GLOBAL ACTION NETWORK

Right now, you can have a significant effect on Climate Change and Planetary Sustainability by mounting a Challenge, doing crowdsourced research, initiating an Award named after yourself recognizing laudable accomplishments, or by becoming an Earth saving hero. 
Read on to find out how.  It doesn't take much time, it's free, and your efforts will be recognized by many people

 The Global Action Network utilizes the most advanced capabilities of social networking, web tools, and cell phone apps to help you start small projects which can rapidly morph into big projects. The Global Action Network is dedicated to creating massive progress towards the UN's 17 Sustainability Goals through actions by individuals and small groups.  We do that by consistently rewarding and publicly recognizing people for deeds favorable to planetary survival, beginning with  simple online actions.   In addition, we create as many opportunities as possible to encourage citizen-sourced experimentation, brainstorming, online discussion, discovery, and invention.  Getting started is easy, and generally takes a few hours, followed by 20-30 minutes a month of maintenance.

  A central feature of our work is that everyone who joins us has an Award named after them for adopting one of the prescribed sub-goals the UN has defined underneath the basic 17. They maintain the Award by publicizing new encouraging developments on behalf of the goal, and whenever possible, by contributing their own ideas and innovations.  They can also engage in crowdsourced research, initiate social media Challenges, and host an online program devoted to their sub-goal.

  Modern Web, Smart phone, and social media   tools have enormous power to effect real change, if their best uses are pushed to the limit and combined imaginatively.  

 We believe that the way to inspire people to work for change is to make the process as fulfilling as possible. 

The Global Action Network was developed and is administered by the Institute for Global Innovation and Friends Beyond Borders, under the auspices of the World Mind Network, an NGO that includes six Nobel Prize winners on its Board of Trustees (Peter Dougherty, Rudolph Marcus, Barry Sharpless, Richard Ernst, Leon Lederman, and Edmund Phelps).   Founding Directors include John Toomey, Soani Gunawan, Amy Chang, Katherine Okunaga,  Robert Stimson, Savannah Partridge, and Savithri Patel. Projects are directed by students and researchers at Oxford, Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, Berkeley, and Cambridge.


UPDATE January, 2020: Climate Change is taking up more of our time lately, because things have gotten significantly worse just in the last few months.  The UN's Climate Action session this month raised the alarm, highlighted by Greta Thunberg's speech. December, 2019 was the warmest month in the history of temperature recording. Australia's fires added millions of tons of C02 to the atmosphere.. Greenland ice is melting at 10 times the rate it should be; scientists didn't expect such a flow until 2070.  Brazil is cutting back on rainforest protection, and fires have increased by 74% over last year.   After a lull in 2015-2016, worldwide carbon emissions have increased dangerously from 2017 to 2019. Worst of all, most of the trends are going in the wrong direction.

Governments, Corporations, NGOs, and non-profits have not shown themselves capable of meeting the challenge alone. That's why we promote and reward individual actions.
The situation definitely requires an all hands on deck approach.  We compile and develop suggested actions that do real good, are measurable, and in some cases don't require more than a few minutes
or a few hours.  And we reward everyone who participates-- fast.


Every Possible Motivation to Impel Meaningful Actions

  Key to our approach is the knowledge that people have many different motivations for action. With some creativity, we can utilize all of these and bring about change that is not only good for the planet, but inspiring and enjoyable for each participant.

 With the UN's Sustainability Goals, and Climate Change in particular, Fear is the traditional motivator: "Do something about this crisis, or Humanity won't survive."  For the most part, this has proven ineffective
in compelling masses of people to act. It's not that scaring people isn't sometimes useful, and even necessary, but there are many other ways to encourage  productive activities. These include the chance to brainstorm with others around the world, becoming the namesake of an Award, doing crowd-sourced research,  participating in group discussions online, and sharing Challenges.

  If we want as many people as possible to participate in meeting the UN's Goals, with a special concentration right now on Climate Change, it's helpful to reward them in as many ways as possible, and to do so as quickly as possible. Our projects are designed to inspire, encourage creativity, build community, develop and improve friendships, entertain, and fulfill the desire to learn and create, with a minimum investment of a few minutes a month.


1. The first step in joining the Global Action Network is to choose a sub-goal underneath the UN's 17 Sustainability Goals.  You can see them at the bottom of this page. When you are assigned a sub-goal, you are the Adminstrator of that niche within the Global Action Network.  An Award is named after you to recognize those who have achieved significant accomplishments in service of the goal.

  Your task is first, to create social media sites devoted to the goal, on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest, and Imgur. You can also create a Googlesite like this one, or ask us to do it. All of this is free, and should take an hour or two.

   Then, you typically spend 15 minutes or so once a month updating the social media dedicated to your Goal by searching the Internet for new research, inventions, and admirable actions. You choose one person or organization that has done something impressive and announce on your media that they have won the Award, named after you.  We promote your efforts on our online and offline media, and you can do the same.

    You can update your sites as much as you want, and you can invite others to join and have Awards named after themselves, just as you did.

   When you choose a sub-goal and agree to be named its Administrator and to be the namesake of the Award for that goal, you are awarded one ANGUS  (Action Necessary to Guarantee Universal Sustainability).
Many privileges accrue from amassing ANGUSes.  At the end of every month during which you have both updated the social media associated with you sub-goal and found  a person or organization to be the recipient of the relevant Award, you earn another ANGUS.

  After two ANGUSes, you can use our Zoom network to host an online program about your sub-goal and Award. You can invite current or past award recipients to be guests, or your friends and colleagues. After three ANGUSes, you can host a show on anything you like.

Here are some other ways to participate, all of which earn ANGUSes (in addition to being organically rewarding):


  Many would love to experience the supreme gratification of pulling an endangered child from a burning building or piloting a crippled jet to a safe landing. This won't happen for most of us. But due to the amazing powers of the Internet, social media,and smart phone apps, you can perform heroic actions sitting at home or at a coffee shop with your phone, and you can decide to do so almost any time. We will publicize your efforts and award you ANGUSes.

Here's one basic protocol for being a Hero:

1. Go to USGS.gov. Scroll down to Earthquakes ( you can also choose Volcanoes, Floods, or Landslides)
2. On the interactive map, find an earthquake with a magnitude above 5, that has caused      significant damage in the last 24 hours.
3. Start a Facebook group page devoted to the earthquake.
4. Add a link to Google person finder to allow rescuers to contact victims.
5. Add a link to Facebook Safety Check
6. Post links to CARE, the Red Cross, Save the Children, UNESCO, and other organizations that have disaster teams, and can accept donations of money or other assistance.
7. Tell us so we can spread the news on our networks. Unlike other projects, we will publicize your work within an HOUR, since time is of the essence with disasters.

There are other things you can add, but this basic recipe can be completed in half an hour, after you've done it a few times. You can do this with dozens of disasters.

You can also spend help scientists learn about detecting and preparing for Solar Storms by analyzing data online for Protect our Planet from Solar Storms:

If you'd prefer to learn how threatening Near Earth Objects behave, so that we can someday prevent or predict them,  you can help BRAMS (Belgian Radio Meteor Stations) study meteors, utilizing their network of radio receiving stations using forward scattering to detect and characterize meteoroids falling into Earth's atmosphere:

When you perform one of these Heroic actions, you are given mention on our website and social media as-- a Global Action Network Hero!  And of course you earn ANGUSes.


  We support challenges all over the world, and specifically those promoting action on Climate Change. You can  join ours, or start your own.

  In 2014 the ALS Ice Bucket  Challenge swept the planet. Average people, as well as Kings and Presidents, poured ice on themselves to raise awareness for this serious disease.  What's important to note is that the ALS Challenge had no directors, no managers, no leadership of any kind, and yet still it reached millions.  We are always looking for similar projects, and will publicize them on our online and offline media.  Right now we support the Amazon Rainforest Endangered Animals Challenge (AREA). To join, decide upon one of the 350 varieties of animals threatened by fires in the Amazon and evoke its spirit using photos of yourself, your pets, or your loved ones using  Snapchat or Instagram filters. Then upload your photos to your social media and send us the links. Be as creative and entertaining as you can with your photos, because both you and we want them to go viral to get the message out.  If you like, you can do this in conjunction with AmazonCam Tambopata (see below).


  The projects below can be done anywhere, have a huge impact, and are both educational and fun.  You can spend as little or as much time as you want on them, and will earn an
ANGUS each time you participate.

Collaborate with citizen researchers all over the world to help MIT scientists fight Climate Change. You can author proposals, offer feedback, and contribute to existing projects:

The Amazon rain forest is critical to the health of Earth's atmosphere. One way to gauge its condition is by tracking animal life, which you can do by using the array of remote jungle cameras operated by AmazonCam Tambopata. The cameras are spread over a huge area of forest in the Tambopata National Reserve and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park. You will be studying images of animals captured by the remotely operated cameras to determine their distribution throughout the jungle.

Clouds are an important  indicator of global warming trends.  You can help NASA analyze cloud data here:

Cyclones have a direct relationship with climate trends, including global warming.  You can study their movement and activity by analyzing data from the Cyclone Center,
a project operated by the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites.


One of this series of projects requires you to  record weather events with your own cell phone camera.  You can track climate events as they happen on North Carolina's coast:

Help the EPA Office of Research and Development track and monitor Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)  by downloading their BloomWatch app:

To understand Climate Change today, we must know how Climate changed in the past.  One proven way to do this is to study the stomatal index of million-year-old fossilized leaves, compared to 
their modern counterparts. The measure of the number of gas-exchange holes on the surface of the leaf, relative to the number of normal cells, helps us understand how C02 concentrations
have changed over time.  You can help the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center and the National Museum of Natural History research this by joining their "Fossil Atmospheres" project:

  Help LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) research Gravitational Waves: On September 14th 2015, gravitational waves from the merging of two black holes reached Earth from over a billion light-years away. The recently-upgraded LIGO was able to detect the minuscule squishing and stretching of space from this event - "feeling" the ripple in spacetime firsthand.
LIGO is the most sensitive and complicated gravitational experiment ever built. In fact, it's probably the most sensitive ANYTHING ever built!  Consider: To detect gravitational waves even from the strongest events in the Universe, LIGO needs to be able to know when the length of its 4-kilometer arms change by a distance 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a proton!

  You can help by identifying and eliminating 'glitches' in the data, leaving only genuine signals from Deep Space.


  Once you have performed 5 certified ANGUSes, you have the right to become Executive Director of the Global Action Network for at least a few minutes.  Email us at globalactionnetwork2019@gmail.com detailing your ANGUSes and we will assign you the next available time slot.  Being Executive Director is not an empty honor.  You actually are the Administrator of the whole organization when you sign in for your time slot. You can update our official blog, post to our social media pages, suggest new SDG sub-goals, upload videos, and even assign times to OTHERS so that THEY can be Executive Directors too. You can schedule and host an online discussion with guests you select on our Zoom channel.


 We have 40 slots per week  on our online Zoom video network for live programs devoted to reaching the UN Goals, as well as complex open questions like: Is it advantageous for Humanity to become a Multi-planetary species? What are the best ways to develop Artificial Intelligence?  How much can human lifespan be increased? You can host a show if you have amassed more than four ANGUSes. 

  Our current Project includes the structure of the Global Action Network itself, and if you have joined you are already involved.  We want to know which emotional motivations, in what combination,
work best to inspire people to act constructively on Climate Change. Live video programs begin in 2020; until then discussions are held on our Slack and MS Teams groups. To join the conversation you must have participated as a Hero, an Executive Director, a Researcher, an Award namesake, and have initiated or participated in a Challenge.


Sample Global Action Network Adminsitrators and their UN sub-goals

Laura Jean Palmer-Moloney   UN Sustainability Goal 6.4  Sustainable Water Management
Mosiur R. Imraan                    UN Sustainability Goal:   8.4  Global Resource Efficiency
Virginia Purnell                      UN Sustainability Goal    15.2.1 Sustainable forest management
Katie Kempinski                     UN  Sustainability Goal   13.3 Education on climate change mitigation
Camille Babington                  UN Sustainability Goal    15.5 Prevent Degradation of Natural Habitats
Breanna Kusnierczyk             UN Sustainability Goal    13.1  Disaster Risk Reduction
Hugo Francon                         UN Sustainability Goal    3.9.1 Reduce Mortality due to Air Pollution
Jim Moloney                           UN Sustainability Goal    3.4.2 Reduce Suicide Mortality Rate
Edward T. Cope                      UN Sustainability Goal     4.4.1 Improve ICT Education in Developing World
Michael Moloney                    UN Sustainability Goal    7.a.1  Clean Energy Research
Lilyanne Randle Smith          UN Sustainability Goal    11.1  Safe and Affordable Housing
Larissa Miller                         UN Sustainability Goal    3.d.1 Health Emergency Preparedness
John Barry                             UN Sustainability Goal    6.b.1 Water and Sanitation Management
Sashka Avanyan                    UN Sustainability Goal   10.7.2 Well-managed Migration Policies
Thalia Bloom                         UN Sustainability Goal    1.b  Investment in Poverty Eradication 
Don Piper                              UN Sustainability Goal    8.9 Sustainable Tourism 
Brenda Searle                       UN Sustainability Goal    5.2 Reduce Violence against women
Fran Piggot-Harding             UN Sustainability Goal   8.8   Safe and Secure working Environments



   Every month the Global Action Network announces an Award to a person or group who has demonstrated excellence in the field.
The Awards are:

The Einstein Award (Understanding, Science, Technology)
The Gandhi Award (Significance and Purpose)
The Frida Kahlo Award (Creativity, Art, Self-expression)
The Nelson Mandela Award (Esteem and Identity)
The Florence Nightingale Award (Subsistence, Safety, Security)
The Angus Moloney Award (Learning, Sustainability, Health)
The Mother Theresa Award (Compassion, Love, Connection)

 These are the Core Awards; they are not the same as the other series of awards which are named after members who join us.

For more information call (937) 770-9816.  Or email globalactionnetwork2019@gmail.com



                                      Here are the UN's 17 Goals:


                                             PROJECT PROTOCOLS


   Here are the UN Sustainability  Goals and Indicators (sub-goals).  Those in white print are already claimed.  Blue print means available to everyone.  Red ones are spoken for by at least one person or group, but are big enough that they can be subdivided. Green goals are especially suitable for secondary school and college students.  Yellow ones are generally best left to specialized academics or experts in the field.

Goals and targets (from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development)Indicators
Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day1.1.1 Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)
1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions1.2.1 Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age
1.2.2 Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable1.3.1 Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable
1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance1.4.1 Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services
1.4.2 Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure
1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

1.5.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
1.5.2 Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP)
1.5.3 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030
1.5.4 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies
1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions1.a.1 Proportion of domestically generated resources allocated by the government directly to poverty reduction programmes
1.a.2 Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection)
1.a.3 Sum of total grants and non-debt-creating inflows directly allocated to poverty reduction programmes as a proportion of GDP
1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions1.b.1 Proportion of government recurrent and capital spending to sectors that disproportionately benefit women, the poor and vulnerable groups
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round2.1.1 Prevalence of undernourishment
2.1.2 Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)
2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons2.2.1 Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age
2.2.2 Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)
2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment2.3.1 Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size
2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status
2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality2.4.1 Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture
2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed2.5.1 Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities
2.5.2 Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk, not at risk or at unknown level of risk of extinction
2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries2.a.1 The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures
2.a.2 Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector
2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round2.b.1 Agricultural export subsidies
2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility2.c.1 Indicator of food price anomalies
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio
3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births3.2.1 Under‑5 mortality rate
3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate
3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases3.3.1 Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations
3.3.2 Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population
3.3.3 Malaria incidence per 1,000 population
3.3.4 Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population
3.3.5 Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases
3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being3.4.1 Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease
3.4.2 Suicide mortality rate
3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol3.5.1 Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders
3.5.2 Harmful use of alcohol, defined according to the national context as alcohol per capita consumption (aged 15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol
3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents3.6.1 Death rate due to road traffic injuries
3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods
3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group
3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all3.8.1 Coverage of essential health services (defined as the average coverage of essential services based on tracer interventions that include reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and service capacity and access, among the general and the most disadvantaged population)
3.8.2 Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income
3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination3.9.1 Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution
3.9.2 Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)
3.9.3 Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning
3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate3.a.1 Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older
3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non‑communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all3.b.1 Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme
3.b.2 Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors
3.b.3 Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis
3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States3.c.1 Health worker density and distribution
3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks3.d.1 International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes4.1.1 Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex
4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre‑primary education so that they are ready for primary education4.2.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex
4.2.2 Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex
4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university4.3.1 Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex
4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship4.4.1 Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill
4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations4.5.1 Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy4.6.1 Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex
4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development4.7.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed at all levels in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment
4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all4.a.1 Proportion of schools with access to (a) electricity; (b) the Internet for pedagogical purposes; (c) computers for pedagogical purposes; (d) adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities; (e) basic drinking water; (f) single-sex basic sanitation facilities; and (g) basic handwashing facilities (as per the WASH indicator definitions)
4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries4.b.1 Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study
4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States4.c.1 Proportion of teachers in: (a) pre-primary; (b) primary; (c) lower secondary; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) pre-service or in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country
Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere5.1.1 Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non‑discrimination on the basis of sex
5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age
5.2.2 Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence
5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18
5.3.2 Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age
5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate5.4.1 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location
5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life5.5.1 Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments
5.5.2 Proportion of women in managerial positions
5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care
5.6.2 Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education
5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws5.a.1 (a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure
5.a.2 Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control
5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women5.b.1 Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex
5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels5.c.1 Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment
Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services
6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations6.2.1 Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water
6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally6.3.1 Proportion of wastewater safely treated
6.3.2 Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality
6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity6.4.1 Change in water-use efficiency over time
6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources
6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate6.5.1 Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0–100)
6.5.2 Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation
6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes6.6.1 Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time
6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies6.a.1 Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan
6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management6.b.1 Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management
Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

Carbon Capture-- Ways to reduce atmospheric CO2
7.1.1 Proportion of population with access to electricity
7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology
7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix7.2.1 Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption
7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency7.3.1 Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP
7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology7.a.1 International financial flows to developing countries in support of clean energy research and development and renewable energy production, including in hybrid systems
7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support7.b.1 Investments in energy efficiency as a proportion of GDP and the amount of foreign direct investment in financial transfer for infrastructure and technology to sustainable development services
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries8.1.1 Annual growth rate of real GDP per capita
8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors8.2.1 Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person
8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services8.3.1 Proportion of informal employment in non‑agriculture employment, by sex
8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead8.4.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP
8.4.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP
8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value8.5.1 Average hourly earnings of female and male employees, by occupation, age and persons with disabilities
8.5.2 Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities
8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training8.6.1 Proportion of youth (aged 15–24 years) not in education, employment or training
8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms 8.7.1 Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age
8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment8.8.1 Frequency rates of fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries, by sex and migrant status
8.8.2 Level of national compliance with labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on International Labour Organization (ILO) textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status
8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products8.9.1 Tourism direct GDP as a proportion of total GDP and in growth rate
8.9.2 Proportion of jobs in sustainable tourism industries out of total tourism jobs
8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all8.10.1 (a) Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and (b) number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults
8.10.2 Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider
8.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries8.a.1 Aid for Trade commitments and disbursements
8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization8.b.1 Existence of a developed and operationalized national strategy for youth employment, as a distinct strategy or as part of a national employment strategy
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all9.1.1 Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road
9.1.2 Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries9.2.1 Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita
9.2.2 Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets9.3.1 Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added
9.3.2 Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities9.4.1 COemission per unit of value added
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending9.5.1 Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP
9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States9.a.1 Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure
9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities9.b.1 Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added
9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 20209.c.1 Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average10.1.1 Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status10.2.1 Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard10.3.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality10.4.1 Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations10.5.1 Financial Soundness Indicators
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions10.6.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies10.7.1 Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination
10.7.2 Number of countries that have implemented well-managed migration policies
10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements10.a.1 Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff
10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes10.b.1 Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow (e.g. official development assistance, foreign direct investment and other flows)
10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent10.c.1 Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums11.1.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing
11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons11.2.1 Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities
11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries11.3.1 Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate
11.3.2 Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage11.4.1 Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector and sponsorship)
11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations11.5.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
11.5.2 Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management11.6.1 Proportion of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge out of total urban solid waste generated, by cities
11.6.2 Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)
11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities11.7.1 Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities
11.7.2 Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months
11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning11.a.1 Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city
11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels11.b.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030
11.b.2 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies
11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials11.c.1 Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings utilizing local materials
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.1 Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries12.1.1 Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies
12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources12.2.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP
12.2.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP
12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses12.3.1 Global food loss index
12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment12.4.1 Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement
12.4.2 Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment
12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse12.5.1 National recycling rate, tons of material recycled
12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle12.6.1 Number of companies publishing sustainability reports
12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities12.7.1 Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans
12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature12.8.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment
12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production12.a.1 Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies
12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products12.b.1 Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools
12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities12.c.1 Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts2
13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries13.1.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
13.1.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030
13.1.3 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning13.2.1 Number of countries that have communicated the establishment or operationalization of an integrated policy/strategy/plan which increases their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development in a manner that does not threaten food production (including a national adaptation plan, nationally determined contribution, national communication, biennial update report or other)
13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning13.3.1 Number of countries that have integrated mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning into primary, secondary and tertiary curricula
13.3.2 Number of countries that have communicated the strengthening of institutional, systemic and individual capacity-building to implement adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer, and development actions
13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible13.a.1 Mobilized amount of United States dollars per year between 2020 and 2025 accountable towards the $100 billion commitment
13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities13.b.1 Number of least developed countries and small island developing States that are receiving specialized support, and amount of support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change-related planning and management, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution14.1.1 Index of coastal eutrophication and floating plastic debris density
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans14.2.1 Proportion of national exclusive economic zones managed using ecosystem-based approaches
14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels14.3.1 Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations
14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics14.4.1 Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels
14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information14.5.1 Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas
14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation314.6.1 Progress by countries in the degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing
14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism14.7.1 Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries
14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries14.a.1 Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology
14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets14.b.1 Progress by countries in the degree of application of a legal/regulatory/policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries
14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”14.c.1 Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area
15.1.2 Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type
15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management
15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area
15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development15.4.1 Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity
15.4.2 Mountain Green Cover Index
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species15.5.1 Red List Index
15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed15.6.1 Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits
15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products15.7.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked
15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species15.8.1 Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species
15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts15.9.1 Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020
15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems15.a.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation15.b.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities15.c.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere16.1.1 Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age
16.1.2 Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause
16.1.3 Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months
16.1.4 Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live
16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children16.2.1 Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month
16.2.2 Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation
16.2.3 Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18
16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all16.3.1 Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms
16.3.2 Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population
16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime16.4.1 Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)
16.4.2 Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments
16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms16.5.1 Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months
16.5.2 Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months
16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels16.6.1 Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)
16.6.2 Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services
16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels16.7.1 Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions
16.7.2 Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group
16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance16.8.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations
16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age
16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements16.10.1 Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months
16.10.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information
16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime16.a.1 Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles
16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development16.b.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection17.1.1 Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source
17.1.2 Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes
17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries17.2.1 Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)
17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources17.3.1 Foreign direct investment (FDI), official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget
17.3.2 Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP
17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress17.4.1 Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services
17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries17.5.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism17.6.1 Number of science and/or technology cooperation agreements and programmes between countries, by type of cooperation
17.6.2 Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed
17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed17.7.1 Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies
17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology17.8.1 Proportion of individuals using the Internet
17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation17.9.1 Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries
17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non‑discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda17.10.1 Worldwide weighted tariff-average
17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 202017.11.1 Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports
17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access17.12.1 Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States
Systemic issues
Policy and institutional coherence
17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence17.13.1 Macroeconomic Dashboard
17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development17.14.1 Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development
17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development17.15.1 Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation
Multi-stakeholder partnerships
17.16 Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries17.16.1 Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals
17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships17.17.1 Amount of United States dollars committed to (a) public-private partnerships and (b) civil society partnerships
Data, monitoring and accountability
17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts17.18.1 Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
17.18.2 Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
17.18.3 Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding
17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries17.19.1 Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries
17.19.2 Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

Carbon Capture--  New ways to reduce Atmospheric CO2

Fair Trade Nepal-- Seven Women

Fair Trade Uganda --Upavim

Neglected Disease treatments -- Brucellosis

Neglected Disease  treatments -- Chagas Disease

Neglected Disease treatments -- Buruli Ulcer

Fair Trade Guatemala -- Mayan Hands

Solar Energy in india -- Pay by Tile (One solar tile at a time)

Kenya -- Solar powered clay ovens for water purification

Neglected Disease treatment -- Dengue Fever

Neglected Disease treatment -- Anthrax

Neglected Disease treatment-- Human African Trypanosomiasis

Tidal Energy Systems (wave power)

Micropore water filters for Sub-Saharan Africa

Crisis Counseling via text in South Africa

Sustainable Habitats in Space

Fair Trade Indonesia - Rumah

Fair Trade Uzbekistan -- Silk Road Organic Foods

Fair Trade Yemen -- Mocca Matari Green Coffee Beans

Interactive Online Education in India

Smart Cities with Augmented Reality

Fair Trade Mozambique-- Global Handmade Hope

Fair Trade India -- Eternal Creation

Fair Trade India -- 3fish Clothing

Fair Trade India -- Godavari Delta Women's Lace Cooperative

Fair Trade Uganda -- Beads for Life

Fair Trade Uganda -- Ndali Estate

Fair Trade Uganda -- Fruits of the Nile

Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)  AI for Intensive Crop Management

* As contained in the Annex of the resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313) and the annual refinements in E/CN.3/2018/2
1 Resolution 68/261.
† Indicator codes were developed by UNSD for data transfer, tracking and other statistical purposes. 
2 Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.
3 Taking into account ongoing World Trade Organization negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda and the Hong Kong ministerial mandate.