Islam

Islam

Quran translation and Commentary 

George Sale

1697 - 1736

About the Author

Sale translated the Koran into English in the early 18th century (1734).

In The Library:

Quran Links
studyquran.orghttp://tanzil.info/
Quran Grammatical AnalysisQuran Reciter Software
Quran in different formats and translations


Qur'an  Hadith  Sufi Texts  Islamic History and Culture  
Islamic Date

PLEASE READ THIS IMPORTANT NOTE

Qur'an

The Qur'an is the primary text of Islam, revealed to the Prophet Muhammed beginning in the year 610 C.E. It was canonicalized between 644 and 656. The Qur'an is required reading for anyone who wants to understand Islam. Qur'an means "The Recital" in Arabic; according to the story, the angel Gabriel commanded Muhammed to "Recite!".

 Hypertext Qur'an
This page links together all of the Qur'an versions at this site. 

 Unicode Qur'an
The Arabic text of the Qur'an presented using Unicode. For more information on Unicode see this file. Includes a parallel transliteration into the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). 

 The Holy Qur'an: Arabic Text, Pronunciation GuideYusuf Ali English Text
A merged version of the excellent Yusuf Ali English translation in parallel with Arabic. Arabic script is presented using GIF image files. 

 The Qur’ân, Part I 
tr. by E.H. Palmer [1880] (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 6)
This is a completely new etext of the first volume of the Palmer Quran traslation, with full introduction and footnotes. 

 The Qur’ân, Part II 
tr. by E.H. Palmer [1880] (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 9)
A completely new etext of the second volume of the Palmer Quran translation, with full footnotes and the text of the index for Part I and Part II. 

 The Koran
translated by J.M. Rodwell [1876]
Another major Quran translation from the 19th century. 

 The Qur'an
by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall (1875-1936) [1930]
A modern and sympathetic English rendering of the Quran. 

 The Holy Quran
by Abdullah Yusuf Ali [1934]
One of the first modern English editions of the Quran, still in wide use today.

Hadith

The Hadith, second only to the Qur'an in importance and authority, are collections of Islamic traditions and laws (Sunna). This includes traditional sayings of Muhammed and later Islamic sages. By the ninth century over 600,000 Hadith had been recorded; these were later edited down to about 25,000.

 A Manual of Hadith
Translated by Maulana Muhammad Ali [1944]. 

 Hadith of Bukhari
An extensive collection of Hadith.


Sufi Texts

Sufism is a mystical Islamic belief system. It is renowned for its contributions to world literature: beautiful symbolic poetry and devotional story-telling, much of which was translated in the 19th century by European scholars and travellers.

 The Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam
by Omar Khayyam, tr. by Edward Fitzgerald [1859]. 16,814 bytes 

 Oriental Mysticism
by E.H. Palmer [1867]
Decoding the cloaked Sufi narrative of the journey to God. 

 Selections from the Poetry of the Afghans
by H. G. Raverty [1867]
Anthology of later Sufi poets from Afghanistan, many translated directly from rare manuscripts. 

 The Kasîdah of Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî
by Sir Richard Burton [1880

 The Mesnevi (Book I) of Rumi,
with Acts of the Adepts by Eflaki
Translated by James W. Redhouse [1881]
One of the first extensive English translations of Rumi, with a collection of legendary tales of the Sufi masters. 

 Bird Parliament
by Farid ud-Din Attar, Translated by Edward Fitzgerald [1889]
Also known as the 'Conference of the Birds,' this 12th century Sufi poem is a allegorical journey to the summit of enlightment. 

 Poems from the Divan of Hafiz
by Hafiz, tr. by Gertrude Lowthian Bell [1897]. 

 The Masnavi of Rumi
Abridged and Translated by E.H. Whinfield [1898]
The primary 19th century translation of Rumi's masterwork. 

 The Gulistan of Sa'di
tr. by Edwin Arnold [1899333,563 bytes 

 Salaman and Absal
by Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami, Translated by Edward Fitzgerald[1904]
A mystical Sufi allegory by the renowned Persian poet, Jami. 

 Sadi's Scroll of Wisdom
by Sadi, tr. by Arthur N. Wollaston, [1906]
A short collection of Sufi poems on moral themes by the renowned Persian poet. 

 The Alchemy of Happiness
by Al-Ghazzali, tr. by Claud Field [1909]. 

 The Enclosed Garden of the Truth
(The Hadîqatu' l-Haqîqat of Hakîm Abû' L-Majd Majdûd Sanâ'î) tr. by J. Stephenson [1910]
A text by the Sufi poet and philosopher Sana'i. 

 The Bustan of Sadi
by Sadi, tr. by A. Hart Edwards [1911].
A Persian Sufi poet's legacy of wisdom. 

 The Tarjuman al-Ashwaq
by al-Arabi, tr. by Reynold A. Nicholson. [1911]
The Sufi quest for God, encoded in a cycle of amatory poetry. 

 The Diwan of Zeb-un-Nissa
by Zeb-un-Nissa, translated by Magan Lal and Duncan Westbrook[1913]
Sufi poetry by an accomplished Mughal woman. 

 The Mystics of Islam
by Reynold A. Nicholson. [1914]. 267,991 bytes 

 A Sufi Message of Spritual Liberty
by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan [1914

 Songs of Kabîr
tr. by Rabindranath Tagore, Introduction by Evelyn Underhill; New York, The Macmillan Company; [1915

 The Secret Rose Garden
of Sa'd Ud Din Mahmud Shabistari, Translated by Florence Lederer[1920]
Exquisite Sufi poetry. 

 The Secrets of the Self
by Muhammad Iqbal, tr. by Reynold A. Nicholson [1920]
A philosophical poem by the intellectual founder of the nation of Pakistan. 

 Studies in Islamic Mysticism
by Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, [1921].
The lives and writings of three early Sufi masters. 

 The Mishkât Al-Anwar
(The Niche for Lights) by Al-Ghazzali, translated by W.H.T. Gairdner[1924]. 


Islamic History and Culture

 The Diwan of Abu'l-Ala
tr. by Henry Baerlein [1911]
A delighful selection of poems by a 10th century Syrian rationalist philosopher. 

 The Religion of the Koran
by Arthur N. Wollaston [1911]
A short introduction to Islam with topical quotes from the Qur'an. 

 Arabic Thought and Its Place in History
by De Lacy O'Leary [1922]
How Islamic philosophers preserved and built on ancient Hellenic ideas, and passed that legacy to the kindlers of the European Renaissance. 

 The Glory of the Shia World
by P. M. Sykes and Khan Bhadur Ahmad din Khan [1910]
Travel to one of the holiest Shiite shrines, Mashhad in Iran, in this rare 19th century literary collaboration between an Englishman and a Persian. 

 Arabian Poetry
by W. A. Clouston [1881]
Rare 19th century translations of Arabian poetry, mostly pre-Islamic or contemporary with Muhammed. Includes the Hanged Poems, and a synopsis of the Antar Saga. 

 The History of Philosophy in Islam
by T. J. De Boer [1903]
A short summary of the flowering of Islamic philosophy in the late middle ages. 

 Arabian Wisdom
by John Wortabet [1913]
Islamic wisdom literature from the Quran, Hadith and traditional proverbs. 

 The Maqámát of Badí‘ al-Zamán al-Hamadhání
translated by W.J. Prendergast [1915]
A masterpiece of medieval Islamic literature. 

 Islam
by John A. Williams [1962, not renewed]
An anthology of some key texts across the entire spectrum of Islamic tradition. 

 The Philosophy of Alfarabi
by Robert Hammond [1947

 Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory
by Duncan B. MacDonald [1903]
A survey of the history of Islamic thought, by a sympathetic Western scholar. 

 The Bible, The Koran, and the Talmud
or, Biblical Legends of the Mussulmans. By Dr. G. Weil [1863

 The Hanged Poems
Translated by F.E. Johnson and Sheikh Faiz-ullah-bhai [1917]
Translations of the earliest (pre-Islamic) Arabic poetry known, poems originally displayed ("hanged") in the Kaaba, the holiest shrine of Mecca. 

 Folk-lore of the Holy Land
by J. E. Hanauer [1909]
Moslem, Christian and Jewish tales from old Palestine. 

 Christ In Islâm
by Rev. James Robson [1929]. 

 The Gospel of Barnabas
trans. Lonsdale and Laura Ragg [1907]. 

 Shiite Documents 
 Ismā‛īlī materials 


IMPORTANT NOTE

It is our policy to preserve the original text and titles of books transcribed for this site. This has some theological implications in this section. Some Muslims do not believe that any text other than the actual Arabic text of the Quran (even a transliteration or an Arabic text with vowels) can strictly be called 'the Qur'an'. This is because the Arabic text is considered canonical and there can be no other versions of it. The phrase 'the meaning of the Quran' is typically used to describe texts which would otherwise be described as 'translations'. Please be aware of this issue where this site presents or refers to a 'translation,' 'translator' or 'transliteration' of the Quran. In addition, many of these books were originally written by Europeans during the 19th century and use the term 'Mohammedan' to refer to Muslims (by analogy with 'Buddhist,' 'Christian' etc.) Most Muslims deprecate this term today because the founder of Islam is considered a human prophet, rather than an entity to be worshipped, as the term could be taken to imply. In the interest of archival accuracy this terminology has been retained in the etexts; in text that we've written, we have attempted to avoid it, except in quotations. No disrespect to Islam or Muslims is intended thereby.

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