Art

World Heritage Tour: Southeast Asia

360-degree images (Quicktime) and maps of sites registred on the World Heritage List by UNESCO. Section of Southeast Asia. [en]

Southeast Asian Monuments: a selection of 100 slides

Fotos of Hindu and Buddhist monuments from the 9th to 15th century in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam. Selection from the collection of Marijke J. Klokke. [en]

Southeast Asian Pictures

Online-Gallery, historical paintings from Southeast Asia. [en]

Ellora Caves, Kailasanatha 

Temple

Ellora Art Architecture Archcelogy History Culture Study

Hindu-Bauddham (Ellora) [Source: http://www.csus.edu/indiv/d/duboisj/AIA1/PPTs/HinduBuddhistIcons.ppt]

Video Clippings
Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves

    
kailash Temple                                                                                                

Kailash Temple

Forts
Shivjayanthi Special


Ellora caves: sacred destination


Ajanta caves



Welcome to Lessing Photo Archive!


. Schist relief panel depicting the division of the Buddha's relics, from Gandhara, 2nd century. A table with thick, elaborately turned legs dominates the panel. A densely worked textile covers it, on which sit eight reliquaries. The brahmin Drona stands behind the table, in the middle of the scene, flanked by the princes. Guards holding spears flank the table legs. In the next frame stands a bare torsoed female figure with one hand on her hip, and the other holding on to the branch of a tree. According to the ancient Sanskrit text, the Mahaparinirvana-sutra, the Buddha himself gave detailed instructions for the cremation of his body and the preservation of his relics. He apparently died in the kingdom of the Mallas of Kushinagara and they performed the final rites and ceremonies as he had sanctioned. When word spread of the Buddha's death, seven of the clans from surrounding territories sent emissaries, each proclaiming his clan's right to a share of the relics. However the Mallas of Kushinagara responded by announcing their intention to keep all the relics for themselves, on the ground that the Buddha died in their territory. A brahmin named Drona intervened to ensure that all eight claimants received an equal share.  OA, 1966.10-17.1Erich Lessing Culture and Fine Arts Archive is an extensive image library featuring over 40.000 high resolution images from over 500 museums and many other collections. Founded and mostly photographed by Erich Lessing, the collection covers a wide range of subjects: Fine Arts, Religion, History, Music, Archaeology, Mythology, Architecture, Landscapes, Historical Portraits and Reportage.


03-07-01/58 GANDHARA-STYLE RELIEF 2ND CE
Schist relief panel depicting the division of the Buddha's relics, from Gandhara, 2nd century. A table with thick, elaborately turned legs dominates the panel. A densely worked textile covers it, on which sit eight reliquaries. The brahmin Drona stands behind the table, in the middle of the scene, flanked by the princes. Guards holding spears flank the table legs. In the next frame stands a bare torsoed female figure with one hand on her hip, and the other holding on to the branch of a tree. According to the ancient Sanskrit text, the Mahaparinirvana-sutra, the Buddha himself gave detailed instructions for the cremation of his body and the preservation of his relics. He apparently died in the kingdom of the Mallas of Kushinagara and they performed the final rites and ceremonies as he had sanctioned. When word spread of the Buddha's death, seven of the clans from surrounding territories sent emissaries, each proclaiming his clan's right to a share of the relics. However the Mallas of Kushinagara responded by announcing their intention to keep all the relics for themselves, on the ground that the Buddha died in their territory. A brahmin named Drona intervened to ensure that all eight claimants received an equal share. OA, 1966.10-17.1
British Museum, London, Great Britain

Begram Ivory and Bone Carvings

Begram: 
New Perspectives on the Ivory and Bone Carvings, Sanjyot Mehendale

Search the Ivory Database

JACQUES-EDOUARD BERGER FOUNDATION - World Art Treasures


                Art historianlecturerJacques-Édouard Berger (1945-1993) was a leader of cultural trips to Europe, Egypt, Near and Far East and the United States. He had brought back over 100,000 images - all are accessible - from his trips. J.-E Berger was also a passionate collector of Art. After his death, the J.-E Berger Foundation deposited his very important collections with the City of Lausanne (Switzerland) with a view to their installation in the Musée de design et d'arts appliqués contemporains.

Huntington Archive

IGNCA

Understanding South Asian Art: Smithsonian Gallery

South Asian Art and Culture: Metmuseum

        

The Indian subcontinent forms an inverted triangle extending from the snow-bound Himalayan ranges of Asia toward the equator. Known also as South Asia, the area includes the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan; artistically, the Tibetan highlands also form part of the region. Stretching some 1,800 miles from north to south, and almost the same distance from west to east, the area is home to an ancient and diverse group of cultures.

India is the largest single nation of South Asia. Its currently twenty-four states exhibit a cultural diversity comparable to that seen among the nations of Europe. The Tamil region of South India has a language, script, musical tradition, dance forms, and an artistic heritage that are quite distinct from those found in, say, Punjab in the north. It is this diversity that makes the artistic traditions of India so complex and rewarding to follow.


During the third millennium B.C., spacious cities, displaying advanced town planning, were built along the plains of the Indus River. The settlers of these ancient communities traded with the contemporary civilizations of Mesopotamia and used an elegant form of pictorial writing that is yet to be deciphered. Steatite seals, delicately carved with figures of animals and occasionally of humans, testify to their creators' artistic sensibilities. The great cities of the Indus Valley flourished for more than a thousand years.


Between 1800 and 1200 B.C., a steady trickle of Indo-European peoples who called themselves Aryans (Sanskrit arya means "noble") entered the Indian subcontinent. They brought with them a group of sacred hymns known as the Vedas ("knowledge"), composed in the ancient Sanskrit language. The Vedic hymns praise an entire group of deities to whom the Aryans offered homage. Several are personifications of the powerful forces of nature, such as Indra, the god of thunder and rain and the patron deity of war; the solar deity Surya; and Agni, the god of fire. The religion known today as Hinduism has its roots in these ancient texts. Hinduism is a religion without a single founder, a single spokesman, or indeed a single set of fixed tenets. It evolved and changed over the years as the once-nomadic Aryans spread across the subcontinent, took to settled life, and as they mingled with the local populations, adopted several of their beliefs and customs.


In keeping with its Vedic origins, Hinduism remains a polytheistic faith that admits the power of a number of deities. The three most popular deities of present-day Hinduism, which draws directly on later texts known as the Puranas (composed early in the present era), are the god Shiva, the god Vishnu, and the goddess Shakti (literally, "Power"). Hindus generally address their worship to one or another of the three and are accordingly known as Shaivas, Vaishnavas, or Shaktas. Temples were built to enshrine the image of the chosen deity, and the exterior walls of these temples were covered with numerous sculpted images and masses of decorative carvings. Relief carvings from the myths of the enshrined deity played an important role in glorifying the god whose various manifestations found a place in the niches on the temple walls. In addition, sculptors carved a variety of auspicious motifs that included overflowing foliage, figures of women, and images of embracing couples, all of which suggested growth, abundance, and prosperity.


Side by side with the flowering of the plastic arts, philosophy and literature, as well as music and dance, flourished in the Hindu context. India's best-known philosophical system, Vedanta, associated with the philosopher Shankara, proposed a monistic belief in the identity of the human soul with the divine principle. A rich body of secular literature, including poems and dramas, fables and epics, was written first in Sanskrit and later in a number of regional languages, from southern Tamil to northern Kashmiri, from western Gujarati to eastern Bengali. Music and dance played an important part in the religious and secular life of the subcontinent. Hindu religion, culture, and art spread overseas into several parts of Southeast Asia, where the two great epics of India, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, continue to play an important theatrical role.


India is the birthplace of two other major religions that arose during the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. One was Buddhism, a faith propounded by Prince Siddhartha, who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha (literally, "Enlightened One"). The Buddha's path to nirvana (Buddhist salvation) was a path of moderation that was open to all. It denied the caste system of the Hindus and emphasized an upright, moral life. Buddhism gained rapid popularity within India and, at an early date, spread along the Silk Road into China, Korea, and Japan, where it became a major force. The countries of Southeast Asia, too, imbibed the Buddha's teachings. Buddhists especially revere the founder of their faith, who was deified and adored as a god. In early times, his mortal remains (in the form of ashes following cremation) were interred within relic mounds known as stupas. Relief sculptures narrating the life of the Buddha were used to decorate such stupa mounds. The range of auspicious motifs used in a Hindu context-foliage, women, couples-also formed part of the decorative scheme of the stupa. Buddhas later built richly decorated temples to enshrine an image of the Buddha.


The other major religion that arose in the sixth century B.C. is traditionally accepted as having been founded by Mahavira, an elder contemporary of the Buddha. Once he had attained enlightenment, he was known as Jina, or "Victor," and the path he propounded is known as Jainism. Although similar in many ways to the path of the Buddha, Jainism places greater emphasis on austerity and asceticism, which are upheld as ideals. The faith did not spread beyond India, but it holds an important place within the subcontinent. Jain temples, which enshrine an image of one of the twenty-four jinas, are similar in many ways to those built to honor Hindu gods; only the narrative themes and the identity of the sacred images are different.


India is home to other religions as well, including Islam, a monotheistic faith. Northwestern India was first penetrated by Muslim armies in the early eighth century A.D., although Islam did not establish a firm foothold there until the eleventh century. The last of the world religions to arise in the subcontinent is Sikhism, which, in certain respects, attempted to bridge the gulf between Hinduism and Islam.


The greater proportion of the art in stone that has survived was used to decorate sacred structures. Secular monuments certainly existed, and monarchs and nobles built themselves imposing palaces and mansions. It would appear, however, that such structures were made in the perishable medium of brick and wood and decorated with terracotta and wood sculptures. In the hot and humid climate of much of India, these ancient secular monuments have perished. It is only after Islam came to India that secular monuments began to be constructed of stone. Thus it is that the majority of the works of art seen in the South Asian galleries of the Metropolitan Museum, most of them of stone, come from a religious context. The artistic remains, consisting of sacred image as well as sensuous, often flamboyant figures of women, emphasize the intermingling of the sacred and the secular in the art of India.

Vidja Dehejia

Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University

Art of India: Witcombe

  • Indus Valley 
  • Art of India

    Indus Valley Civilization 
    The Vedic Period 
    Magadha 
    Maurya 
    Chola 
    Kushan 
    Gupta 
    Pala 
    Hoysala 
    Kakatiya 
    Ahom 
    Vijayanagara 
    Mughal 
    Maratha

  • Art in Southeast Asia: Witcombe

  • Asian Art: General
  • Cambodia
  • Indonesia
  • Korea
  • Laos
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Singapore
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Tibet
  • Vietnam

  • Art of Southeast Asia

    Burma 
    Cambodia 
    Laos 
    Thailand 
    People 
    Reference

    Burma (Myanmar)

    Mandalay 
    Bagaya Kyaung (Ava) (2) 
    Kaunghmudaw Paya (Amarapura) (3) 
    Kuthodaw Temple (2) 
    Kyauktawgyi Temple (1) 
    Mahamuni Shrine (6) 
    Maha Aungmye Bonzan (Ava) (2) 
    Naga-Yon Shrine (Amarapura) (1) 
    Royal Palace (7) 
    Shwenandaw Monastery (3)

    Mingun 
    Mingun Paya (3) 
    Shinbyumei Paya (3)

    Pagan (Bagan) 
    Archaeological Sites (54) 
    Mount Popa (3)

    Rangoon 
    Botataung Stupa (3) 
    Royal Barge (1) 
    Shwedagon Paya (3)

    Cambodia

    Siem Reap 
    Angkor Archaeological Site (123) 
    Banteay Srei (12)

    Phnom Penh 
    National Museum (1) 
    Royal Palace (6) 
    Wat Phnom (3)

    Laos

    Ho Phra Keo (2) 
    Wat Phu (8) 
    Wat Sisaket (4) 
    Wat That Luang (1)

    Thailand

    Ayutthaya 
    Archaeological Sites (30)

    Bangkok 
    Golden Buddha (1) 
    Emerald Buddha (1) 
    National Museum (22) 
    Wat Phra Kaeo (10) 
    Wat Pho (5)

    Chiang Mai 
    Wat Chedi Luang (3)

    Khorat Region (Khmer temples) 
    Ban Phluang (3) 
    Kamphaeng Yai (2) 
    Muang Tam (6) 
    Phimai (14) 
    Phnom Rung (12) 
    Sikhoraphum (3)

    Khorat Region (modern wats) 
    Kamphaeng Yai (2) 
    Wat Prasat Burapharam (2)

    Sukhothai 
    Historical Park (10)

    Other Sights 
    Balloon Ride Over Pagan (3) 
    Construction (3) 
    Dance (6) 
    Nature (8) 
    Monks (5) 
    People (15) 
    Puppets (5)

    Reference 
    Art History Periods of Burma 
    Bibliography 
    Glossary and Index 
    Khmer Empire Map 
    Lintel Finder 
    Rulers of Angkor 
    Rulers of Pagan 
    Spelling and Pronunciation 
    Southeast Asia Area Map 
    Southeast Asia Historical Atlas 
    Timeline of Southeast Asia

    South Asian Art and Architecture, Art Links: Columbia Univ.Source: 





    *GENERAL*~~ an overview of resources 

    *BCE* ~~ before the Common Era

    *CE* ~~ up to about 1200 CE

    *SULTANATE* ~~ c.1200 to c.1500

    *AKBAR* ~~ 1500's, early Mughals and Akbar

    *MUGHAL* ~~ 1600's, height of the empire

    *INTERREGNUM* ~~ the turbulent 1700's

    *COLONIAL* ~~ 1800's, the British heyday

    *MODERN* ~~ how to describe our times?

      

    Art of Southeast Asia


    Note: These are resources on Southeast Asian Art in general. For specific historical periods, please use the navagation links at the bottom of this page.

    Southeast Asia 
    Art of Southeast Asia. Mike Gunther 
    Asia. Lonely Planet Guide 
    Asian Art (articles). Asia-art.net 
    Asian Art Links. Chris Witcombe 
    Asian Art Links. Pat Binder & Gerhard Haupt 
    Asian Historical Architecture. Tim Ciccone et. al. 
    Asian Temples (photos). Anthroarcheart.org 
    Met Timeline: Southeast Asia, 500-1000 A.D. Metropolitan Museum of Art 
    Photo Galleries. Alfred Molon 
    Pictorial Essay on South East Asian Buddha Images. Bob Hudson, University of Sydney, Australia. 
    Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan to 1453. Sanderson Beck 
    Southeast Asian Languages and Cultures. Northern Illinois University 
    Southeast Asia Archaeology (links). Bev Freed 
    Southeast Asian Monuments: A Collection of 100 Slides. Leiden University 
    South Asia. Miho Museum 
    Stock Images (world photo gallery). R. Fox 
    Theravada South East Asia (photo gallery). Q.T. Luong 
    World Art Treasures: Thailand, Laos, Cambodia. Berger Foundation

    Burma (Myanmar) 
    Architectural Drawings of Temples in Bagan. Yangon Institute of Technology 
    The Art and Culture of Burma. Richard Cooler 
    Bagan. Jean-Claude Morin and Yves Michel (French-language) 
    Bagan Tamples. Bernard Cloutier 
    Myanmar Culture. The Golden Land 
    World Art Treasures: Burma (Myanmar). Berger Foundation

    Cambodia 
    Angkor Vat. Crystal Lotus 
    APSARA Authority official web site. 
    Art of Cambodia. Eleanor Mannikka 
    Bayon Face-Towers (clickable map). Waseda University 
    Cambodian Art Styles. Insecula (French-language) 
    Cambodia Overview. Cambodian Government 
    Cambodian Classical Dance. Tom & Chamroeun 
    Cambodian Music History. Sam-Ang Sam 
    Dance: The Spirit of Cambodia. Asia Society 
    Images From Cambodia. Mary Ann Sullivan 
    Khmer Art. Asian Artesian Co. 
    Les Arts Khmers, from Angkor Wat Online (French-language) 
    Millennium of Glory 1997 exhibition. National Gallery of Art

    Indonesia 
    Bali Information. Indonesia-Bali.com 
    Balinese Dance and Drama. Balilife.com 
    Borobudur Home Page. Australian National University 
    Borobudur. Berger Foundation 
    Borobudur. PBS 
    BorobudurIntroduction. Borobudur Ship Expedition 
    Borobudur Lecture Slides. Ohio State University 
    Decoding Borobudur. Jean Johnson, New York University 
    A Glimpse of Temples in Indonesia. Bureau of Tourism 
    Images of Indonesia (captioned photos). Anthroarcheart.org 
    Indonesia (captioned photos, including Borobudur and other temples). Bret Wallach 
    Indonesian Culture Information Center with articles on archaeology, music, etc. 
    Javanese Candi (Temples). Indonesian Embassy to the Netherlands 
    Prehistoric Archaeology of Indonesia. Indonesia Archaeology Directory 
    Memories of Majapahit Kingdom
    Prehistoric Room. Museum Nasional Indonesia 
    WWW-VL History Index: Indonesia. WWW Virtual Library

    Laos 
    Lao Buddhist Sculpture. Fact-index.com 
    Sculpture in Laos. Graham and Angela Tickner

    Thailand 
    Arts in Thailand. Thailand.com 
    Buddhist Arts of Thailand (e-book, PDF format). Ms. Charuwan Chareonla 
    Thailand Art and Culture. Thailand-travel.net 
    Thai Art and History (student project). ANU 
    Thai-Cambodian Culture (e-book, ZIP file). Ms. Charuwan Chareonla 
    Thai Folk. Eclectic information about Thai folkways and culture 
    Ramakien (Thai version of Ramayana), History of Thailand (brief), and Thai Temple Terms. INM Asia Guides

    Vietnam 
    About Vietnam. Haivenu Tours 
    Images From Vietnam. Mary Ann Sullivan 
    Le Royaume perdu du Champa. Hoan Vu and Gilles Kergutuil 
    Vietnamese Culture. Viettouch 
    The Virtual Museum of Cham Architecture. Christopher Mark Gribbin

    Southeast Asia Links - Online Museum Collections 
    Southeast Asian Art. Boston Museum of Fine Arts 
    Cleveland Museum of Art 
    The Crow Collection. Dallas 
    Southeast Asia. Denver Art Museum 
    Southeast Asian Art. The Freer and Sackler Galleries, Washington, D.C. 
    Southeast Asia Collection. Musee Guimet, Paris 
    South and Southeast Asian Art. LACMA 
    Southeast Asia Index. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    Sources on South Asian art and architecture

    This site is a comprehensive review of resources on South Asian art and architecture available on the internet. The website is divided into different periods of South Asian history starting with the BCE period and moving on through the headings 'CE', 'Sultanate', 'Akbar', 'Mughal', 'Interregnum', 'Colonial' and 'Modern'. Entering one of these sub-sections brings up a long list of resources and websites, each one with a brief description. As a whole the website contains many hundreds of links. This is a major undertaking which is very well presented indeed and simple to use - as a resource it will prove invaluable to researchers and students of South Asian art and architecture.

    Pritchett, Frances (Compiler)

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