מיני אלונים לשימוש האדם


על העץ - וויקיפדיה, אנגלית
Wood handbook - Forest products laboratory

אלון לבן או אלון אדום? Jerald Adamsson


אלונים לבנים - צפון אמריקה

מיני  אלון לבן, White oak, [סוג Quercus], המשמשים לתעשיית העץ

Oak (White Oak Group)


(source; wood handbook, Forest products laboratory)

White oak lumber comes chiefly from the South, South Atlantic, and Central States, ncluding the southern Appalachian area.

The principal species are:

·         White oak – Q. alba

·         Chestnut oak - Q. prinus

·         Post oak - Q. stellate

·         Overcup oak - Q. lyrata

·         Swamp chestnut oak - Q. michauxii

·         Bur oak - Q. macrocarpa

·         Chinkapin oak - Q. muehlenbergii

·         Swamp white oak - Q. bicolor

·         Oregon white oak - Q. garryana (The most important member of this group.

The sapwood of the white oaks is nearly white and roughly 2  to 5 cm (1"-2") wide. The heartwood is generally grayish brown. Heartwood pores are usually plugged with tyloses, which tend to make the wood impenetrable to liquids. Consequently, most white oaks are suitable for tight cooperage, although many heartwood pores of chestnut oak lack tyloses. The wood of white oak is somewhat heavier than the wood of red oak. Its heartwood has good decay resistance. White oaks are usually cut into lumber, railroad crossties, cooperage, mine timbers, fence posts, veneer, fuelwood, and many other products. High-quality white oak is especially sought for tight cooperage. An important use of white oak is for planking and bent parts of ships and boats; heartwood is often specified because of its decay resistance. White oak is also used for furniture, flooring, pallets, agricultural implements, railroad cars, truck floors, furniture, doors, and millwork.

§  Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa

§  White oak (Quercus alba)

§  Post oak (Quercus stellata)

§  Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)

§  Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana)

§  Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii)

§  Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus or Q. Montana)

§  Chinkapin oak (Quercus muhlenbergii)

§  Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis)

§  Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata)

האלון האדום - (The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra (syn. Quercus borealis
אלונים אדומים - צפון אמריקה
האלון האדום - אתר bomengids, הולנד

מיני  אלון אדום, Red oak, [הסוג Lobatae] המשמשים לתעשיית העץ

Oak (Red Oak Group)


(source; wood handbook, Forest products laboratory)

Most red oak comes from the Eastern States.                   

The principal species are:

·         Northern red oak – Q.  rubra

·         Scarlet - Q. coccinea

·         Shumard Q. shumardii

·         Pin oak - Q. palustris

·         Nuttall - Q. nuttallii

·         Black - Q. velutina

·         Southern red - Q. falcate

·         Cherrybark - Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia

·         Water oak - Q. nigra

·         Laurel oak - Q. laurifolia

·         Willow oak - Q. phellos

The sapwood is nearly white and roughly 2 to 5 cm (1"-2") wide. The heartwood is brown with a tinge of red. Sawn lumber of the red oak group cannot be separated by species on the basis of wood characteristics alone. Red oak lumber can be separated from white oak by the size and arrangement of pores in latewood and because it generally lacks tyloses in the pores. The open pores of red oak make this species group unsuitable for tight cooperage, unless the barrels are lined with sealer or plastic. Quartersawn lumber of the oaks is distinguished by its broad and conspicuous rays. Wood of the red oaks is heavy. Rapidly grown secondgrowth  wood is generally harder and tougher than finer textured old-growth wood. The red oaks have fairly high shrinkage upon drying.

The red oaks are primarily cut into lumber, railroad crossties, mine timbers, fence posts, veneer, pulpwood, and fuelwood. Ties, mine timbers, and fence posts require preservative

treatment for satisfactory service. Red oak lumber is remanufactured into flooring, furniture, general millwork, boxes, pallets and crates, agricultural implements, caskets, wooden ware, and handles. It is also used in railroad cars and boats.

  §  Red oak (Quercus rubra)

§  Black oak (Quercus velutina)

§  Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia)

§  Southern red oak (Quercus falcata)

§  Water oak (Quercus nigra)

§  Willow oak (Quercus phellos)

§  Nuttall'soak (Quercus texana or Q. nuttallii)

Oak (Tropical)

(source; wood handbook, Forest products laboratory)


The oaks (Quercus) are abundantly represented in Mexico and Central America with about 150 species, which are nearly equally divided between the red and white oak groups. More than 100 species occur in Mexico and about 25 in Guatemala; the number diminishes southward to Colombia, which has two species. The usual Spanish name applied to the oaks is encino or roble, and both names are used interchangeably irrespective of species or use of the wood.

In heartwood color, texture, and grain characteristics, tropical oaks are similar to the diffuse porous oaks of the United States, especially live oak (Quercus virginiana). In most cases, tropical oaks are heavier (density of air-dried wood is 704 to 993 kg m–3 (44 to 62 lb ft–3)) than the U.S. species. Strength data are available for only four species, and the values fall between those of white oak (Q. alba) and live oak (Q. virginiana) or are equal to those of live oak. The heartwood is rated as very resistant to decay fungi and difficult to treat with preservatives.

Utilization of the tropical oaks is very limited at present because of difficulties encountered in the drying of the wood. The major volume is used in the form of charcoal, but the wood is used for flooring, railroad crossties, mine timbers, tight cooperage, boat and ship construction, and decorative veneers.