's Story

“Gotami’s Story” is a two-part work containing a short history and analysis of a Buddhist story followed by a translation of the story itself. Jonathan S. Walters introduces the story with a short recounting of significant events in Indian history, thereby giving some background information to which the reader can relate the narrative.

Nuns and Rape

The ASA has been asks to provide  advice and support on the troubling topic of nuns and rape

Dipavamsa Bhikkhuni Highlights

Selected exerts with summaries and comments from The Dipavamsa: An Ancient Buddhist Historical Record, Translated by Hermann Oldenberg. First published in Berlin, 1879

The Revival of Bhikkhuni Ordination in the Theravada Tradition

This article shows the standpoint of the conservative and progressive and gives both viewpoints.

This article by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi also has in the appendix of a translation of part of the Milindapañha Aṭṭhakathā, a commentary done by Ven. Jetvan Sayadaw (Ven. Mahasi's teacher) which expresses his support for Bhikkhuni ordination.

This Article has also been translated into Thai and can be downloaded here.

The Revival of Bhikkhuni Ordination in the Theravada Tradition, Oral presentation given in Germany   by Bhikkhu Bodhi

The First Chinese Bhikkhunis pdf

Translations from the historical records preserved in the Chinese canon, telling of the arrival of bhikkhunis in China from Sri Lanka. 

Bhikkhunis in Theravada[pdf]

A submission to the ongoing dialogue on bhikkhuni ordination in the three main traditions, prepared for the Tibetan Committee of Western Bhikkhunis.

Bhikkhuni vinaya studies -[electronic version]

Bhikkhuni vinaya studies -[book order]

A collection of essays about women roles and rules as depicted in the bhikkhuni vinaya - by Bhante Sujato

Full Acceptance [pdf]

The participation of women in the renunciate life. 

Parampara      [pdf]

Ordination lineages in the three traditions: a contribution towards understanding. 

Ordination Of Nuns By Monks

Information about Bhikkhuni ordination done by Bhikkhus alone -By Bhante Sujato 

Thubten Chodron

A large variety of articles on the topic of Bhikkhunis and nuns.

The Present Status of the Bhikshuni Ordination
By Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron.

The Committee of Western Bhikshunis

Infomation about the The Committee of Western Bhikshunis of His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Introducing Full Ordination for Women into the Tibetan Buddhist Tradition

By Bhiksuni Thubten Chodron.

Research Regarding the Bhiksuni Ordination Lineage

A Response Regarding The Lineage Of Bhiksuni Vinaya by The Committee Of Western Bhiksunis

Regaining a Lost Legacy: The Restoration of the Bhikkhuni order in Sri Lanka

Reclaiming the Robe

Reviving the Bhikkhuni Order in Sri Lanka

A Buddhist View of Women: A comparative Study of the Rules for Bhiksunis and Bhiksus

Bhiksuni Handbook

A brief analysis of the Pratimoksa Sutra

Menstrual Taboo

How Menstrual Taboos Reflect and Sustain Women's Internalized Oppression 

Menstruation sutra

Could the Buddha really have taught this Sutra where women were in hell for polluting the deity of the earth with the blood the women had shed during the birth of their children?

Damming the Dhamma

 Problems with Bhikkunis in the Pali Vinaya

Ordination: Sakyadhita’s Heritage from the Buddha

The salvation or spiritual liberation of women in Jainism

Controversy between the two major sects of Jainism about spiritual liberation of women in Jainnism

Statement from His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama Regarding the Bhikshuni Ordination

Inaccuracies in Buddhist Womens's History

A New Possibility

Introducing Full Ordination for Women into the Tibetan Buddhist Tradition

Feminism and Buddhism

Thai Buddhism and Patriarchy

A means to Achieve Bhikshuni Odrination

Temple of Learning

Thai Buddhism, only boys get educational support from the temples as novices

Why Dual ordination?

Why the bhikkhunis have more rules Than the bhikkhus?

A Brief History of Bhiksuni Ordination

in India, Nepal, Bangaledesh, Sri-Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia & Laos, Malayasia & Indonesia,
China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan,
Mongolia, Tibet, Bhutan, Ladakh, Zanskar and Taiwan

Bhikshuni Ordinationin Korea

Books About Ordained Women

The Appearance of Korean Nuns in History

Thesis Content Study of womens ordination

4 part Vinaya (Dharmagutipa) in Chinese

Women in Myanmar should be inspired to Attain Arahatship by Sayadaw U Zayyathena


Tibetan nuns find time for education in an Indian exile