Online Rare Manuscripts, Ancient Manuscripts, Illuminated Manuscipts

Buddhist manucripts

Buddhist manuscripts.
The Early Buddhist Manuscript Project. The British Library and The University of Washington. Scrolls written in the Kharosthi script and the Gandhari (Prakrit) language.
Chester Beatty Library
Permanent exhibitions of eastern and western manuscripts, sacred texts and miniature paintings.


Sanskrit manuscripts

Sanskrit manuscript collection held at Oriental Collections, 
Central Bodleian Library.
Sanskrit manuscripts from The Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji's Sarasvati Mahal Library 

Schoyen Manuscript Collection
A checklist of 222 manuscripts.


Digital Copies of these manuscripts can be seen at the IGNCA's Intranet







Kamrupa Anusandhan Samiti, Guwahati





Atombapu Research Centre, Imphal




Guru Sagolsem Kalidaman Singh Collection(SKS), Imphal




Hijam Romoni Singh Collection, Imphal




Manipur State Archive, Imphal




Manipur State Kala Academy, Imphal




Manipur State Museum, Imphal




Mutua Museum, Imphal




Natum Sangeeta Academy, Imphal




Pt. Chandra Singh Memorial Library, Imphal




People's Museum, Kakching




Pt. N. Khelchandra Singh Collection, Imphal




The Dinachandra Singh MML, Imphal




Yumnam Dhananjoi Singh Collection (YDS), Imphal





Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna





Lalabhai Dhanpatbhai Institute of Indology (LDI), Ahmedabad




Jammu & Kashmir

Shri Ranbir Sanskrit Research Institute, Jammu




Shri Pratap Singh Library, Srinagar




Allama Iqbal Library, Srinagar




Oriental Research Library, Srinagar (Persian)




Oriental Research Library, Srinagar (Sanskrit)





Shri Jagadguru Savira Math, Hubli KAR




Oriental Research Institute, Mysore (Gita Govinda Manuscripts)




Oriental Research Institute, Mysore




Keladi Museum, Keladi 





Shri Ram Verma Government Sanskrit College, Tripunithura




Oriental Research Institute and Manuscript Library, Trivendrum




Madhya Pradesh

Sciendia Oriental Research Institute, Ujjain





Asiatic Society, Mumbai (Gita Govinda Manuscripts)




Anand Ashram Smasthan, Pune




Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI), Pune  




Bharat Itihas Samshodhak Mandal, Pune




Bombay University, Mumbai (Gita Govida Manuscripts)




Juma Masjid of Bombay Trust, Mumbai




Nagpur Unviersity, Nagpur (Gita Govinda Manuscripts)




Vaidik Samsodhan Mandala, Pune




New Delhi

National Museum, New Delhi




Govt. Museum, Alwar (Gita Govinda Manuscript)




Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, Jaipur




Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Arabic And Persian Research Institute, Tonk




Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur




Sahitya Sanstha, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Rajasthan




Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Alwar




Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Udaipur





Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Chennai




Thanjavur Maharaja Sarfoji Saraswati Mahal Library, Thanjavur




Dr. U.V.Swaminath Iyer Library, Chennai




Ramakrishan Mission, Chennai




Sankara Mutt, Kancheepuram




Uttar Pradesh

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi




Saraswati Bhawan Library, Varanasi

Part 01 | 02 | 03 | 04 | 05 | 06 | 07 | 08 | 09 | 10 | 11




Vrindavan Research Institute, Raman Reti, Vrindavan (Gita Govinda Manuscripts)




Rampur Raza Library, Rampur





Allahabad Museum





Advaita Ashram Mayavati, Pithoragarh




West Bengal

Shri Chaitanya Research Institute, Kolkata




Visva-Bharati, Shantiniketan







No.of Mss

No.of Microfische



Bibliotheque National Paris, Paris





India Office Library, London





Institute for Scientific Information in Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow





Institute of Advance Studies of World Religion, Pennsylvania





Universitats Bibliothek Wien, Vienna





University of Pennsylvania





University of World Religions




Digital Art and Manuscript Images from pre-modern South Asia

  • [Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts from the Wellcome Library]

    A new ordering system for microfilm, paper, or digital copies of selected Sanskrit manuscripts from the [Oriental Collections] of the [Wellcome Library], London

  • [The Digital Library of India]

    Some 30,000 books and manuscripts in various Indian languages and English have already been digitised as part of the project, says Dr Balakrishnan. While a good proportion of the books that have been digitised so far are in English and Telugu, books in languages such as Sanskrit, Tamil, Urdu and Kannada have also been scanned. In some cases, especially in the case of ancient palm leaf manuscripts, only a few people know the dialect, says Dr Balakrishnan. In such instances, audio files of the manuscripts have been prepared to make it easier to refer to such documents, he adds.

  • [The Digital Library of India (New)]

    The mission is to create a portal for the Digital Library of India which will foster creativity and free access to all human knowledge. As a first step in realizing this mission, it is proposed to create the Digital Library with a free-to-read, searchable collection of one million books, predominantly in Indian languages, available to everyone over the Internet. This portal will also become an aggregator of all the knowledge and digital contents created by other digital library initiatives in India. Very soon we expect that this portal would provide a gateway to Indian Digital Libraries in science, arts, culture, music, movies, traditional medicine, palm leaves and many more. ...

  • [The Muktabodha Indological Reasearch Institute]

    Muktabodha is pleased to announce the opening of the Muktabodha Digital Library Website with 74 volumes of the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies (KSTS). These texts were originally published as printed books in Sanskrit by the Government of Jammu and Kashmir State, India in the first half of the last century.

    Update: Now includes the 1,144 paper Saiva transcripts from the UNESCO Memory of the World collection of the French Institute of Pondicherry, as photographic facsimiles integrated into a searchable catalog.

  • [The Wellcome Library, London]

  • [New materials from the University of Tübingen, Germany]

    Made available through `` digitising and publishing our cultural heritage'':

    The University Library at Tübingen (ULT) has started publishing some significant new manuscripts, including the famous Atharva-Veda manuscript from the University Library (PaippalAda recension/Kashmir, SAradA script, birch bark, very large, beautiful manuscript). Please check out the updated [] site.

    Also available now: a hitherto unpublished manuscript, probably by Nampillai. The Tattva-viveka by Pillai Lokacharya is now also available in full resolution quality, for libraries, archives and people with really huge machines... In future, ULT will publish as much as we can in two versions:

    (1) Full-resolution (up to 400 MB per image), for libraries, archives, museums, research centres,

    (2) Multimedia-enhanced versions with our special manuscript-reading software, resolution reduced in such a way that individual fibres can be seen, but not almost microscopic like the full resolution. This version loads pages very fast, even from the CD, and contains software for zooming in and out very swiftly, moving the page on the screen, turning pages, etc.

    We are now also starting to publish meta-data, transliterations/transcriptions, translations, critical editions and secondary literature. This will include some so far unpublished works by Rudolph Roth, also held in the University Library of Tübingen.

  • [The John C. and Susan L. Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Related Art]

    A Photographic Research and Teaching Archive, the Archive contains nearly 300,000 original color slides and black and white and color photographs of art and architecture throughout Asia. Countries covered in the collection include India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, China, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar (Burma). Works range from approximately 2500 B.C.E. to the present, and documentation includes contemporary religious activities in various parts of Asia.

  • [Manuscript resources for South Asian Studies]

    SARAI pages on Indic manuscripts provided by Columbia University, New York. Includes images and queries about unidentified MSS (updated 26/3/2001)

  • [The BL/UW Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project]

    British Library / University of Washington site on the study, editing, and publication of a unique collection of fifty-seven fragments of 1st century CE Buddhist manuscripts on birch bark scrolls, written in the Kharosthi script and the Gandhari (Prakrit) language that were acquired by the British Library in 1994.

  • [Institute for Asian Studies, Madras]

    UNESCO project to preserve Tamil palm-leaf manuscripts.

  • [University of Pennsylvania Library]

    Center for Electronic Texts and Images

    A collection of digitized Sanskrit manuscripts from the Penn Library collections. Includes links to Persian and other S. Asian manuscripts.

    The site was formerly hosted at but it has been moved to a new "oldsite" web address, and is no longer maintained.

  • [IIAS / University of Pennsylvania Library]

    Center for Electronic Texts and Images: Indic Slide Collection

    A collection of digitized slides from the AIIS/Penn Library collections.

  • [KiraNa Vyaakhyaa] MS text transcribed in ASCII, with digital images of pages, by Jun Takashima.

  • [Asian Arts]

    Journal of Asian Arts, including many images of paintings from South Asia, Nepal, Tibet, etc.

  • [Nayaka Painting Archival Project]

    A project of The Centre for Plants, People and Ecosystems (CPPE), Chennai, India

  • [India Today]

    Article from 28 September 1998 issue about Sanskrit MS collections in Bhubaneshwar.


Manuscripts in India


Catalogue of Microfilmed Manuscripts  (available with IGNCA)

Manuscripts Catalogue (Organization wise)

Digital Library ]

Digitization of Manuscripts of  
the National Library of India
The following is the language-wise break-up of the manuscripts: 
  a. Arabic: 681 
  b. Persian: 955 
  c. Urdu: 21 
  d. Bengali: 162 
  e. English: 255 
  f. Hindi: 5 
  g. Tamil: 370 
  h. Sanskrit: 790

Survey of Manuscripts in India

Andhra Pradesh
HyderabadAndhra Pradesh Govt. Oriental Mss. Lib. and Research Institute
TirupatiSri Venkateswar oriental REs. Institute
HyderabadSalar jung Museum Liberary
HyderabadKutub Khana-I-Saidiya
HyderabadJamia Nirzamia
HyderabadAbul Kalam Azad Oriental Res. Institute
HyderabadArchival Cell (Dept. of History
HyderabadBirla Archaeological and Cultural Res. Inst
HyderabadCity Central Library
HyderabadOsmania University Reginal Library
RajahmundrySri Gowthami Reginal Library
RajahmundrySri Rallabandhi Subbarao Archeological Museum
Vishakhapatanam (Waltair)Andhra University Library, Dr. V S Krishma Library
RajahmundryAndhra Historical Research Society
VishakjpatanamArsha Library
HyderabadOriental Public Bureau and Dairat UI Maarif
ChitoorSamskrita Bhasha Pracharini Sabha
Kakinada (Ramraspet)Telugu Academy
HyderabadSanskrit Academy, Osmania University
HyderabadHenery martyn Institute of Islamic Studies
HyderabadThe state Archieves of Andhrapradesh
BhattanavalliThe sanskrit press and Publications
Aukiripalli, KrishnaSri Markandeya Sanskrit College
GunturSri Sharada Niketanam
VijayanagaramMaharaja's Govt. Sanskrit College
NelloreVeda and Sanskrit College
TirumalaT T D Veda Pathashala
VetapalemSaraswata Niketan
VizianagaramThe Vizianagaram Fort


NalabariKamarupa Sanskrit Sanjivani Sabha
NalabariNalabari Sanskrit College
NalabariPurva bharati
GuahatiNarayani Handiqui Historical Institute (Dept. of History & Antiquarain Studies
GuahatiKamarupa Anusandhana Samiti
GuahatiGuahati University
NavagradhamPragjyotishpur Sanskrit Vidhyapith


PatnaKhuda Baksh Ori. pub. Library
PatnaBihar (& Orissa) Research Society)
PatnaMadarasa Islamia Shamsul Huda
Vaishali, MuzafarpurMithila Research Institute
DarbhangaChandradhari Museum
PatnaPatna College Library
VaishaliPali Research Institute
MongherJamia Rambhaniya
PatnaDept. of History, Patna University
PatnaDept. of Persian, Patna University
PatnaK P Jayswal Research Institute
DarbhangaThe Laksmiswar public Library
BhagalpurMandar Vidhapeeth
DarbhangaMithila Inst. of post Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning
NalandaNavanalanda Mahavihar (Magadh University)
LehraiyasaraiDarul Uloom Ahmadiya Salagia
KaiharDarul Uloom latif
DarbhangaKameswat Singh Darbanga Sanskrit University
PatnaBihar State Central Library (Srimati Radhika Devi Res. Inst)
BhagalpurBhagavan Pustakalaya
ArrahSri Dev Kumar Jai Oriental Research Int.
BegusaraiGanesh Dutta College


New DelhiNational Archieves
New DelhiIndian Council of Cultural Relation, Azad Bhawan.
New DelhiNational Museum
DelhiDelhi Archieves
New DelhiDelhi University Library
New DelhiICSSR, Social Science Documentation Centre
New DelhiIndian Institute of Islamic Studies
New DelhiRaja Rammohan Roy National Educational Resources Centre Library
New DelhiSri Ram Centre for Indusrial Relations & Human Resources Library
DelhiMahabir Jain Pustakalaya
Delhi, TimarpurBharatiya Vidya Sansthan (Inst. of Indology)
DelhiMadarsa Aminiya
New DelhiDr. Zakir Husain Library (Jamia Milia Islamia)
New DelhiInternational Academy of Indian Culture, Haus Khas Enclave
Alipur, DelhiBhogilal Lehrchand Research Institute
DelhiDargah hazrat Shah Abul Khair
New Delhi, NizamuddinGalib Academy


Portogal, GoaGomantak Sanskritottejak Mandal's Sanskrit Pathasala, Portogal Swami's Library
KeriGomantak Sasnkrit Parishad
PanjiCental Library


AhmedabadMahrsi Academy of Vedic Sciences
AhmedabadSheth Bholabhai Jseinghbhai Institute of Learning and Research
DwarkaShri Dwarkadhist Sanskrit Academy and Indological Research Institute
PatanSri Hemchandra jain Gyan Mandir
GandihnagarSri Mahavir Jain Aradhana Kendra
AhmedabadHazrat Pir- Muhammad Shah Dargah Library
AnandJamia Arabia Talimul Islam
BarodaOriental Institute
AhmedabadB J Institute of Learning and Research
Vallabh VidhyanarSardar Patel Unversity
BarodaBaroda Sanskrit mahavidhyalaya
CambeyJain Bhandaras
LimbadiJain Bhandars
ChhaniJain Bhandars
BarodaAtmanada Jnana Mandir
BarodaJain Jnana Mandir
BarodaArya jambuswami Jain Muktabai Jnana Ashram
AhmedabadL.D.Institute (L.D.Bharatiya Sanskriti Vidyamandir)
AhmedabadGujrat Vidyapith Library
AhmedabadPatana Jain Bhandara
AhmedabadGujrat Vidya Sabha
AhmedabadUniversity School of Languages, Gujrat University
AhmedabadThe Brahmachari Wadi
Vhani, BarodaThe Jain Swetamber Jnana Mandir
RajkotSaurashtra Research Society
PardiSwadhyaya Mandala and Vedic Research Institute
BhavnagarVashovijaya Jain Granthamala
GondalBhubaneswari Vidhyapith
SuratJamia Saitiya
AhmedabadDarul Uloom Shah Alam
VaduvanAcharya Maharaj Sri Swaminarayan Mandir
DakoreDakore Temple Committee
JunagarhNarasingh Mehta Chopra Trust
Vaniavada, Mota Deka, BhujSri Jain Swetamber Murtipujak Tapgacch Sangh
SurenderanagarSri Swaminarayan Temple
PorbanderSudama Temple


RohtakGurkul Jhajhar Haryana Prantiya Puratatwa Sanghrahalaya
RohtakDayanand Vedic Santhan Gurukul, Singhpura
KurukshetraSanatan Dharma Pathasala
KurukshtraKurukshetra University Library


Himachal Pradesh
MandiHimachal Lok Sanskriti Samsthan
ShimlaHimachal Academy of Arts Culture and Languages, sngarmal Bhawan
ShimlaSamskrita Shodha Samsthan, divyajyoti
Nahan, SirmurThe Govt. District Library
KangraMata Sri Vrajesweri Devi Mandir Trust


Jammu & Kashmir
JammuSri Ran. Skt. Res. Institute
SrinagarResearch and Publication Department, JK Govt.
SrinagarState Archives Dept. Govt. of J & K.
SrinagarSri Rupa Devi Sharda Peeth
SrinagarDirectorate of Library, Museum and Rearch
SrinagarThe Shadapith Research Centre
SrinagarKashmir University, Ikbal Library


DharmshalaJai Basadi Moodbidri
MangalagangotriMangalore University Library
BangaloreCentral Power Research Institute Library
DharwadKarnataka Historical Research Society
MelkoteAcademy of Sanskrit Research
MoodbidriSri Vira Vani Vilasa Jain Sinddhanta Bhawan
MoodbidriThe Danasala Matha Sastra Bhandara
BangaloreSri Chamarajendra Sanskrit College Chamrajpeth
TumkurSri Siddhanlingeswer Sanskrit Colege and Veda Pathsala, Siddhanganga
Melkote, PandavapuraSanskrit College, Manday
MysoreThe Parakala Mutt Library
UdipiM G M College 
UdipiMutt of Sri Madhvacharya Sansthan
KarkalaJaina Mutt 
UdipiSri Krishna Mutt
UdipiThe Pejawar Mutt
MysoreThe Palace saraswati Bhandar, Maha. Skt Coll.
SravanavelagolaSrimaccarukirti Panditacarya Jain Bhandar
SringeriThe Sharada Pitha. The Mutt H.H. Swami
SringeriSankara Narayana Jyautisika
BangaloreKannada Sahitya Parishat
MysoreMaharaja Sanskrit College
MysoreMysore Sanskrit Academy
UdupiS M S P Sanskrit College
MelkoteVedavedantebodhini Sanskrit College
DharwadKarnataka University, Dept. of Skt, History (Post graduate teaching)
GulbaraInstitute of Kannada Studies (Gulbara University)
DharwadInstitute of Kanada Studies (University of Karnakta)
BangaloreBangalore University Library
BangaloreKalpataru Research Academy
DharmasthalaSri Manjunatheswar Cultural & Research Institute
DharwarVidyadhisha Sanskrit manuscript Library
MysoreOriental Research Institute
BangaloreUnited Theological College


KeladiKeladi Museum & H R B
TrivandrumO. R. I & Messs. Library
TrivandrumThe state Archieves of Kerala
TripunithuraSri Ram Verma Govt. Skt. College
CochinCentral Inst. of Fisheries Techno. Library
TrichurRama Verma Research Institute, Town Hall
KottayamKottayam Public Library
CalicutManuscript Library (Deptt, of Malayalam) University of Calicut
CalicutCalicut University Library
PalghatChandraprabha Digambara Jain Basti
ThiruvanantapuramKerala Granthasala Sandham
PalghatPalghat educational & Cultural Council


Madhya Pradesh
UjjainScindia Ori. Res. Institute
BhopalDarul Uloom Tajul Masjid
BhopalJamia Islamia Arabia
RewaAvadesh Pratapsingh University (Mahakavi Kesav Adhyayan evam Anusandhan Kendra
BhopalDirectorate of Archaeology and Museums
IndorePublic Library, Govt. sanskrit College
IndoreCentral Museum
DatiaGovt. Sanskrit College
ChattarpurPalace Library
Panna and RewaPrivate Libraries of Maharajas
LaskarNarayan Sikshia Samiti
Nagod, SatnaPublic Library
PannaPrannath Mandir
RewaVyankent Vidya Sadan Library
DatiaSri Peetambara Peetha
GawaliorMatrubhumi Karyalaya
BhopalPrachya Niketan (Centre of Advance studies in indology and musology)
BhopalHindi Bhawan, Motilal Nehru Smarak Pustakalaya
GawaliorJiwaji University Library


ImphalNatum Sangeet Academy
ImphalGuru S. K. S. Collection
ImphalY. D. S Collection
ImphalManipur State Kala Academy
ImphalAtombapu Res Centre
ImphalPt. N.K.S. Collection
ImphalManipur State Archives
ImphalManipur State Museum
ImphalHijam Romani Singh Collection 
ImphalMutua Museum
KakchingPeople's Museum
ImphalManipuri Sahitya Parishad
ImphalThangjam Chandra Singh Research Library


NagpurNagpur University Library
PuneBharata Itihasa Samsodhaka Mandala
PuneAnandashram Sanstha
PuneBhandarkar Ori. Res. Institute
PuneVaidika Samsodhan Mandala
MumbaiJama Masjid Trust Library
MumbaiAsiatic Society
MumbaiBombay University
MumbaiMaharastra State Archieves
KohlapurShivaji Universiry (BARR) Balasaheb Khandekar Library
PoonaPoona Universiry, Laykar Library
MumbaiSmt. Nathi Bai Damodar Thakarsey women's University Library
NagpurAnthropological Survey of India LIbrary (Central)
PuneThe Mandalik Library, Fergussion College
NasikThe Hamsaraj Pragji Thakersey College
RaipurRajpur Sanskrit Pathsala
NagpurJamia Arabia Islamia
Bombay (Colaba)Anantacharya Indolofical Research Institute
BombayBhartiya Vidya Bhawan
BombayBhartiya vidya Bhawan
ShirurVhandmal Tarachand Bora College
Beed (Ambajogai)Dasopant Samsodhan Mandal
PuneDeccan College Post Graduate & Research Institute
NasikHPT Arts & RYK Science College
ThaneInstitute for Oriental studies
DhuleIBK Rajwade Samsodhan Mandal
BombayKR Cama Oriental Institute
Yavatmal, Arni RoadShardashram
AmravatiSri Samrthi Vagdevata Mandir
DhuleSri Samarthi Vagdevata Mandir
MumbaiAsiatic Society of Bombay
NagpurThe Bhonsala Veda Shastra Mahavidyalaya
YeotmalC P andBerar Jain Research Institute
MumbaiForbes Gujarati Sabha, Vithalbhai Patel Rd.
MumbaiHeras Institute of India History and Culture, St. Xavier's college
MumbaiMarathi Samsodhan Mandal, marathi grantha Sangrahalaua, Thakurdwar
DhuliaRajwade Samsodhan Mandal
Rajpur, RatnagiriSanskrit Pathshala
AhmednagarSanatan Dharma Sabha
Fort BombaySecretatiat Record Office, Elphistone College building
PuneVedasastrottejaka Sabha, sdasiva peth
NagpurVidarbha Sahitya Samgam
AhmednagarDarul Uloom
PuneFrench Prachya Vidya Mandir
MumbaiAnjuma-i-Islam Urdu Research Institute
MumbaiCentre for Education and Documentation Library
WaiPrajna Pathashala
MumbaiPrinces of Wales Museum and Western India
PuneTilak Maharastra vidyapith


BhubaneswarOrissa State Museum
BhubaneswarUtkal University Parija Library
BerhmpurArchival Cell (Berhempur University)
BerhmpurArchival Cell (Berhempur university)
BhubaneswarKedarnath Gaveshana Pratisthan
Berhmpur, TulsinagarLiteracy Home
BalangirVidyabhushan Sanskrit College
PuriJagannath Aitihasika Gaveshana Samiti and raghunandan Library
BhubaneswarOrissa State Archives
PuriSadasiva sanskrit College
Paralakhemundi, GanjParalakhemundi Sanskrit college
Naugao (Udaipur)Sri Aurovindo Sangrahalaya
Cuttack (Udaipur)Sri Aurovindo Sangrahalaya


PondicherryAurovindo Ashram
PondicherryPaventher Bharathidasan Memorial cum
PondicherryRomain Rolland Library


AmritsarGuru Nanak Dev University Library
AmritsarCentral Sikh Museum (Golden Temple)
ChandigarhPunjab University, Dept. of Punjabi
PatialaPunjab State Archieves
AmritsarKhalsa College Library
HoshiarpurVVRI of Sanskrit & Indological studies (Punjab University)


AlwarGovt. State Museum
Jaipur,citypalaceSawai Mansingh II Museum
JaipurDigambara Jain Nasiyan Bhattarkijji
TonkArabic & Persian Res. Institute
JodhpurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
UdaipurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
UdaipurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
BikanerRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
ChittorgarhRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
JaipurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
AlwarRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
KotaRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
UdaipurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
BharatpurRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
Chaupasani, JodhpurRajasthani Sodha Samsthan
UdaipurState Museum
Jaipur (city)Dadu Mahavidyalaya
JaipurDigamber Jain Sanskrit College
Jaipur Madhusudan Vaidik Vijnana Prakashak Karyalaya
BikanerRajasthan State Archives
BikanerShardul Sanskrit Vidyalaya, rani bazar
TonkRajasthan Oriental Research Institute
TonkDarul Uloom Khalilliya Nizamiya
BikanerAnup Sanskrit Library
BikanerBharatiya Vidyamandir Shodh Pratisthan
BikanerHindi Viswa Bharati Anusandhan Parishad
LadunJain Viswa Bharati
ChuruLok Sanskriti Sadh Sansthan
JodhpurMaharaj Mansingh Pustak Pakash
AjmerParopakarini Sabha
BorundaRupayam Sansthan
JodhpurSewa Mandir
BharatpurShri Hindi Sahitya Samiti
SikarShri Mahavir Pustakalaya
JodhpurThe Archaeological Dept. of Jodhpur state
MewarThe Saraswati Bhandar Library
JaipurThe Prachya Vidhya Pratisthan
UdaipurThe Sajjan Vanivilas Library
UdaipurThe Library of Nathadwara
JaipurSri Ram Charan Museum
BanasthaliVanasthali Vidyapith


ChennaiGovt. Oriental Mss. Library
ChennaiDr. U.V.S.I. Library
ChennaiRamakrishna Mission
ThanjavurTMSSM Library
ChennaiKingdom of Trivandrum
KanchipuramKingdom of Trivandrum
KanchipuramSri Kanchi Sankar Math
MaduraiSaurashtra Sabha
ChennaiKupuswami Sastri Res. Institute
ChennaiAdyar Library and Research Centre
Annamalai NagarAnnamalai University Library
ThanjavurTamil University (Dept. of epigraphy)
ThanjavurTamil University (Dept. of His. & rare paper Mss.)
ThanjavurTamil University (Dept. of Palam leaf Mss.)
MaduraiGovt. Museum
ChennaiInstitute of Asian Studies
KanchipuramMadurai Province Jesuit Archives
Shrothium NavalpakkamNyaya Mimamsa Anusandhan Kendra
MaduraiMadurai Kamraj University
Shrotium NavalpakkamSri Hayagriva Mahala Library
ThanjavurKarandai Tamil Samgam
MayauramVasudeva Brahmendra Saraswati Library
MadurantakamAhobila Mutt Sanskrit College
MaduraiThe Rameswaram Devasthanam Pathasala
Kanchi ConjivaramThe Upanishad Brahma Mutt
SriperambudurThe Ubhayavedanta Sanskrit College
SrirangamThe Srirangam Devasthanam Library
ChennaiFort St. George Museum
ChennaiInternational Institute of Tamil Studies
MaduraiSchool Historical Studies, Madurai Kamaraj University


Uttar Pradesh
PithoragarhAdvaita Ashram, Mayavati
RampurRampur RAza LIbrary
Varanasibanaras Hindu University, BKB
VrindavanVrindavan Research Institute
VaranasiSarasvati Bhawan Library
AllahabadGanganath Jha Ken. Sanskrit Vidyapith
Leh(Laddak)Central Institute of Buddhist Studies
LucknowUp State Archieves
AllahabadUp State Regional Archieves
AllahabadGovt. Manuscripts Library
JhansiBundelkhand University Library
HaridwarGurukul Kanfri Viswavidyalaya Library
KhairangarhIndira Kala Sangita Viswavidyalaya
LucknowLucknow Univesity Tagore Library
DehradunAnthropological Survey of India Library (North-Western)
VaranasiNagari Pracharini Sabha
LucknowAkhil Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad
AligarhMaulana Azad Library,, Aligarh Muslim University
DeobandDarul Uloom (Deoband) Library
LucknowNadwatul Ulma
LucknowDarul Uloom firangi Mahal
LucknowJamiya Nazemiya
MeerutJamia Mansasiya
LucknowSultan Ul-Madaris
RampurMadarsa Aliya
MuradabadJamia Qazimiya Madarsa Mir
AmrohaJamia-Islamia Arabia
UloomJamia Maharul
VaranasiMadaarsatul Islah Sarai Mir
MubarakpurJamiya Arabiya Ihyaul Uloom
MaunathbanjanJamiya Mitlahul-Uloom
MaunathbanjanMadarsa Islamiya Arabiya Darul Uloom
BariellyMadarsa Manzarul Islam
HatwaiJamia Arabia
DobhelJamia-Arabia Talimud-Din
RoudeJamia Husainiya
VaranasiSri S R Gayakwad Library
VaranasiGeonka Sanskrit Mahavidhyalaya Library
LucknowAmruddaul public Library
BandaChandan Das Sahitya Sodgsansthan
Bhadeni, banaresSri Syadvada Digambar Jain Mahavidhyalaya
AjamgarhDarul Musannefin (Shibli Academy)
DehradunDr. Balvir Singh Sahitya Kendra
JhansiGovernment Museum
AllahabadHindi Sahitya Sammelan (Hindu Sangrahalay)
AgraKanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshi Hindu & Atha Bharavijnanan Vidyapith
GorakhpurNagarjun Buddhist Foundation
Aliganj, EtahThe Bhandara of Santinatha Jain Temple
AllahabadRajakiya Pandulipi Pustakalaya
Garhi, AligarhSyed Khairat Ali Library (I Dada-I-Hamadaniya)
QamarabadDarul Salam
HapurSri Ambedkar Pustakalaya, Shahid Ramsaroop Jatav marg
Kashirampur (Kapli)P K Lok Vikas Samsthan


GangtokSikkim Research Institute of Tibetology


West Begal
CalcuttaAsiatic Society
CalcuttaNational Library
CalcuttaSri Chaitanya Research Institute
CalcuttaVishwa Bharti Library
CalcuttaRavindra Bharti Library
CalcuttaCalcutta Madras
CalcuttaGeothals Library
DarjeelingMss Section, Deptt. of Bengali, North Bengal University
Calcutta(Behala)Indira Calcutta Organisation
CalcuttaJain Bhawan, Kalakar Street
CulcuttaJain Bhawan, Kalakar Street
BurdhmanUniversity of Burdhman, Rajbati
CalcuttaCalcutta Sanskrit College
CalcuttaBangiya Sahitya Parishad
NadiadThe Dahilaksmi library
RangpurThe Rangpur Sahitya Parishad
CalcuttaMahabodhi Society of Indira, College Square
Navadwipa, CalcuttaNavedwip public Library
NabadwipNabadwipa Sadharana Granthakara
CalcuttaSanskrit Sahitya Parishat (Raja Dinendra Street)
SeramporeSerampore Colege
CalcuttaState Archives of West Bengal
CalcuttaUniversity of Calcutta
CalcuttaVangiya Sanskrit Siksha Parishat


he shaiva manuscripts of Pondicherry

Vimalanathan browsing thru the manuscriptsTwo large collections of palm-leaf and paper manuscripts that transmit principally Sanskrit, Tamil and Manipravalam texts are preserved in the French institutions of research in the South Indian Town of Pondicherry. The major collection is that of the French Institute of Pondicherry (IFP), which comprises 8187 palm-leaf bundles, 360 paper codices and 1144 recent paper transcripts (i.e. post-1950 paper manuscripts commissioned or copied by employees of the IFP), which are now on-line.

At the instigation of the IFP’s founder director, the manuscripts began to be collected from every area of the Tamil-speaking South of India (see history of the Collection) and the collection contains texts of every branch of precolonial Indian learning. But nearly half of the material relates to one of the major theistic traditions of India, that concerned with the worship of the God Siva (see rough breakdown of contents). It is in fact the largest collection in the world of manuscripts of texts of the Saiva Siddhanta, a religious tradition that in the 10th century CE was spread right across the Indian subcontinent and beyond, as far as Cambodia in the East. This tradition long represented the mainstream of tantric doctrine and worship and appears to have influenced every Indian theistic tradition. Its surviving texts, the majority of them unpublished, range from the 6th century CE to the colonial period.

one of the smallest manuscriptIn recognition of its importance the collection of SHAIVA MANUSCRIPTS IN PONDICHERRY has in 2005 been deemed a UNESCO “Memory of the World” Collection. This has given a boost to our on-going efforts to the huge task of completing a catalogue of the whole collection

The 1662 palm-leaf bundles of the Pondicherry Centre of the Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO) belong to a single collection from the far South of India (Tirunelveli District). More than a third of this material (about 650 bundles) relates to the cult of the Hindu God Vishnu and at least 60 of these Vaishnava manuscripts transmit texts that have never been published.

Both collections are conserved in air-conditioned spaces. Many of the publications in the field of Indology are the fruits of working over many years with our extremely rich manuscript resources.

The IFP’s collection comprises of 8187 palm-leaf bundles, 360 old paper codices and 1144 paper transcripts (C20th) and the EFEO’s of 1662 palm-leaf bundles, wich amounts to 11353 manuscripts in total.

Manuscripts outside Pondicherry

The National Mission for Manuscripts (NMM) has also selected the IFP as one of its Manuscripts Resource Centres. These Centres have the task of surveying and cataloguing manuscripts in unknown collections in the regions surrounding them. Thus the IFP, in addition to maintaining its own manuscripts, is currently also surveying and cataloguing institutional and private collections around Pondicherry and in a few coastal districts of Tamilnadu.

Price of Manuscript Digital Images

All photos of manuscripts are supplied for STUDY PURPOSES only. The readings may be cited with appropriate acknowledgements but the photos themselves may not be reproduced without permission. For permission to reproduce of photographs, please refer to the Photo Copyright Form.

The price of each digital image is 10 Indian rupees.*

*Each image will usually include the verso of one folio and the recto of the next and so the cost will usually work out to 10 rupees per folio. (In the case of manuscripts with exceptionally long leaves, this may be double.)

Procedures of supplying Manuscript Digital Images

After the receipt of the demand of the digital images of the manuscripts theManuscript Request form / MOU will be sent to the researcher / can be downloaded from the IFP web site. He / She has to fill the form and send it back to the Archivist, French Institute of Pondicherry, along with the payment in India or in France (for payment particulars refer the copyright form) After the receipt of payment the digital images will be sent to them on a CD ROM. In addition to the cost of the images , we make a handling charge of rupees 100 in India and 500 outside India per order.

Those who come directly to Pondicherry to make their own digital photos may take the photos free of cost on the following conditions :

1) That optimal digital photos are taken with our guidance in our premises.

2) That whole bundles are photographed together (not just excerpts transmitting one text).

3) That the digital images are given to us (transferred onto a computer of the IFP and not deleted).

4) That a Manuscript Request Form is signed that cedes copyright to the IFP and in which the user undertakes to acknowledge the IFP’s manuscripts appropriately wherever their readings or other information about them is published.

5) That images of the manuscripts will not be reproduced without written permission of the IFP.


Ancient Sanskrit manuscript goes digital
By Harsh Kabra 
In Pune 
Scientists from the US are using modern imaging techniques to digitally restore a rare 700-year-old Indian palm leaf manuscript on Hinduism.

Restorers from New York's Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) are working on Sarvamoola Grantha which expounds on the essence of Hindu philosophy, the meaning of life and the role of God.

This priceless collection of 36 erudite commentaries was written in Sanskrit by Sri Madvacharya (1238-1317 AD), one of India's greatest theologians.

In addition to commentaries based on sacred Hindu scriptures such as the Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, Puranas, Brahma-sutras, Mahabharata and others, the collection also includes independent philosophical tracts, a commentary on daily rites, and several hymns in praise of God.

Dr PR Mukund, a professor of electrical engineering at RIT, is leading the project along with his colleague Roger Easton.

"Among the various scholars and spiritual leaders in India during the last millennium, Sri Madvacharya had a profound impact on the society," explains Dr Mukund.

"He analysed all aspects of Hindu holy texts and showed the structure of the spiritual world that serves as a backbone of the world's diversities. As a result, preservation of this collection for future generations is essential," he says.


These manuscripts were stored at Phalimaru Matha (a monastic establishment of the Hindu tradition) near the coastal town of Udupi in the southern Indian state of Karnataka.

Dr Mukund has had a long association with several such mathas and has been actively involved in the publication of books on philosophy.

He was unnerved by the deteriorating condition of the 13th century manuscripts.

"Over time, many of the original manuscripts were lost or were badly damaged due to deterioration of the palm leaves," he reveals.

Many leaves are cracked or have chipped off. Substantial parts of the leaves are missing in some collections. Friction between the binding cord and the edge of the hole on the palm leaves has further damaged them.

Inappropriate storage has led to the palm leaves staining, splitting and sticking to each other. As a result, the manuscript is very brittle and difficult to handle without further damage.

"The palm leaves have darkened over time and are now dark brown in colour," adds Dr Mukund. This has made it difficult to read the manuscript with the naked eye.

Cutting edge

The project is making use of cutting-edge technology to digitally restore the manuscripts.

“ We have started the project, but have no money to pay staff and lab fees ” 
Dr PR Mukund

Initially, high-resolution images of the manuscripts are acquired.

Depending upon the size and format of the manuscript, each leaf can be captured in five or more sections.

These sections are then connected to make an image of the complete palm leaf. After this, the images are processed to enhance the readability of the text.

The team is also preparing to use a novel long-term storage technique.

For the first time, images of the palm leaves will be etched on the silicon wafers normally used in the microelectronic industry.

Dr Mukund explains that silicon wafers can withstand very high temperatures and are not affected by the presence of water. It will also be possible to read these images without using additional equipment.

The team also plans to image some 800 more palm leaf manuscripts written since the time of Sri Madvacharya.

However, all of this would need substantial funds.

"We need about $100,000 per year for the next three years," Dr Mukund says. "We have started the project, but have no money to pay staff and lab fees for silicon processing.

Indian manuscripts being restoredScientists acquiring images of the original palm leaves

Rare Indian palm leaf manuscriptThe badly damaged leaves of the manuscript must first be organised

Story from BBC NEWS: Published: 2006/11/17 01:44:37 GMT