Human Cognition and Next Generation Computing
This powerpoint presentation outlines the approach of our work, defining the centrality of human semantics and cognition in the evolution of next-generation information systems. As processors and communications become faster and storage becomes larger, computational barriers to finding patterns in complex data diminish. The next challenge will be in providing systems that enhance human problem solving and decision-making. This presentation identifies some key areas in this emerging field.
B. Rogowitz, " Human Cognition and Next Generation Computing" Keynote presentation, Joint Technical University of the Netherlands "Winterschool," February, 2009.
Visualization involves mapping data onto visual dimensions. Understanding the perceptual effects of these visual choices can help enhance the salience of features and ensure that the structural features of the data are not unwittingly misrepresented.
Two color maps have been applied to exactly the same data. The rainbow colormap does not map equal data values equally. The "perceptual" colormap to the right has luminance increase monotonically above sea level and decrease monotonically below sea level. This simple mapping reveals the structure in the data.
The goal of this research area is to conduct experiments on the visual impact of spatial and color dimensions, then incorporate this guidance as rules in visualization systems. Although these perceptual rules apply generally, a key focus of this work was to develop an approach that could be applied to interactive systems that allow the user to do “what-if” experiments on the fly. The patent “Interactive Rule-Based Systems” provides a method for presenting the users with rule-based selections, on-the fly, based on user behaviors. One implementation of this patent was PRAVDA, a Perceptual Rule-Based Architecture for Visualizing Data Accurately, which provided guidance to users on the use of color maps that depend on the structure of the data, the users’ task, and the visual perception of color scales. A second implementation was CRAFT, a Color Rule and Font Tool, for selecting visible and effective colors, fonts and patterns in applications and web pages.
Bergman, L.D., B.E. Rogowitz, L.A. Treinish, “A Rule-based Tool for Assisting Colormap Selection,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Visualization, 1995.
Rogowitz, Bernice and Lloyd Treinish, “How NOT to Lie with Visualization,” Computers in Physics, Issue 3, May/June,1996, 268 - 273.
Rogowitz, Bernice and Lloyd Treinish, "Data Visualization: The End of the Rainbow" IEEE Spectrum 35, Issue 12, pp. 52-59, December, 1998
Rogowitz, Bernice E., Alan D. Kalvin, Adar Pelah, Aron Cohen, Which Trajectories through which Perceptually Uniform Color Spaces Produce Appropriate Color Scales for Interval Data? invited paper, IS&T Color Imaging Conference 7, Scottsdale, AZ, November 1999.
Rogowitz, Bernice and Alan Kalvin, "The 'Which Blair Project:" A Quick Visual Method For Evaluating Color Maps," Proceedings. IEEE Visualization Conference, San Diego, CA, October 21-26, pp. 183-188, 2001
Four different color maps applied to Tony Blair's image. Luminance (1) and Colored luminance (2) color maps provide good representations of the data. The Iso-luminant (3) and Rainbow (4) colormaps provide depleted or distorted renderings.
Interactive Data Exploration
The goal of the Diamond and Opal visualization systems was to provide powerful
mathematical analytics integrated with interactive visualization. The analysts’ workbench version of this
system was licensed to BMDP and SPSS, and the API version was integrated into
several IBM applications, including the IBM Fraud and Abuse Management System. These libraries were important tools in many
projects across a wide range of disciplines, such as Financial Risk Analysis
and Bioinformatics. Merging the
multidimensional parametric visualization of Diamond with 3-D visualization
provided eye-opening understanding of how patterns in parameter space were
painted out in the 3-D model, and vice versa, enabling novel applications, such
as the collaboration on Cardiac modeling with Johns Hopkins University. A stand-alone version of this software is available on Source Forge, under the name ViVA (Visualization and Visual Analysis) Workbench.
Finding Patterns across Multiple Data Types:
D.L. Gresh, B.E. Rogowitz, R.L. Winslow, D.F. Scollan, C.K. Yung “WEAVE: A System for Visually Linking 3D and Statistical Visualizations, Applied to Cardiac Simulation and Measurement Data,” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Visualization 2000.
Image Semantics and Search- using perceptually-determined features to index images
In a novel set of experiments, we looked at the question of digital libraries from a unique perspective. Instead of characterizing an image by simply enumerating its visual aspects, she conducted perceptual experiments that revealed the visual dimensions human observers used when judging image similarity. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, we were able to identify key building blocks, which could be used to define a semantic language for images, which could serve to drive a perceptually-based image retrieval system, ISee.
B.E. Rogowitz, T Frese, J. Smith, CA Bouman, E Kalin, “Perceptual Image
Similarity Experiments,” Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, 1998
A Mojsilovic, J. Gomes, and B. Rogowitz, “Semantic-friendly
Indexing and Quering of Images Based on the Extraction of the Objective
Semantic Cues”, International
Journal of Computer Vision, 2004 Pages 79-107
A. Mojsilovic and
B.E. Rogowitz, "Semantic Metric for Image Library Exploration”, IEEE
Transactions on Multimedia, Volume 6, Issue 6, 828-838, 2004.
J. Chen, T. Pappas, A. Mojsilovic, B Rogowitz, ”Adaptive Image Segmentation Based on Color and Texture,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, 2005.
User-Generated Semantic Tags for Multimedia Search
InSight is a social software system that allows the on-line community to add semantic "tags"
to subsets of information in complex media, such as videos.
Since these user-created "micro-tags" are each associated with a URL, they can be used for search and composition. The idea is to give people access to information hidden
within videos. Our experiments show that when a community of users is allowed to see and edit each others' tags, performance increases, and the number of tags decreases. This idea can be extended to give semantic tags to
information hidden within other complex objects, such as web pages,
analyses, or code.
Rogowitz, Bernice E. and Mercan Topkara, "Tags, Micro-Tags and Tag Editing: Improving Internet Search," Proc. SPIE (Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging), Volume 7240, 65, January
Topkara, Mercan, Bernice Rogowitz, Steve Woods, Jeff Boston "Collaborative Editing of Micro-Tags," ACM CHI Works in Progress, April, 2009.
Perceiving the Texture, Geometry, and Quality of 3-D Objects
H. Rushmeier, B.Rogowitz, C. Piatko, “Perceptual Issues in Substituting Texture for Geometry,” Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, 2000.
B. E. Rogowitz, H. Rushmeier “Are Image Quality Metrics Adequate to Evaluate the Quality of Geometric Objects? Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, Rogowitz, Pappas (eds.), Proc. SPIE Vol. 4299, 2001.
We have worked on visual aspects of display technology, including the development of a psychophysical technique for
measuring perceived flicker on CRT displays that became
a standard in IBM and contributed to the DIN standard. Our xperiments in the perceptual effects of
spatial and color sampling contributed
to the design of the earliest LCD displays, before they were even constructed.
We have developed a novel haptic device that can be used to allow users to feel, and more important, edit surfaces in visualization and virtual reality environments.
B. E. Rogowitz, P. Borrel, "Virtual hand: a 3D tactile interface to virtual environments" Proc. SPIE (Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging), Vol. 6806. January, 2008.