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Annotated Articles

Some of my articles, studies and speeches available online:

SmartPhones and the Future of Humankind! (pdf) 2010. Slides from keynote speech at the 6th Korea Communications Conference, Seoul, Korea. The title was a topic I was assigned--I wouldn't and don't claim to have a real insight into such a grand pronouncement. Rather, I introduce many of the forces and trends that will shape not only the development of technologies but their cost and the incentives or impediments to their adoption. The center piece is the appliance we today call a SmartPhone, but looks increasingly like a computer that has among its features the capability of making and receiving voice phone calls. What, then, defines a SmartPhone? And what capabilities must it have? Who will be the winners and losers? And, more strategically, what will we do with it?

Media Entrepreneurship: Missionaries and Merchants. (pdf) 2007. (With Anne Hoag of Penn State University.) Despite concerns by some over media concentration, recent scholarship suggests most media sectors enjoy a high degree of entrepreneurship. Categories emerging from interview data suggest media entrepreneurs can be classified as either "missionaries" or "merchants." These two archetypes may also be extended to entrepreneurs more generally. Encouraging prospects for a healthy media sector are discussed.  

Review of Handbook of Media Management and Economics(pdf) 2006. Essay with a brief history and review of the importance of understanding economics when dealing with media strategy and policy, from the Journal of Media Economics.

Media Entrepreneurship in the Era of Big Media: Prospects for New Entrants (pdf) 2006.
An independent and innovative media sector has long been viewed as integral to the success of a democracy. Some media scholars view so-called big media as a threat, other recent scholarship suggests most media sectors enjoy a high degree of entrepreneurship. Despite this apparent divergence in the research record, there is agreement that communication technology innovation has changed prospects for new entrants. This paper was presented at the 2006 Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference. With Anne Hoag of Penn State, we interviewed 14 media entrepreneurs to discover attributes that may be unique to media industries and media entrepreneurship. 

Newspapers at "a strategic inflection point": What to do, How to do it (pdf) 2006. Article for Innovations in Newspapers report for the 2006 World Association of Newspapers Congress in Moscow. This is the pre-production version and still has a few typos and omissions, but the full report with the final version costs $120, so this will have to do for free. I write that newspaper publishers still have time to reinvent themselves-- but not much.

The Media Monopoly Myth: How New Competition is Expanding Our Sources of Information and Entertainment. (pdf) May 2005. In 1983 Ben Bagdikian published a book called "The Media Monopoly." In 2004 he produced yet another edition. In that time, our television choices expanded from three dominant providers (CBS, NBC, ABC) to five large providers ((Viacom, General Electric, Disney, Fox, Time Warner) and dozens of others. At the time of his first edition, the three networks had about 56% of the prime time market, The five largest owners of networks today have about a 51% share. Monopoly?

Testimony on Media Ownership, U.S. Senate Commerce Committee, Sept 28, 2004. (pdf) 

Does Rupert Murdoch Control the Media? Does Anyone? Article in Reason, January 2004. This piece again looks at the forces and trends in media ownership and their impact. It also explains why the profit motive might be the best insulation for preservation of content serving many constituencies, interests, cultures and political ideologies. 

Revisiting Cost and Affordability Assumptions for High Speed Data Services in Low Population Density Locations (pdf) Paper for 31st Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, September 2003. Raises questions that need be asked not so much about the technology as the expectations policy makers should have about the prices of broadband data services in rural areas as well as the ability of residents of rural areas to pay market prices for high speed Internet service.

Think Again: Global Media. Foreign Policy, Nov/Dec 2002. Big media barons are routinely accused of dominating markets, dumbing down the news to plump up the bottom line, and forcing U.S. content on world audiences. But these companies are not as big, bad, dominant, or American as critics claim. And company size is largely irrelevant to many of the problems facing today's Fourth Estate. 

Content Models for the Wireless World (pdf). Address to the 5th World Media Economic Conference, Turku, Finland, May 2002.

Internet Radio: A New Engine for Content Diversity? (pdf)  Presented at the International Telecommunications Society conference, Dublin, Ireland, Sept 2001.

The Myths of Encroaching Global Media Ownership. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication Convention, August 2001. Also part of a "debate" with Robert McChesney at opendemocracy.net on "Global Media, Journalism and Neoliberal Democracy" (his title). See the full debate, with rebuttals and comments.

The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth? Edited book from MIT Press, 2001. Includes a link to a paper presented to 28th Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, September 2000.

Internet Upheaval Raising Questions, Seeking Answers in Communications Policy.  Edited book from MIT Press, 2000.

Who Owns the Media: Competition and Concentration in the Mass Media Industry, 3rd ed.  See Preface.  See Abridged conclusions. 2000.

Mergers, Alliances and Investments: Newspaper Company Partnering Strategies in the Digital Age, article for the 2000 World Report of the World Association of Newspapers, June 2000 (pdf)

Information Resources Policy Handbook: Research for the Information Age. Book from MIT Press (2000). Table of Contents and Preface available online.

Globalization of the Mass Communications Industry? Outline of presentation at Dickinson College, Oct. 21, 1999 as a Metzger-Conway Fellow.

Mergers, Divestitures and the Internet: Is Ownership of the Media Industry Becoming too Concentrated? Paper for Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, September 1999

Regulatory Gridlock and the Telecommunications Act of 1996
National Cable Television Association Academic Keynote Address, Atlanta, GA, May 2, 1998

Reassessing Video Competition: Has Technology or Regulation Made a Difference? Paper delivered at Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Sept 28, 1997

Case Study: Online Learning Today: Not Ready for Prime Time This is my take on online education based on my own experience conducting such a course in Spring 1997.

Electronic Publishing: A Primer. (1998) Though getting a bit dated, this article provides examples of the range of  what electronic publishing mean as we entered a new century along with a description of the forces and trends that have shaped and will continue to shape the form of electronic publishing .

The Impact of Ownership on Content: Does It Matter? (1995) Of course it matters. But how depends on what is included as "television": Stations? Broadcast Networks? Program creators? Cable operators? Cable Networks? Videocassette or DVD distributors? DBS providers? Even before YouTube and the broadband Internet this had become a complex question to address. Article in the Cardoza Arts & Entertainment Law Journal.

Information Gaps: Myth or Reality? (1988) This was originally published by the Program on Information Resources Policy at Harvard and later in Telecommunications Policy. The brief synopsis is that there is every reason to believe that the gap between info haves and have nots should lessen, not grow. A heresy, I know, but I think there's a case.

The Future of Media Companies in the International Arena.(1991) From time to time in recent history public policy has become concerned with apparent trends towards concentration in one branch or another of the media industry. Findings from interviews with international media executives and academics in 1991.