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Headache is symptom of innumerable underlying causes of fatal & non fatal diseases which are of serious implications in term of cost, disabilities, mortality, loss of human productivity etc. Migraine is a type of headache which is crippling & recurrent in nature & does not lead to permanent disability in majority of cases. However, it affects young & middle aged productive population of any nation that leads to interruption in jobs, employment, study, career & works for concerned persons. Numerous kinds of remedies have been suggested & tried, but not all got relief. Moreover, patients are being subjected to unnecessary investigations in hope to clinch exact cause & to rule out fatal component of diseases. 

                                         

Here lies the importance of expert opinions of consultant of repute & competence who can give you proper, simple yet effective advice & save you from harassment & harmful effects of medications & investigations. It is worth trying.


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 A headache or cephalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It can be a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and neck.[1] The brain tissue itself is not sensitive to pain because it lacks pain receptors. Rather, the pain is caused by disturbance of the pain-sensitive structures around the brain. Several areas of the head and neck have these pain-sensitive structures, which are divided in two categories: within the cranium (blood vessels, meninges, and the cranial nerves) and outside the cranium (the periosteum of the skull, muscles, nerves, arteries and veins, subcutaneous tissues, eyes, ears, sinuses and mucous membranes).

There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache Society. Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying etiology or cause, but commonly involves analgesics.

Also known as "sexual headaches", coital cephalalgia is a rare type of severe headache that occurs at the base of the skull before orgasm during sexual activity, including masturbation. A pressor response to exercise has been suggested as a mechanism.[1]

Epidemiology

During a given year, 90% of people suffer from headaches. Of the ones seen in the ER, about 1% have a serious underlying problem.[21]

Primary headaches account for more than 90% of all headache complaints, and of these, episodic tension-type headache is the most common.[22]

It is estimated that women are three folds more prone than men to suffer from migraines. Also, the prevalence of this particular type of headache seems to vary depending on the specific area of the world where one lives. However, migraines appear to be experienced by 12% to 18% of the population.[22]

Cluster headaches are thought to be affecting less than 0.5% of the population, though their prevalence is hard to estimate because they are often mistaken as a sinusal problem. However, according to the existent data, cluster headaches are more likely to occur in men than women, given that the condition tends to affect 5 to 8 times more men.

Migraine (from the Greek words hemi, meaning half, and kranion, meaning skull[1]) is a debilitating condition characterized by moderate to severe headaches, and nausea. It is about three times more common in women than in men.[2]

The typical migraine headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature and lasting from 4 to 72 hours; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, photophobia (increased sensitivity to light), phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound); the symptoms are generally aggravated by routine activity.[3][4] Approximately one-third of people who suffer from migraine headaches perceive an aura—unusual visual, olfactory, or other sensory experiences that are a sign that the migraine will soon occur.[5]

Initial treatment is with analgesics for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggering conditions. The cause of migraine headache is unknown; the most common theory is a disorder of the serotonergic control system.[citation needed]

Studies of twins indicate a 60- to 65-percent genetic influence upon their propensity to develop migraine headaches.[6][7] Moreover, fluctuating hormone levels indicate a migraine relation: 75 percent of adult patients are women, although migraine affects approximately equal numbers of prepubescent boys and girls; propensity to migraine headache is known to disappear during pregnancy, although in some women migraines may become more frequent during pregnancy.[8]

Retinal migraine (also known as ophthalmic migraine and ocular migraine) is a retinal disease often accompanied by migraine headache and typically affects only one eye.[1] It is caused by an infarct or vascular spasm in or behind the affected eye.

The terms "retinal migraine" and "ocular migraine" are often confused with an abnormal condition in the brain (cortical spreading depression) that may cause similar symptoms such as scintillating scotoma affecting vision in both eyes, also associated with migraine headaches. 

Retinal migraine is associated with transient monocular visual loss (scotoma) in one eye lasting less than one hour.[2] During some episodes, the visual loss may occur with no headache and at other times throbbing headache on the same side of the head as the visual loss may occur, accompanied by severe light sensitivity and/or nausea. Visual loss tends to affect the entire monocular visual field of one eye, not both eyes.[3] After each episode, normal vision returns.

It may be difficult to read and dangerous to drive a vehicle while retinal migraine symptoms are present.

Retinal migraine is a different disease than scintillating scotoma, which is a visual anomaly caused by spreading depression in the occipital cortex, at the back of the brain, not in the eyes nor any component thereof.[4] Unlike retinal migraine, such a scintillating aura affects vision from both eyes, and sufferers may see flashes of light; zigzagging patterns; blind spots; and shimmering spots or stars. In contrast, retinal migraine involves repeated bouts of temporary diminished vision or blindness in one eye.[5]

Classification:

The International Headache Society (IHS) offers guidelines for the classification and diagnosis of migraine headaches, in a document called "The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition" (ICHD-2).[3] These guidelines constitute arbitrary definitions, and are not supported by scientific data.[3]

According to ICHD-2, there are seven subclasses of migraines (some of which include further subdivisions):

  • Migraine without aura, or common migraine, involves migraine headaches that are not accompanied by an aura (visual disturbance, see below).
  • Migraine with aura usually involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura. Less commonly, an aura can occur without a headache, or with a non-migraine headache. Two other varieties are Familial hemiplegic migraine and Sporadic hemiplegic migraine, in which a patient has migraines with aura and with accompanying motor weakness. If a close relative has had the same condition, it is called "familial", otherwise it is called "sporadic". Another variety is basilar-type migraine, where a headache and aura are accompanied by difficulty speaking, vertigo, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but not motor weakness.
  • Childhood periodic syndromes that are commonly precursors of migraine include cyclical vomiting (occasional intense periods of vomiting), abdominal migraine (abdominal pain, usually accompanied by nausea), and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (occasional attacks of vertigo).
  • Retinal migraine involves migraine headaches accompanied by visual disturbances or even temporary blindness in one eye.
  • Complications of migraine describe migraine headaches and/or auras that are unusually long or unusually frequent, or associated with a seizure or brain lesion.
  • Probable migraine describes conditions that have some characteristics of migraines but where there is not enough evidence to diagnose it as a migraine with certainty (in the prescence of concurrent medication overuse).
  • Chronic migraine, according to the American Headache Society[9] and the international headache society,[10] is a "complication of migraine"s and is a headache fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for "migraine headache", which occurs for a greater time interval. Specifically, greater or equal to 15 days/month for greater than 3 months.

 Signs and symptoms

Migraines typically present with recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms.[11] An aura only occurs in a small percentage of people.[11] The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks is variable.[11] A migraine lasting 72 hours is termed status migrainosus and can be treated with intravenous prochlorperazine.

There are four possible phases to a migraine attack.[3] They are listed below - not all the phases are necessarily experienced. Additionally, the phases experienced and the symptoms experienced during them can vary from one migraine attack to another in the same person:

  1. The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache.
  2. The aura, which immediately precedes the headache.
  3. The pain phase, also known as headache phase.
  4. The postdrome.

 Prodrome

Prodromal symptoms occur in 40–60% of those with migraines. This phase may consist of altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, yawning, excessive sleepiness, craving for certain food (e.g. chocolate), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), hot ears, constipation or diarrhea, increased urination, and other visceral symptoms.[12] These symptoms usually precede the headache phase of the migraine attack by several hours or days, and experience teaches the patient or observant family how to detect that a migraine attack is near.

For the 20–30%[14][15] of migraine sufferers who experience migraine with aura, this aura comprises focal neurological phenomena that precede or accompany the attack. They appear gradually over 5 to 20 minutes and generally last fewer than 60 minutes. The headache phase of the migraine attack usually begins within 60 minutes of the end of the aura phase, but it is sometimes delayed up to several hours, and it can be missing entirely (see silent migraine). The pain may also begin before the aura has completely subsided. Symptoms of migraine aura can be sensory or motor in nature.[16]

Visual aura is the most common of the neurological events and can occur without any headache. There is a disturbance of vision consisting often of unformed flashes of white and/or black or rarely of multicolored lights (photopsia) or formations of dazzling zigzag lines (scintillating scotoma; often arranged like the battlements of a castle, hence the alternative terms "fortification spectra" or "teichopsia"[17]). Some patients complain of blurred or shimmering or cloudy vision, as though they were looking through thick or smoked glass, or, in some cases, tunnel vision and hemianopsia.

The somatosensory aura of migraine may consist of digitolingual or cheiro-oral paresthesias, a feeling of pins-and-needles experienced in the hand and arm as well as in the nose-mouth area on the same side. The paresthesia may migrate up the arm and then extend to involve the face, lips and tongue.

Other symptoms of the aura phase can include auditory, gustatory or olfactory hallucinations, temporary dysphasia, vertigo, tingling or numbness of the face and extremities, and hypersensitivity to touch.

Oliver Sacks's book Migraine describes "migrainous deliria" as a result of such intense migraine aura that it is indistinguishable from "free-wheeling states of hallucinosis, illusion, or dreaming."

  • Visual symptoms of migraine aura
  • Enhancements reminiscent of a zigzag fort structure

  • Negative scotoma, loss of awareness of local structures

  • Positive scotoma, local perception of additional structures

  • Mostly one-sided loss of perception

[edit] Pain

The typical migraine headache is unilateral, throbbing, and moderate to severe and can be aggravated by physical activity.[3] Not all these features are necessary. The pain may be bilateral at the onset or start on one side and become generalized, and may occur primarily on one side or alternate sides from one attack to the next. The onset is usually gradual. The pain peaks and then subsides and usually lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults and 1 to 48 hours in children. The frequency of attacks is extremely variable, from a few in a lifetime to several a week, and the average sufferer experiences one to three headaches a month. The head pain varies greatly in intensity.

The pain of migraine is invariably accompanied by other features. Nausea occurs in almost 90 percent of patients, and vomiting occurs in about one third of patients. Many patients experience sensory hyperexcitability manifested by photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia and seek a dark and quiet room. Blurred vision, delirium, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, tinnitus, polyuria, pallor, or sweating may be noted during the headache phase. There may be localized edema of the scalp or face, scalp tenderness, prominence of a vein or artery in the temple, or stiffness and tenderness of the neck. Impairment of concentration and mood are common. The extremities tend to feel cold and moist. Vertigo may be experienced; a variation of the typical migraine, called vestibular migraine, has also been described. Lightheadedness, rather than true vertigo,[citation needed] and a feeling of faintness may occur.

 Postdrome

The effects of migraine may persist for some days after the main headache has ended. Many sufferers report a sore feeling in the area where the migraine was, and some report impaired thinking for a few days after the headache has passed. The patient may feel tired or "hungover" and have head pain, cognitive difficulties, gastrointestinal symptoms, mood changes, and weakness.[18] According to one summary, "Some people feel unusually refreshed or euphoric after an attack, whereas others note depression and malaise."[19]

 Cause

The cause of migraines is unknown.[20]

 Triggers

A minority of migraines may be induced by triggers.[11] While many things have been labeled as triggers, the strength and significance of these relationships are uncertain.[21][22] The most common triggers quoted are stress, hunger, and fatigue; however, these equally contribute to tension headaches.[21] A 2003 review concluded that there was no scientific evidence for an effect of tyramine on migraine.[23] A 2005 literature review found that the available information about dietary trigger relies mostly on subjective assessments.[24] This is in line with other reviews. A 2009 review found little evidence to corroborate the environmental triggers reported.[25] While monosodium glutamate (MSG) is frequently reported as a dietary trigger[26] evidence does not consistently support this.[27] A prospective diary study showed that menstruation had the most prominent effect, increasing the risk of headache and migraine in migraineurs by up to 96%. Other factors such as muscle tension in the neck, psychic tension, tiredness, noise and odours increased the risk by less then 35 %. Nutrition played no role at all. Days off, relaxation after stress, a divorced marriage and consumption of beer decreased the risk. [28]. Furthermore, data from the same diary study strongly suggest that weather has little if any effect on headache and migraine. [29]

 Depolarization

It has been theorized that the phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression, which is associated with the aura of migraine,[30] can cause migraines. In cortical spreading depression, neurological activity is initially activated, then depressed over an area of the cortex of the brain. It has been suggested that situation results in the release of inflammatory mediators leading to irritation of cranial nerve roots, most particularly the trigeminal nerve, which conveys the sensory information for the face and much of the head. This theory is however speculative, without any supporting evidence, and there are indeed cogent arguments against it. First, only about one third of migraineurs experience an aura, and those who do not experience aura do not have cortical spreading depression.[citation needed] Second, many migraineurs have a prodrome (see above), which occurs up to three days before the aura.[12]

 Vascular

Studies have shown that the aura coincides with constriction of blood vessels in the brain. This may start in the occipital lobe, in the back of the brain, as arteries spasm. The reduced flow of blood from the occipital lobe triggers the aura that some individuals who have migraines experience because the visual cortex is in the occipital area.[31][unreliable source?]

When the constriction of blood vessels in the brain stops and the aura subsides, the blood vessels of the scalp dilate.[32] The walls of these blood vessels become permeable and some fluid leaks out. This leakage is recognized by pain receptors in the blood vessels of surrounding tissue. In response, the body supplies the area with chemicals which cause inflammation. With each heart beat, blood passes through this sensitive area causing a throb of pain.[31][unreliable source?]

Although cerebral vasodilation can trigger migraine attacks, blood vessel diameters return to normal more than an hour before the migraine headaches occur.[33]

 Serotonin

Serotonin is a type of neurotransmitter, or "communication chemical" which passes messages between nerve cells. It helps to control mood, pain sensation, sexual behaviour, sleep, as well as dilation and constriction of the blood vessels among other things. Low serotonin levels in the brain may lead to a process of constriction and dilation of the blood vessels which trigger a migraine.[31] Serotonergic agonists like triptans,[31] LSD or psilocin activate serotonin receptors to stop a migraine attack.

 Melanopsin receptor

A melanopsin-based receptor has been linked to the association between light sensitivity and migraine pain,[34] but this is at this stage speculation.

Neural

When certain nerves or an area in the brain stem become irritated, a migraine begins. In response to the irritation, the body releases chemicals which cause inflammation of the blood vessels. These chemicals cause further irritation of the nerves and blood vessels and results in pain. Substance P is one of the substances released with first irritation. Pain then increases because substance P aids in sending pain signals to the brain.[31]

Unifying theory

Both vascular and neural influences cause migraines.

  1. stress triggers changes in the brain
  2. these changes cause serotonin to be released
  3. blood vessels constrict and dilate
  4. chemicals including substance P irritate nerves and blood vessels causing neurogenic inflammation and pain[31]

 Pathophysiology

Migraine is a neurovascular disorder.[11] Although migraine is thought by some to be a neurological disease, in the absence of scientific evidence, this remains a hypothesis.

 Initiation

Migraines were once thought to be initiated exclusively by problems with blood vessels, but the vascular changes of migraines are now considered by some to be secondary to brain dysfunction,[31] although this concept has not been supported by the evidence. This was eloquently summed up by Dodick who wrote ‘There is no disputing the role of the central nervous system in the susceptibility, modulation and expression of migraine headache and the associated affective, cognitive, sensory, and neurological symptoms and signs. However to presume that migraine is always generated from within the central nervous system, based on the available evidence, is naïve at best and unscientific at worst.The emerging evidence would suggest that just as alterations in neuronal activity can lead to downstream effects on the cerebral blood vessel, so too can changes within endothelial cells or vascular smooth muscle lead to downstream alterations in neuronal activity. Therefore, there are likely patients, and/or at least attacks in certain patients, where primarily vascular mechanisms predominate.'[35] Some have even attempted to show that vascular changes are of no importance in migraine,[36] [37] but this claim is unsubstantiated and has not been supported by scientific evidence. 'If we swing between vascular and neurogenic views of migraine, it is probably because both vascular and neurogenic mechanisms for migraine exist and are important'- J Edmeads[38]

 Pain

Although the initiating factor of migraine remains unknown, there is a great deal of irrefutable evidence to show that the pain of migraine (the third phase)[3] is in some patients related to painful dilatation of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, and in particular its superficial temporal and occipital branches.[32][39][40][41][42][43] It was previously thought that dilatation of the arteries in the brain and dura mater was the origin of the vascular pain, but it has now been shown that these vessels do not dilate during migraine.[44][45] Because these arteries are relatively superficial, it is easy to diagnose whether they are the source of the pain. If they are, then they are also accessible to a form of migraine surgery that is being promoted, largely to the efforts of Dr Elliot Shevel, a South African surgeon, who has reported excellent success using the procedure.[46]

Pericranial (jaw and neck) muscle tenderness is a common finding in migraine[47][48][49] It has actually been shown that muscle tenderness is present in 100% of migraine attacks, so muscle tenderness is the single most common finding in migraine.[50] Tender muscle trigger points can be at least part of the cause, and perpetuate most kinds of headaches.[51][unreliable source?]

Diagnosis

Migraines are underdiagnosed[52] and often misdiagnosed.[53] The diagnosis of migraine without aura, according to the International Headache Society, can be made according to the following criteria, the "5, 4, 3, 2, 1 criteria":[54]

  • 5 or more attacks. For migraine with aura, two attacks are sufficient for diagnosis.
  • 4 hours to 3 days in duration.
  • 2 or more of the following:
    • Unilateral (affecting half the head);
    • Pulsating;
    • "Moderate or severe pain intensity";
    • "Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity".
  • 1 or more of the following:

The mnemonic POUNDing (Pulsating, duration of 4–72 hOurs, Unilateral, Nausea, Disabling) can help diagnose migraine. If 4 of the 5 criteria are met, then the positive likelihood ratio for diagnosing migraine is 24.[55]

The presence of either disability, nausea or sensitivity, can diagnose migraine with:[56]

Migraine should be differentiated from other causes of headaches such as cluster headaches. These are extremely painful, unilateral headaches of a piercing quality. The duration of the common attack is 15 minutes to three hours. Onset of an attack is rapid, and most often without the preliminary signs that are characteristic of a migraine.[citation needed]

Medical imaging of the head and neck may be used to rule out secondary causes of headaches.[11]

 Prevention

Preventive (also called prophylactic) treatment of migraines can be an important component of migraine management. Such treatments can take many forms, including taking preventive drugs, migraine surgery, taking nutritional supplements, lifestyle alterations such as increased exercise, and avoidance of migraine triggers, .

The goals of preventive therapy are to reduce the frequency, painfulness, and/or duration of migraines, and to increase the effectiveness of abortive therapy.[57] Another reason to pursue these goals is to avoid medication overuse headache (MOH), otherwise known as rebound headache. This is a common problem among migraneurs, and can result in chronic daily headache.[58][59]

Many of the preventive treatments are quite effective. Even with a placebo, one-quarter of patients find that their migraine frequency is reduced by half or more, and actual treatments often far exceed this figure.[60]

 Medication

Preventive migraine drugs are considered effective if they reduce the frequency or severity of migraine attacks by 50%.[61] The major problem with migraine preventive drugs, apart from their relative inefficiency, is that unpleasant side effects are common. For this reason, preventive medication is limited to patients with frequent or severe headaches.[62]

There are many medicines available to prevent or reduce frequency, duration and severity of migraine attacks. They may also prevent complications of migraine. Beta blockers such as Propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol, calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, flunarizine and verapamil, the anticonvulsants sodium valproate, divalproex gabapentin and topiramate and tricyclic antidepressants are some of the commonly used drugs.

Tricyclics have been found to be more effective than SSRIs.[63] Tricyclic antidepressants have been long established as efficacious prophylactic treatments.[61] These drugs, however, may give rise to undesirable side effects, such as insomnia, sedation or sexual dysfunction. There is no consistent evidence that SSRI antidepressants are effective for migraine prophylaxis. While amitryptiline (Elavil) is the only tricyclic to have received FDA approval for migraine treatment, other tricyclic antidepressants are believed to act similarly and are widely prescribed, often to find one with a profile of side-effects that is acceptable to the patient.[61] In addition to tricyclics a, the anti-depressant nefazodone may also be beneficial in the prophylaxis of migraines due to its antagonistic effects on the 5-HT2A[64] and 5-HT2C receptors[65][66] It has a more favorable side effect profile than amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. Anti-depressants offer advantages for treating migraine patients with comorbid depression.[61] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of migraines, but have been found to be effective by some practitioners.[61]

There is some evidence that low-dose asprin has benefit for reducing the occurrence of migraines in susceptible individuals.[67][68][69][70]

Surgery

Migraine surgery is a field that shows a great deal of promise, particularly in those who suffer more frequent attacks, and in those who have not had an adequate response to prophylactic medications. Patients often still experience a poor quality of life despite an aggressive regimen of pharmacotherapy.[71] For these reasons, surgical solutions to migraines have been developed, which have excellent results.[72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84] A major advantage of migraine surgery, is that with the correct diagnostic techniques, a definite diagnosis can be made before the surgery is undertaken. Once a positive diagnosis has been made, the results of surgery are outstanding and provides permanent pain relief, as well as relief from the associated symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity, and sound sensitivity. Surgical cauterization of the superficial blood vessels of the scalp (the terminal branches of the external carotid artery) is only carried out if the clinical examination has shown that these vessels are indeed a source of pain. It is a safe and relatively atraumatic procedure that can be performed in a day facility.[85] The value of arterial sugery for migraine treatment is gaining recognition due to the efforts of a South African surgeon, Dr Elliot Shevel, who has produced a number of papers on the subject.

The removal of muscles or nerves in areas known as "trigger sites" provides good results, but only in patients who respond well to Botox injections in specific areas.[73]

There is also evidence that the correction of a congenital heart defect, patent foramen ovale (PFO), reduces migraine frequency and severity.[86] Recent studies have advised caution though in relation to PFO closure for migraines, as insufficient evidence exists to justify this dangerous procedure.[87][88]

Other therapies

A systematic review stated that chiropractic manipulation, physiotherapy, massage and relaxation might be as effective as propranolol or topiramate in the prevention of migraine headaches, however the research had some problems with methodology.[89]

Migraine diary

A migraine diary allows the assessment of headache characteristics, to differentiate between migraine and tension-type headache and to record the use and efficacy of acute medication. A diary also helps to analyse the relation between migraine and menstruation.[90] Finally, the diary can help to identify trigger factors. A trigger may occur up to 24 hours prior to the onset of symptoms,[11] however the majority of migraines are not caused by identifiable triggers.[11]

Management

There are three main aspects of treatment: trigger avoidance, acute symptomatic control, and pharmacological prevention.[11] Medications are more effective if used earlier in an attack.[11] The frequent use of medications may however result in medication overuse headache (MOH), in which the headaches become more severe and more frequent. These may occur with triptans, ergotamines, and analgesics, especially narcotics analgesics.[3]

Analgesics

A number of analgesics are effective for treating migraines including:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Ibuprofen provides pain effective pain relief in about half of people.[91] Naproxen can abort about one third of migraine attacks, which was 5% less than the benefit of sumatriptan.[92] A 1000 mg dose of Aspirin (also called ASA) could relieve moderate to severe migraine pain, with similar effectiveness to sumatriptan.[93]
  • Paracetamol/acetaminophen either alone or in combination with metaclopramide is effective for migraines.[94]
  • Simple analgesics combined with caffeine may help.[95] Even by itself, caffeine can be useful during an attack,[96][97] despite the fact that in general migraine-sufferers are advised to limit their caffeine intake.[97]

Triptans

Triptans such as sumatriptan are effective for both pain and nausea in up to 75% of people.[11][98] They come in a number of different forms including oral, injection, nasal spray, and oral dissolving tablets.[11] Most side effects are mild such as flushing however rare cases of myocardial ischemia have occurred.[11] They are non addictive, but may cause medication overuse headaches if used more than 10 days per month.[99]

 Ergotamines

Dihydroergotamine is an older medication that some find useful.[11] They were the primary oral drugs available to abort a migraine prior to the triptans. They are much less expensive than triptans and continues to be prescribed for migraines.

Corticosteroids

A single dose of intravenous dexamethasone, when added to standard treatment of a migraine attack, is associated with a 26% decrease in headache recurrence in the following 72 hours.[100]

Other

Antiemetics by mouth may help relieve symptoms of nausea and help prevent vomiting, which can diminish the effectiveness of orally taken analgesia. In addition some antiemetics such as metoclopramide are prokinetics and help gastric emptying which is often impaired during episodes of migraine. In the UK, there are three combination antiemetic and analgesic preparations available: MigraMax (aspirin with metoclopramide), (paracetamol/codeine for analgesia, with buclizine as the antiemetic) and paracetamol/metoclopramide (Paramax in UK).[101] The earlier these drugs are taken in the attack, the better their effect.

Prognosis

The risk of stroke may be increased two- to threefold in migraine sufferers. Young adult sufferers and women using hormonal contraception appear to be at particular risk.[102] The mechanism of any association is unclear, but chronic abnormalities of cerebral blood vessel tone may be involved. Women who experience auras have been found to have twice the risk of strokes and heart attacks over non-aura migraine sufferers and women who do not have migraines.[102][103] (Note: Women who experience auras and also take oral contraceptives have an even higher risk of stroke).[104] Migraine sufferers seem to be at risk for both thrombotic and hemorrhagic stroke as well as transient ischemic attacks.[105] Death from cardiovascular causes was higher in people with migraine with aura in a Women's Health Initiative study, but more research is needed to confirm this.[103][106]

 Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for migraines per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
  no data
  less than 45
  45-65
  65-85
  85-105
  105-125
  125-145
  145-165
  165-185
  185-205
  205-225
  225-245
  more than 245
Incidence of migraine by age and sex

Worldwide migraines affect more than 10% of people.[20] In the United States approximately 6% of men and 18% of women get a migraine in a given year with a lifetime risk of about 18% and 43% respectively.[11] In Europe migraines affect 12–28% of people at some point in their lives.[2] Based on the results of a number of studies, one year prevalence of migraine ranges from 6–15% in adult men and from 14–35% in adult women.[2] These figures vary substantially with age: approximately 4–5% of children aged under 12 suffer from migraine, with little apparent difference between boys and girls.[107] There is then a rapid growth in incidence amongst girls occurring after puberty,[108][109][110] which continues throughout early adult life.[111] By early middle age, around 25% of women experience a migraine at least once a year, compared with fewer than 10% of men.[2][112] After menopause, attacks in women tend to decline dramatically, so that in the over 70s there are approximately equal numbers of male and female sufferers, with prevalence returning to around 5%.[2][112]

At all ages, migraine without aura is more common than migraine with aura, with a ratio of between 1.5:1 and 2:1.[113][114] Incidence figures show that the excess of migraine seen in women of reproductive age is mainly due to migraine without aura.[113] Thus in pre-pubertal and post-menopausal populations, migraine with aura is somewhat more common than amongst 15–50 year olds.[111][115]

There is a strong relationship between age, sex and type of migraine.[116]

Studies in Asia and South America suggest that the rates there are relatively low,[117][118] but they do not fall outside the range of values seen in European and North American studies.[2][112]

The incidence of migraine is related to the incidence of epilepsy in families, with migraine twice as prevalent in family members of epilepsy sufferers, and more common in epilepsy sufferers themselves.[119]

History

The Head Ache. George Cruikshank (1819)

Trepanation, the deliberate and (usually) non-fatal drilling of holes into a skull, was practiced 9,000 years ago and earlier.[120] Some scholars have (controversially) speculated that this drastic procedure might have been a migraine treatment, based on cave paintings[121] and on the fact that trepanation was a historical migraine treatment in 17th-century Europe.[120][122] An early written description consistent with migraines is contained in the Ebers papyrus, written around 1200 BC in ancient Egypt.[120]

In 400 BC Hippocrates described the visual aura that can precede the migraine headache and the relief which can occur through vomiting. Aretaeus of Cappadocia is credited as the "discoverer" of migraines because of his second century description of the symptoms of a unilateral headache associated with vomiting, with headache-free intervals in between attacks.

Galenus of Pergamon used the term "hemicrania" (half-head), from which the word "migraine" was derived. He thought there was a connection between the stomach and the brain because of the nausea and vomiting that often accompany an attack. For relief of migraine, Andalusian-born physician Abulcasis, also known as Abu El Qasim, suggested application of a hot iron to the head or insertion of garlic into an incision made in the temple.

In the Middle Ages migraine was recognized as a discrete medical disorder with treatment ranging from hot irons to bloodletting and even witchcraft[citation needed]. Followers of Galenus explained migraine as caused by aggressive yellow bile. Ebn Sina (Avicenna) described migraine in his textbook "El Qanoon fel teb" as "... small movements, drinking and eating, and sounds provoke the pain... the patient cannot tolerate the sound of speaking and light. He would like to rest in darkness alone." Abu Bakr Mohamed Ibn Zakariya Râzi noted the association of headache with different events in the lives of women, "...And such a headache may be observed after delivery and abortion or during menopause and dysmenorrhea."

In Bibliotheca Anatomica, Medic, Chirurgica, published in London in 1712, five major types of headaches are described, including the "Megrim", recognizable as classic migraine. The term "Classic migraine" is no longer used, and has been replaced by the term "Migraine with aura"[3] Graham and Wolff (1938) published their paper advocating ergotamine tartrate for relieving migraine. Later in the 20th century, Harold Wolff (1950) developed the experimental approach to the study of headache and elaborated the vascular theory of migraine, which has come under attack as the pendulum again swings to the neurogenic theory. Recently however, there has been renewed interest in Wolff's vascular theory of migraine led by Elliot Shevel, a South African headache specialist, who has published a number of articles providing compelling evidence that Wolff was in fact correct.[46][123][124][40]

 Society and culture

 Economic impact

Chronic migraine attacks are a significant source of both medical costs and lost productivity. It has been estimated to be the most costly neurological disorder in the European Community, costing more than €27 billion per year.[125] Medical costs per migraine sufferer (mostly physician and emergency room visits) averaged $107 USD over six months in one 1988 study,[citation needed] with total costs including lost productivity averaging $313. Annual employer cost of lost productivity due to migraines was estimated at $3,309 per sufferer. Total medical costs associated with migraines in the United States amounted to one billion dollars in 1994, in addition to lost productivity estimated at thirteen to seventeen billion dollars per year. Employers may benefit from educating themselves on the effects of migraines in order to facilitate a better understanding in the workplace. The workplace model of 9–5, 5 days a week may not be viable for a migraine sufferer. With education and understanding an employer could compromise with an employee to create a workable solution for both.[citation needed]

 Research

Merck Corp is developing a new drug called Telcagepant which is intended to relieve pain without causing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) as current medications such as triptans do. Telcagepant would be a safe therapy for migraine suffers with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.[126]

Recently it has been found that calcitonin gene related peptides (CGRPs) play a role in the pathogenesis of the pain associated with migraine as triptans also decrease its release and action. CGRP receptor antagonists such as olcegepant and telcagepant are being investigated both in vitro and in clinical studies for the treatment of migraine.[127]

In 2010, scientists identified a genetic defect linked to migraines which could provide a target for new drug treatments.[128]

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