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Schizostachyum

Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr.
  • Synonyms: Bambusa diffusa Blanco; Dinochloa diffusa (Blanco) Merr.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 莎簕竹 (shā lè zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: eastern and southern Taiwan; PHILIPPINES; in primary forests at 200–1,200 m altitude.
  • Description: "Culms flexuose, slender, to 40 m long, 0.5–1.5 cm in diam., apically clambering; internodes 15–60 cm, with ring of white powder below node; wall 2–4 mm thick. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, rigid, with stiff, brown hairs, base without a projection, margins ciliate, apex concave; auricles inconspicuous; oral setae well developed, curved; ligule short or inconspicuous; blade reflexed, linear-lanceolate, apex involute to aciculate. Leaves 5–12 per ultimate branch; sheaths 5–12 cm, glabrous, outer margin ciliate; auricles inconspicuous; oral setae well developed, initially white, becoming brown; ligule suborbicular or subtruncate, dentate; petiole short; blade oblong-lanceolate, 10–25 × 1.5–2.5 cm, abaxially glabrous, margin densely scabrous to setaceous, base rounded, apex acute ... [flowers and seeds described] ... The identification of Chinese material as Schizostachyum diffusum requires further study." — Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008: 2 photos on p. 054 [#1178].
  • Uses: Plants for landscaping.
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  • Specimens: BS-0079 (living plant), from China, 25 Jan. 2013;
  • Comments: Characters of this specimen do not match well with S. diffusum and will be investigated in more detail when the plant matures.

Schizostachyum funghomii McClure
  • Synonym: Schizostachyum subvexorum Q. H. Dai & D. Y. Huang.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese names: 沙罗单竹 (shā luō dān zhú), 大薄竹 (dà bo zhú).
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2011-2012, in cultivation. CHINA: Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, native.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms erect, to 12 m, 4–10 cm in diam., apically suberect; internodes terete, straight, to 67 cm, scabrous, white powdery, initially often strigose; wall ca. 3 mm. Branches 50–70 cm. Culm sheaths tardily deciduous, straw-colored, white powdery, with stiff, pale yellow hairs, margins glabrous, apex truncate or slightly concave; auricles inconspicuous; oral setae many, ca. 5 mm; ligule truncate, short, 1–2 mm, glabrous, margin lobed, with fimbriae 3–5 mm; blade reflexed, linear-lanceolate, less than 1/2 length of sheath, abaxially glabrous, apex acuminate. Leaves 6–9 per ultimate branch; sheaths often white powdery; auricles inconspicuous; oral setae numerous, 5–6 mm; blade oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 20–30 × 2.5–4 cm ... [flowers described] ... Fruit unknown. New shoots Jul–Aug." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 1000 cm long; 40–60 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 20–40 cm long; antrorsely scabrous; distally glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches dendroid. Culm-sheaths 15–30 cm long; pubescent; truncate at apex; without auricles; ciliate on shoulders. Culm-sheath ligule 1–2 mm high; dentate. Culm-sheath blade linear, or lanceolate; pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate. Leaf-blade surface pubescent; hairy abaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate. ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008: 3 photos on p. 055 [#1178].
  • Uses: Culms for making paper pulp, split culms for weaving (basketry, mats); plants as garden ornamental and for landscaping.
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  • Specimens: BS-0622 (seeds), received as "沙罗单竹 (shā luō dān zhú), Schizostachyum funghomii", from China, Mar. 2011. BS-0622-1 S4 and W4 (living plants), raised from seeds received as "沙罗单竹 (shā luō dān zhú), Schizostachyum funghomii", from China, June 2012. BS-0723 (living plant), received as "23. 大薄竹 (dà bo zhú), Schizostachyum funghomii", Nov. 2011, said having been raised from seeds in China. BS-0007 (living plant), received as "Melocanna baccifera", from China, July 2011.
  • Characters: Culm-internodes dark green (BS-0622-1 S4 blackish when young, turning into dark green with age), evenly covered with short appressed whitish hairs when young, the hairs can be easily wiped away, not white powdery, 60–70 (78) cm long, thin-walled. Culm-leaves persistent; culm-leaf sheath a quarter to one-fifth as long as the internode, light green when young, white when dry, scattered with short white hairs, margins white-ciliate; culm-leaf blade strongly reflexed, linear-lanceolate, blackish to dark green when young. Foliage-leaf sheaths initially pale hispid, becoming glabrous; foliage-leaf blades pubescent beneath when young, glabrous or nearly so when old.
  • Uses: Plants are very attractive for gardens and for landscaping.
  • Comments: The specimens represent a species of Schizostachyum; whether they can be assigned to S. funghomii is currently unclear.

Schizostachyum gracile (Kurz ex Munro) Holttum
  • Synonyms: Melocanna gracilis Kurz ex Munro; Schizostachyum tenue Gamble; Schizostachyum gracile var. erectum Holttum.
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2009 or earlier. MALAYSIA: Malay Peninsula; forest margins, river banks; SINGAPORE: native but extinct.
  • Culm size: Height 3 -4 m, dia­meter 1.5 - 2 cm.
  • Descriptions: (1) H. B. Gilliland, Revised Flora of Malaya, vol. 3, 1971: p. 39 [#1039]. (2) K. M. Wong, Bamboos of Peninsular Malaysia, 1995: p. 169-171, fig. 96-97 [#1210]. (3) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos from database of chm.frim.gov.my (habit, inter­node, culm sheath).
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short-necked; culms arching; culm-inter­nodes thin-walled; branches many; culm sheaths pubescent, conspicuously auriculate, bristly on shoulders; foliage-leaf blades 10 - 20 cm long, 1 - 2 cm wide, glabrous.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamentals.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known. (2) Schizostachyum gracile var. erectum was described as having more slender and erect culms with only their tips drooping.
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  • Specimens: BS-0298 (living plant), received from Rimba Ilmu Botanical Garden, Malaysia, Sep. 2009, plant died 2011.

Schizostachyum hainanense Merr. ex McClure
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 山骨罗竹 (shān gǔ luō zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Hainan; VIETNAM: Tonkin; in primary tropical forests.
  • Culm size: Length 8 - 20 (30) m, diameter 2 - 4 (5) cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms ascending, 8–30 m long, 2–3(–5) cm in diam., apically long pendulous or clambering; internodes to 75 cm or longer, smooth and glabrous near base, other portions white powdery and appressed stiffly hairy; wall 1.5–2 mm thick. Branches 40–80 cm. Culm sheaths deciduous, asymmetrical, pruinose, with appressed, stiff, brown hairs, base of outer margin usually with a conspicuous, subcircular projection below point of attachment, both sides of apex rounded and extending upward but unequal, yellow-brown; auricles absent; oral setae well developed, to 2.4 cm; ligule 1.5–2 mm, margin with fimbriae 8–12 mm; blade reflexed, more than 1/2 length of sheath proper. Leaves 5–10 per ultimate branch; sheaths 4–9 cm; auricles usually inconspicuous; oral setae numerous, pale, 6–18 mm; ligule ca. 1 mm; blade oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 6–27 × 0.6–3.7 cm. ... [flowers described]. Fruit unknown." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms leaning, or scandent; pendulous at the tip; 800–2000 cm long; 20–40 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 35–75 cm long. Lateral branches dendroid. Culm-sheaths 12–22 cm long; without auricles; setose on shoulders; shoulders with 10–15 mm long hairs. Culm-sheath ligule 9–10 mm high; fimbriate. Culm-sheath blade linear, or lanceolate; pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough on both sides. Leaf-blade apex attenuate. ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China 1, 2. Photos in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008: 4 photos on p. 056 [#1178].
  • Uses: Culms for basketry, other weaving articles, handicrafts and flutes; plants as ornamental.
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  • Specimens: BS-0494 (living plant), received from cultivated stock as "Schizostachyum hainanensis" from Australia, June 2010.
  • Images: Photos in BambooLand (habit, culms, leaves).
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked. Culms loosely clumped, basally erect, apically long pendulous or clambering; culm length over 10 m, more than 3 cm in diameter. Culm-internodes to 75 cm or longer, dark green, smooth and glabrous near base (area covered by culm sheath), other portions covered with short appressed whitish hairs, thin-walled (1.5 - 2 mm thick). Culm-nodes not prominent; buds small, the 2–4 lowermost nodes without buds. Branches many, subequal. Culm sheaths deciduous, asymmetrical, pruinose, with appressed, stiff, brown hairs; base of outer margin usually with a conspicuous, subcircular projection below point of attachment; both sides of apex rounded and extending upward but unequal, yellow-brown. Culm sheath auricles absent; oral hairs to 2.4 cm long, straight. Culm sheath ligule 1.5 - 2 mm high, long-fimbriate. Culm sheath blade reflexed, long and narrow. Foliage-leaves 5 - 10 per branchlet. Foliage-leaf blades medium-sized, 6 - 27 cm long, 0.6 - 3.7 cm wide, rough on both surfaces. Foliage-leaf sheaths with numerous, long, pale oral hairs.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing; in part shade, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. May withstand light frost to -2 °C.
  • Comments: It is currently unclear whether the Australian plant represents Schizostachyum hainanense or another species of this genus. It was supposed that the Australian plant is S. sanguineum, which was described as follows: "Culms 5–7 m, 2–3 cm in diam., apically scrambling; internodes 25–35 cm, scabrous, white powdery; wall thin; nodes flat, with a white powdery ring below sheath scar. Culm sheaths deciduous, suboblong, shorter than internodes, densely yellow-brown tomentose, base without a projection, apex arched-concave; auricles absent; ligule short, margin with brown cilia ca. 2 mm; blade reflexed, linear-lanceolate, abaxially with sparse, stiff hairs, adaxially densely yellow-brown tomentose, apex rugose. Leaves 4–6 per ultimate branch; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, 18–20 × 4–5 cm, base cuneate, apex long acuminate. ..." (Flora of China). Many characters of S. sanguineum do not correspond to the Australian plant, hence it can be ruled out that it is this species.
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  • Specimens: BS-0106 (living plant), received 23 June 2013; Hainan, China, on mountains near "Wushi Shan" [possibly, correct spelling is: Wuzhi Shan, 五指山], wild, coll. by M. S., s.n., from a sunny, rocky place near roadside in autumn (possibly 2008).
  • Characters: Young shoots emerge July(?) - October. Culm-internodes covered with short appressed whitish hairs when young.
  • Comments: Plant immature, characters seem to be very similar to BS-0494 and will be described later. This could be Schizostachyum hainanense or Schizostachyum pseudolima.

Schizostachyum iraten Steud.

    Schizostachyum iraten (BS-0294):
    Upper part of a culm-leaf
    of lower culm

  • Synonym: Schizostachyum biflorum McClure.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Indonesian names: Awi tamiyang, awi bunar (Sundanese); pring wuluh (Javanese).
  • Distribution: INDONESIA: native in Java, Sumatra and Bali; up to 600 m altitude, in scrub vegetation, thin forest, and village groves, often cultivated. MALAYSIA: in cultivation.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culm sheaths glaucous pale green, covered with short pale brown to silvery appressed hairs; blade narrowly triangular, erect, not inflated, pale green and basally slightly purplish; auricles low rims 1–2 mm high with bristles 3–4 mm long; ligule a subentire rim 1–2 mm high. Culms to 8–10 m long, to 6–8 m high, commonly 3.5–5.5 cm diameter, slightly arched outwards; internodes 40–60 cm long, dark green; nodes often with a conspicuous thick leathery purplish black "girdle" left from the sheath after it falls away. Branch complement typically a cluster of slender subequal branches, none dominant, these rebranching further. Leaf: blades 20–35 cm long, 3–4.5 cm wide, typically pale soft-hairy on lower side; stalk 5–8 mm long; auricles low rims 0.2–0.5 mm high, bearing scattered bristles 5–9 mm long; ligule a subentire rim 1–1.5 mm high. Inflorescences and flowers unknown in Peninsular Malaysia." — K. M. Wong, Bamboos of Peninsular Malaysia, 1995: p. 172-173 [#1210].
    (2) "Densely tufted, sympodial bamboo. Culm erect with drooping tip, 6–10 m long, 2–5 cm in diameter, wall 3–7 mm thick; internodes of the midculm 70–120 cm long, whitish green and covered with short appressed pale hairs when young, becoming pale to light green with a conspicuus whitish ring below the nodes; nodes prominently swollen. Branches arising from midculm nodes upward, slender, usually subequal. Culm sheath 20–28 cm × 9–17 cm, truncate, persistent, subrigid, lemon-green often tinged with light pink, becoming stramineous, bearing pale brown hairs and with many prominent veins; blade narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a long tip, 11–30 cm × 10–15 mm, erect first, later reflexed or spreading, light green, deciduous, glabrous but hairy adaxially especially near the base; ligule 3 mm long, serrate; auricles short, about 7 mm long, with bristles. Young shoots pale green. Leaf blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 15–45 cm × 1.5–9 cm, usually glabrous; sheath glabrous; ligule very short; auricles short with long bristles ... [flowers described, seeds unknown]." — S. Dransfield in S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja (editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7, Bamboos, 1995: p. 135-136, fig.
    (3) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photo of holotype in Herb. Mus. Paris (leaves, flowers).
  • Uses: Culms for blow-pipes, flutes, fishing rods. Internodes for cooking vessels (in Malaysia).
  • Comments: Flowers known.
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  • Specimens: BS-0294 (living plant), cult., received from Forest Research Institute, Malaysia, Sep. 2009.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short. Culms erect, arching above, unbranched on lower culm. Young shoots emerge September – October. Culm-internodes 70–90 (120) cm long, dark green and covered with short appressed whitish hairs when young, pale green and rough when old; thin-walled. Culm-nodes with prominent, corky sheath scar ring; buds solitary, the lowest 1–2 nodes without bud. Branches subequal. Culm-leaves persistent or late deciduous. Culm-leaf sheath glaucous pale green, 1/3–1/4 as long as internode, with tawny hairs; auriculate. Culm-leaf ligule 3 mm high, dentate. Culm-leaf blade triangular, almost as long as sheath, deflexed or occasionally reflexed, early caducous. Foliage-leaves 5–7 per branchlet. Foliage-leaf sheaths glabrous; auriculate, with oral hairs; foliage-leaf blades (15) 25–35 (45) × (1.5) 3.5–5 (9) cm, glabrous above, pubescent beneath.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade, does not tolerate full sun; soil is sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.

Schizostachyum lengguanii K. M. Wong
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Description: K. M. Wong, Bamboos of Peninsular Malaysia, 1995: p. 176-177, fig. 103 [#1210].
  • Distribution: MALAYSIA: Pahang, in swamp, rare, native.
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  • Specimens: BS-0290 (living plants), received from Rimba Ilmu Botanical Garden, Malaysia, Sep. 2009, died; BS-0290A (living plants), raised from seeds of BS-0290, seedlings died.
  • Comments: Two small plants were introduced from Malaysia into Thailand in 2009; one plant started flowering in Oct. 2012, producing 2 seeds only, which both germinated, but none of the seedlings survived. The flowering plant died in Aug./Sep. 2013, the non-flowering died in 2014.

Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) Merr.
  • Synonyms: Bambusa lima Blanco; Schizostachyum hallieri Gamble; Schizostachyum stenocladum A. Camus.
  • Thai names: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: PHILIPPINES; MALAYSIA (Borneo); INDONESIA; PAPUA NEW GUINEA; SOLOMON ISLANDS.
  • Culm size: Height 7 - 10 (13) m, diameter 3 - 4 cm.
  • Descriptions: (1) C. A. Roxas & S. Dransfield in S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja (editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7, Bamboos, 1995: p. 138-140, fig. (2) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info, ASEAN Trop. Pl.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for basketry and weaving, framework in thatching, fishing rods, spears, bow strings, musical instruments (flutes), handicraft (carved tobacco containers); plants as ornamental.
  • Comments: Flowers known, seeds unknown.
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  • Specimens: BS-0481 (living plant), received from Singapore Botanic Gardens, June 2010.
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms erect, apically pendulous, branchless on lower culm; young shoots emerge late January - September. Culm-internodes very long, scattered with very short appressed pale hairs when young, slightly scabrous when old, thin-walled. Branches many, subequal. Culm-leaves deciduous. Culm-leaf sheath antrorsely scabrous, with appressed white hairs, truncate at apex; auricles absent, long-setose on shoulders; culm-leaf blade reflexed. Foliage-leaves: Foliage-leaf auricles absent; foliage-leaf blades large, 9 - 33 cm long, 1.5 - 4.8 cm wide.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.

Schizostachyum pallidum (Munro) R. B. Majumdar
  • Synonyms: Cephalostachyum pallidum Munro; Cephalostachyum scandens Hsueh f. & C. M. Hui, illeg.
  • Misapplied name: Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro in Fl. Xizang., 1987.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 小空竹 (xiǎo kōng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Xizang (Tibet); MYANMAR: northern part; INDIA: north-eastern part; in broad-leaved forests at 1,200 - 2,000 m altitude.
  • Description: "Culms 6–12 m, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam., subscandent; internodes 50–80 cm, smooth; wall thin; nodal ridge not prominent; sheath scar prominent. Branches many, clustered at each node, subequal. Culm sheaths deciduous, yellow, oblong-lanceolate, 15–20 cm, thickly papery, abaxially appressed ciliate, apex truncate; ligule short; blade reflexed, narrowly lanceolate, 5–10 × 1–3 cm. Leaf sheaths pubescent; ligule conspicuous; blade ovate-lanceolate, 15–25 × 2–4 cm. Inflorescence capitate, solitary at tip of leafy branch, 1.5–2.5 cm in diam., subtended by many bractlets ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Flora of China.
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  • Specimens: BS-0730 (living plants), introduced from China in 2012.
  • Characters: Foliage-leaf sheath initially pale hispid, becoming glabrous soon. Foliage-leaf ligule short, less than 1 mm. Foliage-leaf blade pubescent beneath.
  • Uses: Plants as a garden ornamental.
  • Comments: This is possibly not Schizostachyum pallidum, but another still unidentified species of Schizostachyum.

Schizostachyum pingbianense Hsueh & Y. M. Yang ex T. P. Yi & al.
  • Synonym: Cephalostachyum pingbianense (Hsueh & Y. M. Yang ex T. P. Yi & al.) D. Z. Li & H. Q. Yang
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 小薄竹 (xiǎo báo zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA, south-eastern Yunnan: Pingbian county, in humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, at 1,500 - 2,200 m altitude.
  • Images: Photos in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008: 5 photos on p. 058 [#1178].
  • Uses: Shoots for food.
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  • Specimens: BS-0631, BS-0631-1 (living plants), introduced from China in 2011-2012.
  • Culm size: Height 5-7 m, diameter 1-2(3) cm.
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms erect, arching. Young shoots emerge from May. Culm-internodes up to 75 cm long, 1.5–2 cm in diameter, darkgreen, with pale fuzzy hairs when young, rough when old, very thin-walled and easily splittable (culm diameter 1.75 cm with wall thickness 1.0–1.2 mm). Culm-nodes flat, with a bluish-green ring below sheath scar. Branches many, subequal; branching intravaginal. Culm-leaves persistent, or occasionally late deciduous. Culm-leaf sheath ca. 11 cm long, green when young, light straw-colored when dry, with pale short caducous hairs when young, nearly glabrous with age; margins ciliolate; apex almost rounded, or horizontally or slightly concavely flattened culm-leaf auricles inconspicuous or none; oral setae long, pale; culm-leaf ligule inconspicuous; culm-leaf blade reflexed, narrow-triangular. Foliage-leaves 7–11 per branchlet. Foliage-leaf sheath glabrous; margins reddish when young; foliage-leaf auricles inconspicuous or none, with long pale oral setae; foliage-leaf ligule inconspicuous; foliage-leaf blade 30–40 × 6–8 cm, mid-green, pubescent beneath; margins retrorsely scabrous; base attenuate; apex attenuate; midrib proximally prominent beneath; pseudopetiole 5–10 mm long.
  • Uses: Plants as a garden ornamental.
  • Comments: Flowers and seeds known.

Schizostachyum sp. 'Kluang Supat'
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: INDONESIA: native.
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  • Specimens: BS-0490 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Australia, June 2010.
  • Comments: Culm-internodes glabrous, smooth (not with short appressed whitish hairs as often in species of Schizostachyum).