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Psykosociale aspekter ved CBRN-terror

Nyere bøger som ikke er med i litteraturlisten i "Terrorangrebets psykologi":

George S. Everly, Jr. and Cherie Castellano (2005): Psychological Counterterrorism and World War IV
Chevron Publishing Corporation.
"For all of is a road map for understanding a dynamic and changing subject that is truly a matter of life and death. We are at war! Our key weapon is psychological understanding...anxiety will decrease and the ability to cope will increase. Written by authors who have vast real life experience from Kuwait to the Twin Towers. It is a must read!" - Bertram S. Brown, MD, MPH; Former Assistant Surgeon General of the United States; Former Director, National Institute of Mental Health.

Robert J. Ursano, Ann E. Norwood & Carol S. Fullerton (eds.) (2004):
Bioterrorism. Psychological and Public Health Interventions
Cambridge University Press.
After the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in 1995 just 12 people died but more than 5000 sought medical care for possible exposure. Bacteria, viruses, gases and prions can create chaos and disruption on a national and international scale. Moreover, bioterrorism is believed to incur the most devastating psychological sequelae of all disasters and terrorist events. Planning and pre-disaster exercises are essential for preventing panic; allocating resources; preventing transmission of disease; devising effective mental health interventions; providing trustworthy and good quality information; and training in how to handle fear, demoralization, and public loss of confidence in national institutions.

Robert J. Ursano, Carol S. Fullerton & Ann E. Norwood (eds.) (2003):
Terrorism and Disaster. Individual and Community Mental Health Interventions
Cambridge University Press.
This book expands the focus on terrorism as a particular type of disaster. There is widespread belief amongst professionals that terrorism (and torture) produce the highest rates of psychiatric sequelae of all the types of disaster. The traumatic effects of terrorism are also not limited to the direct victims only; they extend to families, helpers, communities and even regions far from the affected site. The editors have assembled the world’s experts to examine the effects of terrorism, assessing lessons learned from recent atrocities such as 9/11, the Tokyo sarin attack, Omagh, et cetera. They look at issues of prevention, individual and organizational intervention, the effect of leadership, the effects of technological disasters and bioterrorism/contamination.

Barry S. Levy & Victor W. Sidel (eds.) (2004):
Terrorism and Public Health. A Balanced Approach to Strengthening Systems and Protecting People
Oxford University Press, Inc.
This book presents a balanced, comprehensive approach to strengthening health systems and protecting people from terrorism. It covers the health consequences of the terrorist attacks in the United States and what has been learned from them. The authors systematically review various types of terrorist weapons, including biological, chemical, nuclear, radiologic and other radioactive weapons, and they describe ways that the public health and medical care systems can be improved, while protecting civil rights and human rights.

R. Everett Langford (2004):
Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction: Radiological, Chemical, and Biological
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Today's danger comes mainly from the potential use of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by international terrorists or rogue states. False alarms and misinformation about these weapons have abounded in the jittery post-9/11 atmosphere. To understand and deal with the actual threat posed requires basing response plans, policy, and reporting on actual facts.
Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction separates fact from fiction about NBC weaponry by providing clear, technically precise information.

En grundbog inden for området terror og folkesundhed er:

Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy
(bogen kan downloades)
In this report an IOM committee highlights some of the critical issues in responding to the psychological effects of terrorism and provides possible options for intervention.
The committee offers an example for a public health strategy that may serve as a base from which plans to prevent and respond to the psychological consequences of a variety of terrorism events can be formulated. The report includes recommendations for training and education of service providers, ensuring appropriate guidelines for the protection of service providers, and developing public health surveillance for pre-event, event, and post-event factors leading to psychological consequences.

Øvrige artikler:

Keld Molin (2001):
Terror og ur-angst.
Risikoen for, at terrorister anvender masseødelæggelsesvåben, har aldrig været større end i vor tid. Terrorvåbenet er sprængfyldt med psykologi. Hvordan er vi klædt på til at håndtere dette?
Psykolog Nyt, nr. 23.

Beredskabsstyrelsen (2003):
Beredskab, risikokommunikation og reaktionsmønstre.
Efter terrorangrebene i USA den 11. september 2001 traf regeringen beslutning om at styrke redningsberedskabet. Der blev bl. a. givet bevilling til at igangsætte en række projekter, der skal indsamle viden om vores evne til at håndtere katastrofer, herunder terrorangreb. Beredskabsstyrelsen igangsatte i denne forbindelse et forprojekt om viden om risikokommunikation og reaktionsmønstre i Danmark.

Holloway, H.C., Norwood, A.E., Fullerton, C.S., Engel, C.C. & Ursano, R.J. (1997):
The Threat of biological weapons. Prophylaxis and mitigation of psychosocial and social consequences (abstract).
The microbial world is mysterious, threatening, and frightening to most people. A biological terrorist attack could create high numbers of acute and potentially chronic psychiatric casualties. Media communications, planning for quarantine and decontamination, and the role of community leaders are important to the mitigation of psychological consequences.
JAMA, vol. 278, No. 5.

Institute of Medicine & National Research Council (1999):
Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Psychological Effects i bogen "Chemical and Biological Terrorism. Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response". Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

DiGiovanni, C. (1999):
Domestic terrorism with chemical or biological agents: Psychiatric aspects (adgangskode).
Disturbances of behavior, affect, and cognition can result directly from the pharmacological actions of some chemical and biological weapon agents. An incident involving these agents can have considerable psychological effects on individuals and the community. Psychiatrists have an important role in the management of a chemical or biological terrorist incident and, along with their other medical colleagues, should train and prepare for it.
American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, No. 10.

Human Behavior and WMD Crisis / Risk Communication Workshop.
In the event of an WMD attack, how can public panic/fear be lessened? How can the public be persuaded to take appropriate action and to avoid inappropriate actions? Who among responders and the public are at higher risk of adverse psychological effects and how can such effects be prevented or mitigated? What are the likely psychosocial impacts of WMD and how can they be prevented or mitigated?

Diane Myers (2001):
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism: Mental Health Consequences and Implications for Planning and Training. pdf
Terrorist phenomena derive their power from their ability to psychologically injure, manipulate, and control the behavior of individuals and populations. Understanding the physical properties of weapons of mass destruction and how to respond to their physical effects is vital, but is not enough. In order to effectively understand, prevent, and respond to WMD events, we must understand the centrality of their psychological impact.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (2002):
Early psychological intervention guided by qualified mental health caregivers can reduce the harmful psychological and emotional effects of exposure to mass violence in survivors, according to a national conference report entitled "Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims/Survivors of Mass Violence. A Workshop to Reach Consensus on Best Practices". The report emphasizes that although more research is needed, existing data, including studies of other kinds of traumatic events, as well as clinical experience, provide useful guidance to the mental health community in responding to mass violence.

Konference (2000):
Planning for Bioterrorism: Behavioral and Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Detruction and Mass Disruption.
The most significant, long-term, and most costly effects of a bioterrorist attack will be its mental health and behavioral consequences. However, despite these consequences for the community, society, and government, few resources are expended to address the mental health and behavioral sequelae of bioterrorism. In response to this oversight, distinguished international and community experts from many disciplines were assembled for a consensus conference on, Planning for Bioterrorism: Behavioral and Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Mass Disruption.

Molly J. Hall, Ann E. Norwood, Robert J. Ursano, Carol S. Fullerton, Catherine J. Levinson (2002):
Psychological and behavioral impacts of bioterrorism.
The primary goal of terrorism is to disrupt society by provoking intense fear and shattering all sense of safety. The target is an entire nation, not only those who are killed, injured, or even directly affected. Terrorism is a special type of disaster, that produces higher rates of psychiatric casualties than other disasters.
PTSD Research Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4.

Chamberlin, J. (2002):
Psychology to play key role in national center on terrorism.
Psychologists are among those leading up a new national center that will fund much-needed research on terrorism and prepare psychologists to help victims of a wide-scale terrorist attack or similar tragedy. "Terrorism is all about psychology, it is about understanding the motives, values and ideology of terrorists to induce generalized fear, anxiety and helplessness in target populations" .
APA Monitor on Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 11.

The National Center on Disaster Psychology and Terrorism.

MIPT: National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Preventing terrorism or mitigating its effect:
Bibliografi vedr. terrorisme og psykosociale temaer.

Molly J. Hall, Ann E. Norwood, Robert J. Ursano, Carol S. Fullerton (2003):
The Psychological Impacts of Bioterrorism.
Before September 11, 2001, government agencies and public health leaders had not incorporated mental health as a component of their overall response plan to bioterrorism. Anticipating the psychological and behavioral consequences of a bioterrorist attack is now an urgent task facing our government's leaders and our nation's health-care system. Understanding and planning for the public's psychological response to terrorism has far-reaching implications for the practical management of a bioterrorist event.

Timothy J. Lacy & David M. Benedek (2003):
Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Managing the Behavioral Reaction in Primary Care.
Any terrorist attack using weapons of mass destruction will result in substantial psychological trauma and stress. Primary care and emergency clinics will likely see patients who have stress-related emotional or physical symptoms, or exacerbations of preexisting health concerns. Significant psychological and behavioral reactions to an attack with weapons of mass destruction are certain.

National Center for PTSD
Jessica Hamblen (2003):
What are the Traumatic Stress Effects of Terrorism? A National Center for PTSD. Fact Sheet.
Terroristic violence will affect people at all levels of involvement. Terrorism erodes - at both the individual level and the community level - the sense of security and safety people usually feel. Terrorism challenges the natural need of humans to see the world as predictable, orderly, and controllable.

Ezra S. Susser, Daniel B. Herman and Barbara Aaron (2002):
Combating the Terror of Terrorism. (abstract)
The psychological damage caused by the attacks of September 11 mirrored the physical destruction and showed that protecting the public’s mental health must be a component of the national defense.
Scientific American, Vol. 287, No. 2

Hall, Molly J.; Norwood, Ann E.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Ursano, Robert J. (2002):
Preparing for bioterrorism at the state level: Report of an informal survey.
Members of 18 states' departments of mental health were interviewed about their plans for managing the psychosocial impacts of a bioterrorism event. Questions were developed from recommendations of an international conference on planning for bioterrorism ("Planning for bioterrorism," 2000). Information derived from the survey highlights the need for, and the importance of, mental health consultation to the state's planning process. Familiarity with the unique psychological and behavioral consequences of a bioterrorism event in contrast to natural disasters is essential. It is concluded that realistic training scenarios that incorporate likely psychosocial impacts and appropriate mental health response must be developed.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 72, No. 4.

S Wessely, KC Hyams and R Bartholomew (2001):
Psychological Implications of Chemical and Biological Weapons.
Long term social and psychological effects may be worse than acute ones.
BMJ, Vol. 323.

Kenneth C. Hyams, Frances M. Murphy & Simon Wessely (2002):
Responding to Chemical, Biological, or Nuclear Terrorism: The Indirect and Long-Term Health Effects May Present the Greatest Challenge.
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, vol. 27, No. 2,

R Bartholomew and S Wessely (2002):
Protean nature of mass sociogenic illness. From possessed nuns to chemical and biological terrorism fears. (Adgangskode)
Mass sociogenic illness mirrors prominent social concerns, changing in relation to context and circumstance. Prior to 1900, reports are dominated by episodes of motor symptoms typified by dissociation, histrionics and psychomotor agitation incubated in an environment of preexisting tension. Twentieth-century reports feature anxiety symptoms that are triggered by sudden exposure to an anxiety-generating agent, most commonly an innocuous odour or food poisoning rumours. From the early 1980s to the present there has been an increasing presence of chemical and biological terrorism themes, climaxing in a sudden shift since the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA.
Conclusions: A broad understanding of the history of mass sociogenic illness and a knowledge of episode characteristics are useful in the more rapid recognition and treatment of outbreaks.
British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 180.

Timothy J. Lacy & David M. Benedek (2003):
Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Managing the Behavioral Reaction in Primary Care.
Any terrorist attack using weapons of mass destruction will result in substantial psychological trauma and stress. Primary care and emergency clinics will likely see patients who have stress-related emotional or physical symptoms, or exacerbations of preexisting health concerns.