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Dendrocalamus

Dendrocalamus dianxiensis hort.

Dendrocalamus dianxiensis — BS-0615:
Culms (left) — photo courtesy by FMXG;
seeds (right)


  • Thai name: Not re­corded. Chinese name: 滇西龙竹 (diān xi lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): western Yunnan.
  • Culm size: Height 28–30 m, diameter 18 cm (according to FMXG).
  • Description: No description available (neither listed in Kew GrassBase nor in Flora of China).
  • Uses: No records on uses are known.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) This could be a new, yet unpublished species. The species is from Yunnan, China, and possible from its western part (滇西, diān xi = western Yunnan). It is known in cultivation and recorded to be frost resistant to -2 °C.
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  • Specimens: BS-0615 (living plant), raised from seeds received as "滇西龙竹 D. dianxiensis" from China in Dec. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms erect; young shoots green, emerging July to September. Culm internodes dark green, with short white hairs and farinose when young, light brownish and smooth when old, moderately thick-walled. Culm nodes glabrous, not or slightly prominent, basal nodes without aerial root primordias; branches several, central dominant, unbranched on basal culm. Culm-leaves deciduous; culm-leaf sheaths little longer than half of internode, greenish-orange to reddish, initially sparcely covered with short white hairs, soon becoming almost glabrous, dark straw-colored when dry; margins pale to brown ciliate; apex narrow, truncate; culm-leaf auricles none; culm-leaf ligule 2-4 mm long, dark brown, dentate, long pale ciliate; culm-leaf blade reflexed, early caducous. Foliage-leaves ca. 9 per branchlet; foliage-leaf sheaths with short white stiff hairs, margins ciliate; foliage-leaf auricles none; foliage-leaf ligule 2-4 mm long, ciliate; foliage-leaf blades large, 30-35 × 6.5-8 cm, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath; margins retrorsely scabrous; base rounded; apex attenuate; midrib prominent; petiole 5-10 mm long, glabrous.

Dendrocalamus farinosus (Keng & Keng f.) L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus farinosus Keng & Keng f.; Lingnania farinosa (Keng & Keng f.) Keng f.; Neosinocalamus farinosus (Keng & Keng f.) Keng f. & T. H. Wen; Dendrocalamus ovatus N. H. Xia & L. C. Chia.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 大叶慈竹 (dà yè cí zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: southern part, at 500 - 1,700 m altitude.
  • Culm size: Height 7 - 12 m, diameter 4 - 8 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms 7–12 m, 4–8 cm in diam.; internodes 20–45 cm; wall 4–10 mm thick. Branches from ca. 10th node up; dominant branches distinct, 1–2.5 m, 4–12 mm in diam. Culm sheaths initially orange-brown, becoming brown, oblong-triangular, about as long as internodes, thickly papery or leathery, margins ciliate, apex truncate or concave; auricles absent; ligule ca. 1.3 cm, with setae; blade reflexed, narrowly lanceolate. Leaf sheaths initially hispid; ligule 1–1.5 mm; blade lanceolate, 9–33 × 1.5–6 cm ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 1000 cm long; 40–60 mm diam.; woody; with aerial roots from the nodes. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 10–21 cm long; distally pruinose. Culm-nodes pubescent. Lateral branches dendroid. Bud complement 1. Branch complement many. Culm-sheaths deciduous; 15–21 cm long; 1 length of internode; coriaceous; brown, or red; hispid; with appressed hairs; with black hairs; truncate at apex; without auricles; setose on shoulders; shoulders with 7–10 mm long hairs. Culm-sheath ligule 3–6 mm high; lacerate. Culm-sheath blade lanceolate; constricted at base; reflexed; 4–12 cm long; 5–12 mm wide; scabrid. Leaves 4–8 per branch. Leaf-sheaths 6–7.5 cm long; glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles absent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blade base cuneate; with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath; petiole 0.2 cm long. Leaf-blades oblong; 9–17 cm long; 15–25 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with 10–14 secondary veins; with obscure cross veins. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate." — Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in AsianFlora (leaves), CFH.
  • Uses: Not recorded.
  • Comments: A variety with yellow stripes on lower culms, 'Flavostriatus', was recorded from China, but it its not known whether this variety has been introduced into Thailand.
  • Specimens: BS-0619 (living plant), raised from seeds received as "大叶慈竹 (dà yè cí zhú), Dendrocalamus farinosus" from China, 1 Mar. 2011.
  • Characters: Match well with the aforementioned descriptions. Additions: Branching typically intravaginal, but extravaginal branching may occur on arching culms. Foliage-leaves more numerous (11–17) on terminal branchlets. Foliage-leaf sheath initially pale hispid; foliage-leaf blade glabrous above, puberulous beneath.
  • Specimens: BS-0689 (living plant), raised from unidentified seeds received from China, 4 Apr. 2011.
  • Specimens: BS-0072 (living plant), received as "真麻竹 (zhēn má zhú), Cephalostachyum scandens" from China, 25 Jan. 2013.

Dendrocalamus fuminensis hort.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 大叶龙竹 (dà yè lóng zhú), translated means large-leaved dragon bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA: native.
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  • Specimens: BS-0696 (living plants),  raised from seeds received from China in 2012.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) A valid publication of the name, Dendrocalamus fuminensis, is not known.

Dendrocalamus jiangchengensis hort.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 江城龙竹 (jiāng chéng lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: native.
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  • Specimens: BS-0763 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2012.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) A valid publication of the name, Dendrocalamus jiangchengensis, is not known.

Dendrocalamus jianshuiensis Hsueh & D. Z. Li
  • Synonym: Sinocalamus jianshuiensis (Hsueh & D. Z. Li) W. T. Lin.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 建水龙竹 (jiàn shuǐ lóng zhú).
  • English names: Niha's Bamboo; Laotian White Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Yunnan; at 850 - 1,510 m altitude. USA: in cultivation, said to be raised from seed (South.Calif.​Bamboo 17(6), 2007: 3).
  • Culm size: Height 17 - 18 m, diameter 10 - 12 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... Culms 17–18 m, 10–12 cm in diam.; internodes 25–37 cm; wall 1.2–2 cm thick; branching from 8th–9th node up, central branch dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, about as long as internodes, thickly leathery, apex truncate; auricles small, 0.5–2 cm; ligule 1–4 mm, serrulate; blade reflexed, 10–20 × 3.5–7.5 cm. Leaf sheaths glabrous; ligule ca. 2 mm; blade 20–38 × 3.5–8.5 cm. ... [flowers known] Fruit unknown." — Flora of China, accessed 16 Oct. 2015.
    (2) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; Dave'sGarden; ABS-SoCal (internode).
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  • Specimens: BS-0326, BS-0459 (living plants), received from the U.S.A. in 2009.
  • Characters: Culms erect, drooping apically, unbranched basally; culm internodes initially sparsely white fuzzy, thin-walled; branches many, central dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, thickly leathery, glabrous or with readily deciduous hairs, becoming glabrous, apex truncate or projected at center, 6 - 11 cm wide; foliage leaves 9 per branchlet; leaf blades large, glabrous above, pubescent beneath — other characters in accordance with the above description.
  • Uses: Culms for construction; plants for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing; in part shade to full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. Tolerates some drought and wind.

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro
  • Synonyms: Bambusa latiflora (Munro) Kurz; Sinocalamus latiflorus (Munro) McClure.
  • Thai names: ไผ่หมาจู๋ (phai ma chu) [spelling variants: ไผ่หม่าจู๋ (phai ma chu), ไผ่มาจู (phai ma chu), ไผ่หม่าจู (phai ma chu)], ไผ่หวานอ่างขาง (phai wan ang khang), ไผ่ซางคำ (phai sang kham), ไผ่เขาควาย (phai khao kwai), ไผ่ตงไต้หวันชนิดใหญ่ (phai tong taiwan chanit yai), ไผ่ไต้หวัน (phai taiwan). The Thai name, phai ma chu, seems to be a corruption from Chinese. Chinese name: 麻竹 (má zhú); "má" means hemp, jute, flax, and "zhú" means bamboo.
  • English names: Taiwan Giant Bamboo, Sweet Giant Bamboo.
  • Distribution: THAILAND: North, introduced from Taiwan, cultivated; MYANMAR, native; CHINA: South, native; frequently cultivated in tropical Asia. — Map 25 in Bamboo Biodiversity, INBAR, 2003.
  • Local distribution: Found cultivated in the Chiang Mai area; occasionally offered for sale at Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai.
  • Culm size: Height 14 - 20 (25) m, diameter 8 - 20 (30) cm.
  • Descriptions: (1) C. A. Roxas in S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja (editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7, Bamboos, 1995: p. 87-90, fig. (2) Kew GrassBase. (3) Flora of Taiwan. (4) Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing Flora of Taiwan; Bambooweb.info, AsianFlora. Post and photos of flowering of ไผ่หม่าจู (phai ma chu), Dendrocalamus latiflorus, Thailand, by สวนไผ่นานาพันธุ์ สวน (suan phai nana phan suan) in facebook, 27 Jan. 2014.
  • Uses: Shoots for food, a main species for commercial shoot production in Thailand; yield in China 20 - 30 tonnes annually per hectare (W. Y. Hsiung), yield in Thailand 12.5 - 18.8 t/ha (Royal Project, pers. comm.). Culms used for construction; plants for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing; in part shade to full sun, soil 4.5 - 7.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. Tolerates heat and humidity, some drought and air pollution, wind and sea­shore exposition. Optimal clump spacing for shoot production plantation is 5 ∙ 5 m.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) Three varieties of Dendro­calamus latiflorus were recorded from China, but none of them is known to be planted in Thailand: D. latiflorus var. magnus, with culms unbranched up to 9 m from ground, and not arching, from Fujian, mainland China; 'Mei-Nung', with culms and branches yellowish green with green stripes, and culm sheaths yellowish green to brownish green with yellow stripes, from Taiwan; 'Subconvex', with culms smaller in ultimate size, and internodes basally congested and pear-shaped, from Taiwan.
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  • Specimens: BS-0170 (living plants), Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, cult., received 2007; BS-0153 (seeds), from flowering plants in Nan, northern Thailand, received as "ไผ่หวานอ่างขาง" (phai wan ang khang), 11 May 2014.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked, forming a clump. Culms erect; culm internodes 30 - 50 cm long, middle-green and covered with white powder when young, surface orange-yellow when old, glabrous. Culm nodes not prominent, with a solitary large broad bud, nodes of lower culm with a whorl of short roots. Branches several, with the central branch dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, light-green and covered with dark hairs on lower part when young, pale brownish and hairs caducous when dry; culm sheath blade reflexed, small; culm sheath ligule short, auricles and bristles none. Foliage leaf blades middle-green, glabrous on both sides, large, usually 40 cm long and 9 cm wide, some up to 52 cm long and 12 cm wide. Leaf sheaths yellowish green, sparsely covered with brown hairs when young, glabrous and straw-colored when dry, leaf sheath auricles and bristles none; leaf sheath ligule rather short and inconspicuous, entire. Young shoots emerge from end of June, bluish green, glabrous, sheath blades reflexed.
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  • Specimens: BS-0695 (living plant), seeds coll. as "ไผ่หมาจู๋" (phai ma chu), "Dendrocalamus latiflorus", by ธ. ล. from flowering plants at Fang, Chiang Mai in Feb. 2012, received 24 Feb. 2012; seedlings raised.
  • Characters: Not yet recorded. Height about 15 m, diameter 8 cm (acc. to ธ. ล.).
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows well in full sun or part shade, soil normal moisture-retentive with good drainage.
  • Provisional identification: Not yet attempted as plant is still immature. There are some doubts that this bamboo represents Dendrocalamus latiflorus.
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  • Specimens: BS-0640, BS-0640-2 (living plants), cult., raised from seeds received as "麻竹 (má zhú), Dendrocalamus latiflorus", from China, 25 Apr. 2011 and 14 Jan. 2014 respectively.
  • Comments: The seed-containing spikelets (BS-0640, BS-0640-2) look somewhat different than those of BS-0153 from Nan, Thailand, hence identification of the Chinese seeds as D. latiflorus is questionable.

Dendrocalamus maximuslamina L. Gao
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese names: 巨叶竹 (jù yè zhú), 小果龙竹 (xiǎo guǒ lóng zhú); 巨 = huge, 叶竹 = bamboo leaves; 小 = small, 果 = fruit, 龙竹 = dragon bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA, cultivated, said to originate from Southeast Asia, without precise locality.
  • Culm size: Height 25 - 35 m, diameter 12 - 18 cm.
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  • Specimens: BS-0650, BS-0650-1 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2011-2013; BS-0859 (living plants), raised from seeds from same source, 20 Feb. 2016.
  • Characters: Foliage leaf blades large. Inflorescence with small spikelets; caryopsis small, 4-5 mm long.
  • Flowering and seeding: Compilation of Bamboo Seeds: BS-0650 etc.
  • Comments: (1) A valid publication of the name, Dendrocalamus maximuslamina L. Gao, is not known. (2) Growth habit: Bambu Tropicana in facebook, 4 June 2015.

Dendrocalamus minor (McClure) L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus minor McClure; Dendrocalamus sapidus Q. H. Dai & D. Y. Huang.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 吊丝竹 (diào sī zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou; on low hills.
  • Description: Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in fpcn.net (habit); plantjdx.com (culms, leaves); BambooWeb.info.
  • Characters: Culms erect below, slightly bending above, tips drooping; culm internodes green; nodes on lower culm branchless.
  • Comments: Flowers and seeds known.

Dendrocalamus minor var. amoenus (Q. H. Dai & C. F. Huang) Hsueh & D. Z. Li

Culm internode of
Dendrocalamus minor
var. amoenus


  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus minor var. amoenus Q. H. Dai & C. F. Huang; Dendrocalamus minor f. amoenus (Q. H. Dai & C. F. Huang) Ohrnb.
  • Thai name: ไผ่ขวัญดี (phai kwan di). Chinese name: 花吊丝竹 (huā diào sī zhú).
  • English names: Ghost Bamboo, Angel Mist Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangxi, on low hills. THAILAND, introduced about 2000 or earlier, in cultivation. Frequently cultivated in the USA and Australia.
  • Culm size: Clump height up to 17 m, culm length up to 20 m, diameter to 8.7 cm (H. Erken in flickr.com).
  • Description: Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in fpcn.net (habit); plantjdx.com (culms, shoot); BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net; H. Erken in flickr.com (lower culms, culm diameter, habit).
  • Specimens: BS-0254, BS-0254-1, BS-0460, BS-0325 (living plants), received from the USA in 2009.
  • Characters: (1) Culm internodes pale yellow, with several green stripes, covered with almost persistent whitish waxy powder thus obscuring culm color. — (2) Culm size dimensions: Culm-internode length 38–57 cm; thin-walled on lower, mid, and upper culm, moderately thick-walled on basal culm. Basal culm 0.2 m above ground, culm diameter 5.8 cm, wall thickness 1.0 cm, lumen width 3.8 cm; lower culm 3.55 m above ground, diameter 6.2 cm, wall 0.5 cm, lumen width 5.2 cm; mid-culm 10.15 m above ground, diameter 4.0 cm, wall 0.4 cm, lumen 3.2 cm; upper culm 14.7 m above ground, diameter 1.35 cm, wall 0.2 cm, lumen 0.95 cm; culm apex 18.7 m. The biggest culm has a basal diameter of 8.0 cm measured, and an estimated height of 20 m. — (3) Habit: Clump tight caespitose, culms erect and upright on lower and midculm, slightly bending outward on upper culm, the very tip drooping (fb, 14 June 2016).
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamentals and for landscaping.
  • Comments: (1) There is a mature plant of var. amoenus grown in Mae Taeng district, Chiang Mai province, which was planted more than 10 years ago (ธ. บ., pers. comm., 2 Feb. 2014, photos seen). — (2) A variety of Dendrocalamus minor, named "variegata", which is displayed in plantjdx.com as "Dendrocalamus ... minor varigata 花頭吊絲竹" (huā tou diào sī zhú), is possibly var. amoenus.

Dendrocalamus pachycladus D. Z. Li & Hui
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 江竹 (jiāng zhú), translated means "river bamboo".
  • Distribution: CHINA: native.
  • Culm size: Height 5 - 8 m.
  • Characters: Young shoots emerge August - October.
  • Images: Photos in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008: 205 (descr.), 207 (photos).
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  • Specimens: BS-0096 (living plants), received from China in 2013.
  • Comments: Publications for Dendrocalamus pachystachys were found cited in T. P. Yi & al., Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum, 2008, p. 185, 205, 717: "D. Z. Li et Hui, Res. Bamb. Nujiang 34, pl. 9, 1994; Sci. Silv. Sin. 35(1): 44, f. 2, 1999". The name, Dendrocalamus pachycladus, is neither listed in the Flora of China, nor in PlantList.org or IPNI (both accessed 16 Oct. 2015), and I have not seen the original publication, hence it remains unclear whether the name was validly published or not.

Dendrocalamus peculiaris Hsueh & D. Z. Li
  • Synonym: Sinocalamus peculiaris (Hsueh & D. Z. Li) W. T. Lin.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 金平龙竹 (jīn píng lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Southeastern Yunnan, at 1,200 m altitude.
  • Culm size: Height 13 - 18 m, diameter 10 - 15 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... Culms 13–18 m, 10–15 cm in diam.; internodes 36–43 cm; wall 3–3.5 cm thick. Culm sheaths deciduous, orange-brown, leathery; auricles absent; ligule 6–10 mm, serrulate; blade reflexed. Leaf sheaths initially slightly hairy, becoming glabrous, margins ciliate; ligule ca. 1 mm; blade 25–40 × 3–5.5 (–10) cm. ... [flowers known] Fruit unknown." — Flora of China.
    (2) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China.
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  • Specimens: BS-0618 (living plant), raised from seeds received from China in 2011.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked; culms erect, pendulous apically, unbranched basally; culm internodes covered with short hairs, thick-walled (3 - 3.5 cm thick); culm nodes with aerial roots on basal culm; branches many, central somewhat dominant; culm sheaths late deciduous, orange-​brown when young, irregularly covered with whitish or reddish hairs, sheath auricles absent; sheath ligule 6 - 10 mm high, toothed; sheath blade reflexed; foliage leaf blades large, 28 - 40 cm long, 3 - 5.5 cm wide; leaf sheaths initially slightly hairy, becoming glabrous.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for construction and paper pulp; plants for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing, moist or moisture-retentive soil.

Dendrocalamus radicosus L. Gao
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 多根龙竹 (duō gēn lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: native.
  • Culm size: Height 30 m, diameter 18 cm.
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  • Specimens: BS-0651 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2011.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) A valid publication of the name, Dendrocalamus radicosus L. Gao, is not known.

Dendrocalamus semiscandens Hsueh & D. Z. Li
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 野龙竹 (yě lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Yunnan, at 500 - 1,000 m altitude.
  • Culm size: Height to 18 m, diameter to 15 cm.
  • Description: "Culms (7–)10–18 m, (6–)10–15 cm in diam.; internodes 29–35(–60) cm. Branches several, central dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, abaxially brown hairy, apex rounded; auricles absent; ligule ca. 1 mm; blade erect. Leaf sheaths white hairy; ligule 3–5 mm; blade 25–35 × 3–4.5 cm ..." — Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China.
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  • Specimens: BS-0666 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2011.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) Dendrocalamus semiscandens is considered conspecific with D. hamiltonii (Flora of China).

Dendrocalamus sikkimensis Gamble ex Oliv.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 锡金龙竹 (xí jīn lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: INDIA: Sikkim, West Bengal; BHUTAN; CHINA: Southern Yunnan, at 100 - 600 m altitude.
  • Culm size: Height 15 - 20 m, diameter 10 - 15 cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China; INBAR; J. S. Gamble, Bambuseae Brit. India, 1896, p. 82.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China; J. S. Gamble, Bambuseae Brit. India, 1896, pl. 72. Line drawing and photos (habit, culms) in INBAR. Photos in AsianFlora (culms); BambooWeb.info; BambooLand (culms); BamboosThailand.
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  • Specimens: BS-0255 (living plants), received from the USA, cult., in 2009; BS-0297 (living plant), received from Malaysia, cult., in 2009, raised from seeds.
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms erect, bending. Young shoots emerge July - October. Culm internodes 30 - 45 cm long, rough, dark green. Culm nodes without branching on lower culm. Culm-leaves: Culm-leaf sheath covered with thick, erect, velvety dark brown hairs; culm-leaf auricles large (breadth >2 cm), falcate, with long bristles; culm-leaf blades hairy, reflexed. Foliage-leaves: Foliage-leaf sheath smooth; foliage-leaf auricles with long bristles; foliage-leaf blades medium-sized, 15 - 25 cm long, 2.5 - 5 cm wide.
  • Uses: Culms for construction, containers and water buckets. Shoots for food. Leaves are said to be poisonous to cattle.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, soil 4.5 - 7.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) Culm color was described as being dark green, but there are also records of reddish-brown color, and yellow to orange color (when exposed to sun) in young culms. (3) Most if not all plants in cultivation derive from seeds obtained from gregarious flowering of this species in 2005-2006.

Dendrocalamus sp. (China)
  • Distribution: CHINA.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, height expected to reach over 15 m.
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  • Specimens: BS-0662 (living plant), raised from seeds received as "福贡龙竹 (fu gong long zhu), Dendrocalamus fugongensis" from China, 30 May 2011; BS-0667 (living plants), raised from seeds received as "黔竹 (qian zhu), Dendrocalamus tsiangii" from China, 30 May 2011.
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms more or less erect, straight or somewhat zig-zag, branched from basal nodes up. Young shoots dark purplish, emerging June to September. Culm internodes dark green and sparsely covered with short silvery velvety hairs when young, greenish-brown and somewhat rough when old; length relatively short (18 - 28 cm on a 2.5 cm thick culm); walls rather thick. Culm nodes with aerial root primordia on basal and lower culm, with ring of short white velvety hairs below sheath scar; nodal ridge somewhat prominent. Branches several, central one much dominant, 2 subdominant and several thin ones. Culm-leaves (sheath + blade) longer than internode, deciduous. Culm-leaf sheath leathery, dark purplish when young, straw-colored when dry, sparsely covered with brown to blackish short hairs; margin ciliate; culm-leaf auricles and oral setae none; culm-leaf ligule very long, 1 - 3 cm, lacerate, chaffy; culm-leaf blade lanceolate, as long as sheath (on mid-culm), or 1/3 - 1/2 of sheath length (on lower culm), erect to deflexed, usually not caducous, occasionally reflexed and caducous when old. Foliage-leaves 7 - 11 (14) per branchlet. Foliage-leaf sheath glabrous, or with a few short hairs; foliage-leaf auricles and oral setae none; foliage-leaf ligule 1 - 2 cm long, reddish when young, entire, straw-colored and cleft when dry; foliage-leaf blades lanceolate, glabrous above, minutely pubescent beneath when young, size large, to 44 × 10 cm, base rounded to attenuate, slightly asymmetric; midrib prominent; petiole 0.5 - 1 cm long.
  • Cultivation requirements: A strong grower, does well in full sun and moist soil.
  • Provisional identification: A species of Dendrocalamus. Unusual is the very long chaffy ligule which should render identification easy. However, I could not find a Dendrocalamus species with such a long ligule listed in the Flora of China.

Dendrocalamus sp. (Singapore)
  • Distribution: SINGAPORE, cult.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, height expected to reach over 15 m.
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  • Specimens: BS-0476 (living plant), received as "Gigantochloa sp., no label" by C.S. from cult. plants at Singapore Botanic Garden, received at Baan Sammi 1 June 2010.
  • Characters: (1) Habit a tight giant clumper. Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms erect. Young shoots dark, short-hairy, with spreading culm-leaf blades, shooting April(?) to July. Culm internodes terete, 30 - 38 cm long, glabrous, white-powdery, thick-walled, an occasional internode on basal culm extremely short (1-3 cm long). Culm nodes glabrous, not prominent on thick culms, somewhat prominent on thin culms and branches, with a narrow white ring below sheath scar. Branches several, central dominant; branching intravaginal. Culm-leaves tough, deciduous. Culm-leaf sheaths dark brown with reddish tint when young, sparsely short-hairy throughout, shorter than internode, margins ciliate, apex narrow and concave-truncate; culm-leaf auricles a low blackish rim, somewhat twisted; culm-leaf ligule tall, subentire, blackish when young; culm-leaf blade patent, small, early caducous from sheath. Foliage-leaves (7) 9 - 11 (13) per branchlet. Foliage-leaf sheath glabrous, keeled, reddish towards apex; foliage-leaf auricles and oral setae lacking; foliage-leaf ligule 5 mm long, reddish, glabrous, entire, eciliate; foliage-leaf blades large and broad, (25) 35 - 40 (42) cm x (4.5) 6.5 - 8.0 (9.5) cm, lanceolate, base rounded, apex attenuate, glabrous on both surfaces, margins slightly retrorsely scabrous; midrib prominent; petiole 5 mm long. — (2) Wall thickness (w in mm) was measured in internodes of the following diameters (Ø in cm): 5th internode Ø2.0 w=6; 11th internode Ø2.0 w=4. Internodes towards culm base are with small lumen and finally filled with pith appearing solid.
  • Cultivation requirements: A strong grower, does well in full sun, soil normal moisture-retentive with good drainage.
  • Provisional identification: Not yet attempted. It seems to be more likely a species of Dendrocalamus than Gigantochloa. The species is similar to Dendrocalamus giganteus, and similar to phai sang mon, an unidentified Dendrocalamus species from Thailand.

Dendrocalamus tibeticus Hsueh & T. P. Yi
  • Synonym: Sellulo­calamus tibeticus (Hsueh & T. P. Yi) W. T. Lin.
  • Thai name: Not re­corded. Chinese name: 西藏牡竹 (xī zàng mǔ zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Xizang (Tibet) and northwestern Yunnan, at 1,200 - 1,700 m altitude, in broad-leaved forests.
  • Culm size: Height 15 - 25 m, diameter 12 - 18 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... Culms 12–25 m, 12–18 cm in diam.; internodes (30–)40–45(–60) cm; wall thick, 6–12 mm. Branching usually from ca. 9th node up, usually with central branch slightly dominant. Culm sheaths initially orange-brown, leathery, abaxially usually with dark brown setae, adaxially glabrous; auricles absent; ligule 2–4 mm; blade erect or slightly reflexed. Leaf sheaths 6–11 mm, glabrous; ligule truncate, 1–1.5 mm; blade broadly lanceolate, 10–32 × 2.2–4.5 cm. ... [flowers known] Fruit unknown." — Flora of China.
    (2) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China.
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  • Specimens: BS-0620 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2011.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked; culms erect, unbranched basally (up to about 9th or 14th node), pendulous apically; culm internodes slightly pruinose, or glabrous, relatively thin-​walled; culm nodes with aerial roots on basal culm; branches many, unequal, one to three central branches slightly dominant; culm sheaths initially orange-brown, covered with short, stout, rigid, dark brown hairs; sheath auricles absent; sheath ligule 2 - 4 mm long; sheath blade erect or slightly deflexed; foliage leaf blades large, 10 - 32 cm long, 2.2 - 4.5 cm wide; leaf sheaths glabrous, leaf sheath auricles absent.
  • Uses: Not recorded.

Dendrocalamus xishuangbannaensis D. Z. Li & H. Q. Yang
  • Thai name: ไผ่ยักษ์สิบสองปันนา (phai yak sip song pan na). Chinese name: 版纳龙竹 (bǎn nà lóng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Yunnan, Menghai county, at 600 - 1,800 m altitude.
  • Culm size: Height 14 - 28 m, diameter 10 - 22 cm.
  • Description: D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang, Ann. Bot. Fennici. 46, 2009: 574.
  • Images: Line drawing in D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang, l.c., 2009.
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  • Specimens: BS-0652 (living plants), raised from seeds received from China in 2011.
  • Characters: Resembles Dendrocalamus giganteus but has branches from basal culm up.
  • Uses: Culms for construction and furniture-making.
  • Flowering and seeding: Compilation of Bamboo Seeds: BS-0652.

Dendrocalamus yunnanicus Hsueh & D. Z. Li
  • Synonym: Sinocalamus yunnanicus (Hsueh & D. Z. Li) W. T. Lin.
  • Thai name: ไผ่มังกรยูนนาน (phai mang gon yunnan). Chinese name: 云南龙竹 (yún nán lóng zhú).
  • English name: Yunnan Dragon Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Southeastern Yunnan; at 80 - 750 m altitude. VIETNAM.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms 18–25 m, 11–18 cm in diam.; internodes 42–52 cm; wall 1–2 cm thick. Branches several. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery to thickly so, depressed, apex narrow; auricles small; ligule 5–8 mm, serrulate; blade reflexed, 9–18 × 3–9 cm, adaxially brown hairy. Leaf sheaths white hairy; ligule 1.5–2 mm; blade 25–35 × 4.5–6.5 cm, abaxially glabrous. ... [flowers described]. Fruit unknown." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; pendulous at the tip; 1800–2500 cm long; 110–180 mm diam.; woody; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 42–52 cm long. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many. Culm-sheaths deciduous; 34–38 cm long; coriaceous; hispid; with tawny hairs; without auricles; glabrous on shoulders, or ciliate on shoulders. Culm-sheath ligule 5–8 mm high; dentate. Culm-sheath blade ovate; reflexed; 9–18 cm long; 30–90 mm wide; hispid; acuminate. Leaves 7–10 per branch. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Leaf-sheath auricles absent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1.5–2 mm long. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades oblong; 25–35 cm long; 45–65 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with 18–22 secondary veins. Leaf-blade apex acuminate. ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in AsianFlora 1 (habit, branches, culm sheath), 2 (culms); BambooWeb.info [partly]; ABS-SoCal (culms).
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for construction, water pipes and rafts.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, soil 6.1 pH - 7.5 ph, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
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  • Specimens: BS-0653 (living plants), raised from seeds received as "Dendrocalamus yunnanensis" from China in 2011.
  • Characters: Culm internodes green, covered with short stiff white hairs when young, greenish-brown and rough when old, thick-walled. Young shoots dark green, emerging July. Culm nodes not prominent, without basal aerial root primordias; branches several, central dominant. Culm-leaves deciduous; culm-leaf sheath longer than half of internode, covered with stiff dark brown hairs; margin (outer) dark brown long-ciliate; apex narrow, truncate; culm-leaf auricles none; culm-leaf ligule about 5 (10) mm long, long-dentate to lacerate; culm-leaf blade reflexed, short, late caducous. Foliage-leaves 9 per branchlet; foliage-leaf sheaths green, with short white stiff hairs; foliage-leaf auricles none; foliage-leaf ligule brownish, 2-5 mm long, long-dentate to lacerate; foliage-leaf blades large, 25-32 × 6-8 cm, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath; base rounded to attenuate; apex attenuate; midrib somewhat prominent; petiole 2-5 mm long, glabrous.
  • Comments: The characters of this specimen are substantially consistent with the descriptions.
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    Jade Stripe Bamboo, ไผ่ลายหยก — BS-0520:
    Striped young culm, with auriculated culm-sheath —
    photo courtesy by ธรรมรัตน์ บุญธรรมมี

  • Specimens: BS-0520 (living plants), received from cultivated stock as "Dendrocalamus yunnanicus" from Hawaii, USA, in 2010.
  • Thai name: ไผ่ลายหยก (phai lai yok), translates as Jade Stripe Bamboo.
  • Characters: Culm internodes light green with yellowish streaks and covered with short white hairs when young, orange-green and rough when old. Young shoots light green, cone-shaped, emerging August/September. Culm nodes not prominent, with aerial root primordias on lower nodes; branches initially 3, central dominant. Culm-leaves shorter than internode; culm-leaf sheath light green with yellowish streaks and covered with appressed brown hairs when young, darkening with maturity, straw-colored with dark brown hairs when dry; margin (outer) ciliate; apex truncate; culm-leaf auricles large, elliptic and raised, glabrous, orange when young, dark brown with maturity, with several long white erect bristles; culm-leaf ligule [not seen]; culm-leaf blade long-lanceolate, deflexed. Foliage-leaves ca. 9-13 per branchlet; foliage-leaf sheaths light green, scattered with brown hairs; foliage -leaf auricles conspicuous, glabrous, orange or reddish when young, with a few white bristles; foliage-leaf ligule [not seen]; foliage-leaf blades large; base rounded to attenuate; midrib prominent; petiole ca. 3 mm long, adaxially hairy.
  • Comments: The characters of this specimen do not match with the descriptions, hence the specimen likely represents a different species. The presence of auricles, which are conspicuous, does rule out the identification as Dendrocalamus yunnanicus. The overall characters let assume that the plant belongs to a species of the genus Gigantochloa or Bambusa.