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Bambusa

Bambusa alamii Stapleton
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Nepali name: mugi bans.
  • Distribution: INDIA and NEPAL, eastern Terai (plain, low altitude landscape), commonly cultivated; BANGLADESH, widely cultivated. Origin unknown.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... caespitose; clumped densely. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 800–1200 cm long; 20–35 mm diam.; woody; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 40 cm long; distally mealy, or glabrous. Culm-nodes flush with internodes. Lateral branches dendroid. Buds or branches present on lower quarter of culm. Branch complement several. Culm-sheaths persistent; 14 cm long; 1 times as long as wide; glabrous; auriculate; with unequal auricles; with 10–20 mm wide auricles, or 20–50 mm wide auricles; setose on shoulders; shoulders with curved hairs; shoulders with 3–10 mm long hairs. Culm-sheath ligule 0.5–2 mm high; entire. Culm-sheath blade ovate; demarcated but persistent; erect; 12 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface; outer margin glabrous. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose; erect and deciduous; 3–10 mm long. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate; 1–3 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long; truncate. Collar with external ligule. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 15–25 cm long; 15–23 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate." — Kew GrassBase.
    (2) C. M. A. Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51(1), 1994: p. 10. — (3) C. M. A. Stapleton, Bamboos Nepal, 1994: p. 19.
  • Images: Line drawings in C. M. A. Stapleton, Bamboos Nepal, 1994: p. 19.
  • Uses: Culms used for weaving; plants used as a garden ornamental and for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing; in full sun; soil loamy, moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: Flowers and seeds unknown.
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  • Specimens: BS-0853 (living plants), Pak Chong (ปากช่อง) [alt. ca. 310 m], Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand, cult.; coll. from a village near Chitwan in the tropical Terai region (67-300 m alt.) of Central Nepal in 2013; P. E., pers. comm., 27 Oct. 2015 ff., plant received 28 Jan. 2016.
  • Characters: Culms with white waxy deposit when young; usually unbranched on lower culm.

Bambusa arnhemica F. Muell.
  • Thai name: ไผ่อาร์นเหมแลนด์ (phai anhem laen).
  • English name: Arnhem Land Bamboo.
  • Distribution: AUSTRALIA: Northern Territory, endemic; along watercourses and in flats, and occasionally on fire-sheltered rocky hillsides; area with 1,200 - 1,800 mm of average annual rainfall; adapted to prolonged flooding, becoming partly deciduous during dry season.
  • Culm size: Height 8 - 12 (20) m, diameter 8 - 10 (13) cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in APII; BambooWeb.info; BambooLand (habit, culms, culm sheaths); Bamboo Down Under (habit).
  • Uses: Shoots for food. Culms used by Aboriginal Australians for making aero­phones, a musical instrument called didgeridoo and mago (D. C. Franklin, 2008: 185), fishing spears and other implements; culms tend to shrink a lot but seem quite strong.
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  • Specimens: BS-0502 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Australia, June 2010.
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph; culms erect, arching above; young shoots very bright, almost fluorescent, lime green; culm internodes mostly less than 40 cm long, maturing to orange yellow, thick-walled; nodes with branches from basal culm upwards; foliage leaf blades medium-sized, less than 20 cm long.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy-growing; tolerates heat and humidity, in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 - 6.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist. Plants can survive some frost but foliage leaves may suffer damage from temperatures below +10°C. Plants can survive a drought period (up to 4 months recorded) but may loose foliage. Said to be susceptible to mealy bug.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known. (2) "There are two clones that differ sufficiently to be separate cultivars, one having pale beautiful iridescent green shoots and delicate small leaves [represented by BS-0502] and the other dark striped shoots and a longer leaf ... Each grows in a region well separated from the other" [possibly, populations in riparian and non-riparian habitat] (BambooWorld). (3) The species was described as having "thorns on the basal branches" (D. C. Franklin, 2008: 182; N. J. Hogarth, 2004: 4-10, fig. 1.3). This character could not be observed in the still immature plant BS-0502.

Bambusa basihirsuta McClure
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus basihirsutus (McClure) W. T. Lin; Dendrocalamopsis basihirsuta (McClure) Q. F. Zheng & Y. M. Lin; Bambusa prasina T. H. Wen; Dendrocalamopsis prasina (T. H. Wen) Keng f.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 扁竹 (bian zhu).
  • English name: Pin Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA: Guangdong, Zhejiang; in lowlands.
  • Culm size: Height 7 - 12 m, diameter 6 - 9 cm.
  • Descriptions: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Uses: Shoots very bitter, not used for food. Plants for screening and landscaping.
  • Comments: Flowers known, seed unknown.
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  • Specimens: BS-0448 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, June 2010.
  • Characters: Culm internodes initially thickly white powdery, sparsely hispid, thin-walled; nodes branchless on lower culm, without aerial roots; branches many, 3 dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, initially brown spinous-hairy, becoming smooth; culm sheath auricles unequal, ciliate, larger one about 5 mm, smaller about 3 mm; culm sheath ligule about 2 mm high, ciliate; culm sheath blade erect; foliage leaf blades medium-sized, 13 - 25 cm long, 2.5 - 5 cm wide, glabrous; leaf sheaths initially hispid; leaf sheath ligule about 1 mm high; leaf sheath auricles almost round, oral hairs few.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.

Bambusa beecheyana Munro
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus beecheyanus (Munro) McClure; Dendro­calamopsis beecheyana (Munro) Keng f.; Neosinocalamus beecheyanus (Munro) Keng f. & T. H. Wen.
  • Thai name: ไผ่บีเชย์ (phai biche). Chinese name: 吊丝球竹 (diao si qiu zhu).
  • English name: Beechey Bamboo.
  • Distribution: A native of southern CHINA (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan). THAILAND: Recorded having been introduced to Thailand and named ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung) in 2004 (Phattharaphon, 2009), but this is likely a distinct, still unidentified species of Bambusa. I have not yet seen true B. beecheyana cultivated in Thailand, and what is hitherto named ไผ่บีเชย์ (phai biche) has turned out to represent ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung).
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms to 16 m, 9–10 cm in diam., apically pendulous or long pendulous; internodes 34–41 cm, initially thickly white powdery, sparsely pubescent; wall 1.5–2 cm thick; nodes flat. Branches several, 1–3 dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, initially with uneven, dark brown, spinous hairs; auricles small at lower nodes, larger at distal nodes; oral setae present or absent; ligule 2–4 mm, ciliate; blade recurved, triangular, base 1/2–4/5 as wide as sheath apex, adaxially hirtellous. Leaf sheaths initially hirtellous; ligule truncate, 0.5–1 mm; auricles absent or minute; oral setae scarce or absent; blade oblong-lanceolate, 11–28 × 1.5–3.5 cm. ... [flowers described]. Caryopsis unknown. New shoots Jun–Jul, fl. Sep–Dec." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 600 cm long; woody; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete; hollow. Lateral branches dendroid. Culm-sheaths 26–30 cm long; glabrous. Culm-sheath ligule 4 mm high; ciliate. Culm-sheath blade ovate; 6 cm long; 30 mm wide; acuminate. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths striately veined; glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Collar with external ligule. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded; with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath; petiole pubescent. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or oblong; 15–25 cm long; 20–50 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate. ... [flowers described]." — Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in AsianFlora (habit); plantjdx (culms, nodes, shoots, culm sheath) (?); ABSsocal (habit); BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net (varieties not kept apart).
  • Uses: Shoots for food (of delicate-bitter taste), a main species for commercial shoot production in southern China (yield 20 - 30 tonnes annually per hectare, according to W. Y. Hsiung); culms used for construction.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing, full sun, thrives well in heavy moist soil with good drainage.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) In the U.S.A., older generations of Bambusa beecheyana var. beecheyana are recorded to be infected by the Bamboo Mosaic Potex Virus, whereas var. pubescens is not.
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  • Specimens: BS-0069 (living plant), received by C. S. as "Bambusa beecheyana" from cultivated stock from a nursery in Yunnan, China, 24 June 2012.
  • Comments: The plant was claimed to be true B. beecheyana, but this needs confirmation when the plant has gained a sufficient size and height. So far, thorns have not developed.

Bambusa beecheyana var. pubescens (P. F. Li) W. C. Lin
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus beecheyanus var. pubescens P. F. Li; Sinocalamus pubescens (P. F. Li) Keng f.; Dendrocalamopsis beecheyana var. pubescens (P. F. Li) Keng f.; Neosinocalamus beecheyanus var. pubescens (P. F. Li) Keng f. & T. H. Wen.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 大头典竹 (da tou dian zhu).
  • Distribution: A native of southern CHINA (Guangdong), introduced from mainland China into Taiwan in early times. No records on introduction into Thailand is known.
  • Description: Flora of China; Flora of Taiwan.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in BambooWeb.info.
  • Characters: Culms apically pendulous, with branches from base up; culm internodes more pubescent and with a brown pubescent ring below nodes; foliage leaf blades a little harder.
  • Uses: Shoots for food.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) Bambusa beecheyana var. pubescens is preferably planted in the U.S.A.; there are no reports of its infection by the Bamboo Mosaic Potex Virus.

Bambusa beecheyana 'Parker's Giant'
  • Synonym: Dendrocalamus sp. 'Parker's Giant'.
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • English names: Parker's Giant Bamboo, Parker's Hawaiian Giant Bamboo. The English name refers to Jim Parker who discovered this bamboo in Pahoa, Hawaii.
  • Distribution: First recorded in cultivation in Hawaii, USA, now rarely cultivated elsewhere in southern USA. Not yet introduced into Thailand.
  • Characters: Culms taller and thicker in ultimate size, height 25 m, diameter 30.5 cm; culm internodes very thick-walled; foliage-leaves large.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; Bountiful Earth; Tropical Bamboo;
  • Uses: Culms for construction. Shoots (sweet, delicious) for food. Plants for landscaping and biomass production.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing; in full sun, soil sandy loam to clay loam, moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. Frost resistant to -3 (-4) °C. Also recorded to be resistant to storm and flood.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds unknown. (2) Giant Parker's Bamboo is known to be not infected by the Bamboo Mosaic Potex Virus.
  • References: C. S. pers. comm., 29 Nov. 2015.

      ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung) • BS-0188 &c.
  • Thai names: ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung), ไผ่กิมซุ่ง (phai kim sung), ไผ่ลืมแล้ง (phai luem laeng), ไผ่ตงลืมแล้ง (phai tong luem laeng). The name, กิมซุ่ง (kim sung), is a phonetic transcription from Chinese 金笋 (jin sun) which translates as "golden bamboo shoot". The name, ลืมแล้ง (luem laeng), refers to the pronounced drought resistance of this species: ลืม (luem) = forget, แล้ง (laeng) = drought.
  • Distribution: ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung) was introduced from China into Thailand by an agricultural company from Sai Yok district, Kanchanaburi province, in 2004, and has become popular for shoot production (Phattharaphon, 2009).
  • Culm size: Height 18 m, diameter 11 cm.


  • ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung), BS-0188: Culms (left), new shoot (center), thorny branches (right)

  • Specimens: BS-0188 &c. (living plants), cult., comprising: BS-0188, received as "ไผ่กิมซุ่ง" (phai kim sung) from Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai, 15 Oct. 2008; BS-0188-1, received as "ไผ่กิมซุ่ง" (phai kim sung) by ท. from cultivated stock in Lop Buri, 7 Dec. 2009; BS-0188-2, received as "ไผ่กิมซุ่ง" (phai kim sung) from a nursery in Chiang Mai, July 2009.
  • Characters: (1) Habit caespitose, tight clumper. Rhizomes pachymorph, short. Culms erect, upright, branched from basal nodes up; young shoots green, glabrous, emerging late (from late June, and yet in November). Culm internodes mid-green when young, yellowish-green when old, glabrous, initially thinly white-waxy, thick-walled. Culm nodes glabrous, with a solitary, large broad bud, without aerial roots on basal culm, with tough thorns (branches specialized into leafless, unbranched and branched thorns) on lower culm and lower branches, nodal ridge slightly prominent on thin culms, sheath scar slightly prominent and short-​hairy on thicker culms. Branches 3 on lower culm, several on upper culm, central one slightly dominant. Culm leaves deciduous. Culm leaf sheaths leathery, glabrous, light green to yellowish green when young, fading to dull brownish when dry, margin fimbriate when young; culm leaf auricles and oral hairs lacking; culm leaf ligule conspicuous, 4 - 7 mm high, minutely fringed when young, subentire and deeply cleft when dry; culm leaf blade reflexed, green when young. Foliage leaves 9 - 10 per branchlet. Foliage leaf sheaths light orange, smooth, glabrous; foliage leaf auricles inconspicuous or lacking, oral hairs few, long, whitish, soon caducous; foliage leaf ligule short; foliage leaf blades mid-green, glabrous on both surfaces, medium-sized, usually 12 - 24 cm long and 2 - 3 cm wide, margins retrorsely scabrous; petiole short, 2 - 3 mm long. — (2) A one year old 16.7 m long culm in a 7-year-old clump was cut: 1st internode above ground 20 cm long, 11 cm in diameter, wall 4 cm thick; internode between 9th and 10th node 2.0 m above ground, 10 cm in diameter, wall 1.9 cm thick.


  • ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung), BS-0188: Upper part of culm leaf, abaxial view (left), adaxial view (right)

  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for construction; plants very suit­able for biomass production. Shoots are delicious but have a slightly bitter taste, which is appreciated by Chinese and Vietnamese people rather than Thai. Shoots emerge late, hence commercial shoot production in Thailand is done mainly because shoots can be marketed beyond the main season, though maintenance of a plantation is more difficult than with other species.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing, full sun, thrives well in heavy moisture-retentive soil with good drain­age; mature plants can resist without harm a long drought period of several months. Optimal clump spacing for shoot production plantation is 4 × 4 m.
  • Provisional identification: ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung) was recorded as Bambusa beecheyana (Phattharaphon, 2009), but this identification seems to me doubtful, and phai kim sung might represent a different species of Bambusa subg. Bambusa. Phai kim sung is similar to Bambusa beecheyana in overall appearance, but differs from the latter in initially thinly white powdery and glabrous culm internodes, thorny culm nodes and branch nodes, glabrous culm sheaths without auricles, and a higher culm sheath ligule. I could not find a description of any species of Bambusa in the Flora of China that matches with the characters of phai kim sung. The main difference of phai kim sung is the presence of thorns (in juvenile as well as mature plants), whereas no records or descriptions are known that claim a presence of thorns in Bambusa beecheyana.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers of Bambusa beecheyana unknown; flowers of ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung) from Thailand unknown. (2) Plants in Thailand under the name ไผ่ลืมแล้ง (phai luem laeng) or ไผ่ตงลืมแล้ง (phai tong luem laeng) represent the same species as ไผ่กิมซุง (phai kim sung), and differences at cultivar level could not be detected, hence the former name might have been created for marketing purposes only.

Bambusa boniopsis McClure
  • Synonym: Bambusa fecunda McClure.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 妈竹 (ma zhu).
  • English name: Bonnie Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Hainan; in ravines and forests, around villages.
  • Culm size: Height 3 - 6 m, diameter 1 - 2.5 cm.
  • Descriptions: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; BambooDownUnder (habit); BambooGrove (habit).
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  • Specimens: BS-0438 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms basally erect, apically suberect; culm internodes slightly curved or straight; branches from 3rd to 5th node up, many, clustered, central dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, glabrous, asymmetrical; culm sheath auricles conspicuous, unequal, fine-bristly; culm sheath blade deciduous, erect, asymmetrical; foliage leaf blades small, 10 - 16 cm long, 1.4 - 2 cm wide, glaucous beneath.
  • Uses: Plants for hedges and screening.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 pH - 6.5 ph, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known. (2) Bambusa fecunda is considered synonymous with B. boniopsis by the Flora of China. However, their culm sheaths are different.

Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata
Line drawing of culm sheath of
Bambusa dolichoclada,
from Flora of China.

  • Synonym: Leleba dolichoclada (Hayata) Kaneh.
  • Thai name: ไผ่โดลิโค (phai doliko).
  • Distribution: A native of CHINA (Taiwan, Fujian); plants were introduced into Thailand from Taiwan.
  • Culm size: 15 - 20 m height, 8 - 13 cm diameter.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China; Flora of Taiwan.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China; Flora of Taiwan; photo of plant in AsianFlora.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for construction; plants for wind-break.
  • Comments: Flowers known.



Bambusa eutuldoides McClure
  • Thai name: ไผ่ตาใหญ่ (phai ta yai). Chinese name: 大眼竹 (da yan zhu).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangdong, Guangxi; usually cultivated along river banks and around villages.
  • Description: "Culms 6–12 m, 4–6 cm in diam., basally straight, apically slightly drooping; internodes 30–40 cm, fistulose, initially thinly white powdery, sometimes sparsely deciduously stiffly hairy below nodes; wall ca. 5 mm thick; nodes slightly prominent, basal several with rings of gray-white silky hairs below and above sheath scar; branching from 2nd or 3rd node up. Branches several or many, clustered, central 3 dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, triangular to narrowly triangular, leathery, glabrous or sometimes very sparsely stiffly strigose, apex long slanted along one side, extremely asymmetrical, arched; auricles extremely asymmetrical, of various shapes, rigid, wrinkled; larger auricle extremely decurrent, oblanceolate to narrowly oblong, 5–6.5 × ca. 1.5 cm; smaller auricle suborbicular or oblong, ca. 1 cm in diam., or sometimes thoroughly joined to blade base; oral setae undulate; ligule 3–5 mm, irregularly dentate or laciniate, shortly fimbriate; blade deciduous, erect, asymmetrical, triangular to narrowly triangular, base slightly narrowed and then extending outward to join auricles, nearly 3/5 width of sheath apex, abaxially sparsely stiffly deciduous-hairy. Leaf blade abaxially green, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, usually 12–25 × 1.4–2.5 cm, abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially glabrous. ... [flowers and seeds described]." — Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in fpcn.net (culms, foliage); plantjdx.com (culms, foliage).
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  • Specimens: BS-0258 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Sep. 2009.
  • Characters: Clump dense; culms up to 7 m long by 2.3 cm in diameter (in Chiang Mai), erect, straight, slightly bending above; culm-internodes 33 - 48 cm long, uniformly green, initially white farinose, distally scattered short dark hairy, otherwise glabrous, moderately thick-walled (0.4 cm by 2.0 cm diameter), basal internodes almost solid; culm-nodes branched from lower culm up; culm-leaves deciduous; culm-leaf sheaths apex asymmetrically rounded; culm leaf auricles asymmetrical; culm leaf blade almost as long as sheath, erect, persistent or late caducous.
  • Uses: Culms for farm appliances and for building farm houses; plants for low to medium-sized hedges and screens.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing; in full sun, or temporarily in light shade, soil normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: Two varieties of Bambusa eutuldoides exist but no records on introduction into Thailand are known so far: (a) B. eutuldoides var. basistriata, syn. B. eutuldoides 'Viridivittata inversa'; lower culm internodes green with cream to yellowish-white narrow stripes; photo in in iask.sina.com (culm); (b) B. eutuldoides var. viridivittata, syn. B. eutuldoides 'Viridivittata'; Asian Lemon Bamboo, China Lemon Bamboo; culm internodes peach and pink toned with green stripes when young, maturing to lemon yellow with green stripes; foliage leaf blades green with occasional yellowish stripes; photos in AsianFlora (culms, shoot); BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net; video in YouTube.

Bambusa fecunda McClure
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 硬头黄竹 (yìng tóu huáng zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Hainan.
  • Culm size: Height 3 - 6 m, diameter 1 - 2.5 cm.
  • Images: Photo in Plants of Taiwan (type).
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  • Specimens: BS-0788 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Taiwan, Dec. 2013.
  • Characters: Culm leaves deciduous, glabrous, without or with tiny auricles, with oral setae.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers unknown. (2) This species seems to be very similar to Bambusa boniopsis; the latter considered synonymous by the Flora of China. Bambusa fecunda has culm sheaths without auricles, or with inconspicuous auricles, whereas in B. boniopsis the auricles are quite large. (3) Bambusa fecunda was misidentified as B. rigida; cf. Kinmen Forestry.

Bambusa gibba McClure
  • Thai name: ไผ่กิบบา (phai kipba). Chinese name: 坭竹 (ni zhu).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Fu­jian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi; on low hills, around villages; VIETNAM (Tonkin).
  • Description: "Culms 7–10 m, 3.5–6 cm in diam., basally flexuose, apically suberect; internodes 30–40 cm, inflated near base, initially white powdery, basal internodes initially sparsely stiffly gray-white or brown strigose; wall 3–5 mm thick; nodes glabrous; branching to base. Branches usually 3 at lower nodes with branchlets sometimes specialized into weak thorns; several on middle and upper nodes, 3 central branches dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, ribbed-striate when dry, glabrous, apex obliquely truncate, with a triangular protuberance on higher shoulder; auricles obviously unequal, sometimes weak; larger auricle ovate-lanceolate or narrowly oblong, 5–6 mm; smaller auricle ovate or elliptic, 2–3 mm; oral setae slender, undulate; ligule arched, 2–3 mm, finely dentate and fimbriate; blade deciduous, erect, narrowly triangular, base not narrowed, nearly 2/3 as wide as sheath apex. Leaf blade linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 8.5–14.5 × 0.8–1.3 cm, abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially glabrous. ... [flowers described] ... Fruit unknown." — Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in BambooWeb.info.
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  • Specimens: BS-0260 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Sep. 2009.
  • Characters: Culms straight, up to 12 m tall, culm-internodes covered with white wax when young, becoming dark green, 35–45 (50) cm long, 3–4.5 cm in diameter, thick-walled, up to 1 cm. Branches rather long, from basal culm up. Nodes of branches often with soft thorns. Culm-leaf sheath without irritating hairs. Foliage-leaf blades small, dark green.
  • Uses: Shoots tasteful, used for food. Culms for oil extraction, scaffolding and making farm and fishing appliances. Plants for medium-sized to tall hedges, natural fences and screening.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and fast-growing; in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 - 6.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.

Bambusa glaucophylla Widjaja
  • Thai names: ไผ่เงิน (phai ngoen), ไผ่ลายเงิน (phai lai ngoen), ไผ่ลาย (phai lai).
  • English name: Malay Dwarf Bamboo.
  • Distribution: Origin is South-East Asia, but precise location is unknown. THAILAND (cultivated); MALAYSIA (cultivated); INDO­NESIA (cultivated).
  • Local distribution: Frequently planted in the Chiang Mai area; offered for sale at Kham Thiang Market almost throughout year.
  • Culm size: 4.5 - 5 m height, 2.5 cm diameter.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in Bambooweb.info.
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  • Specimens: BS-0198, RFR-016 (living plants).
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short. Culms erect, forming a tight clump habit. Culm sheaths dull straw-colored when dry, with a few black rigid hairs on top of sheath proper, culm sheath ligule prominent, convex, entire, sheath auricles large and long persistent, setae present; culm sheath blade long and narrow, reflexed. Foliage leaf blades small, with white stripes.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental and for dense hedges of low to moderate height, or as pot plant; easy to prune to desired shape.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing in loamy moist soil with good drainage, exposed to full sun.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers unknown. (2) The species was originally described to have white striped leaves, which is a quite stable character, but plants may occasionally revert to green leaves. (3) It has been assumed that Bambusa glaucophylla may be conspecific with Bambusa hetero­stachya (Muller, 1999; cf. K. M. Wong, 2004: 68).

      cl. green leaves
  • Specimens: BS-0198-1, BS-0198-2 (living plants).
  • Characters: Culms taller and thicker. Foliage leaf blades green, somewhat larger.

Bambusa grandis (Q. H. Dai & X. L. Tao ex Keng f.) Ohrnb.
  • Synonyms: Dendrocalamopsis grandis Q. H. Dai & X. L. Tao ex Keng f.; Neosinocalamus grandis (Q. H. Dai & X. L. Tao) T. H. Wen; Sinocalamus grandis (Q. H. Dai & X. L. Tao) W. T. Lin; Dendrocalamus grandis hort.; Dendrocalamopsis daii Keng f.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 大绿竹 (da lü zhu).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Guangxi, on river banks, near villages.
  • Culm size: Height 10 - 18 m, diameter 8 - 10 cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in TropicalBamboo (shoot).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0458 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, June 2010.
  • Characters: Culms erect, apically recurved; culm internodes medium green, initially sparsely silky hairy, basally slightly swollen, thick-walled (2 - 2.5 cm thick); branches several, central dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, initially with dark brown, spiny hairs; culm sheath auricles small; culm sheath ligule 3 - 5 mm high, serrulate; culm sheath blade reflexed; foliage leaves 6 - 8 per branchlet; leaf blades medium-sized, 15 - 20 cm long, 3 - 5 cm wide, glabrous, slightly glossy above; leaf sheaths hairy; leaf sheath auricles and bristles absent.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for construction; plants as ornamental.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. Tolerates flooding.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) This bamboo is cultivated in the U.S.A. under the name Dendro­calamus grandis. No reference was found for a valid publication of the name Dendrocalamus grandis. (3) Reported to be similar in appearance to Bambusa beecheyana var. pubescens.

Bambusa lako Widjaja
  • Thai names: ไผ่ดำติมอร์ (phai dam timor), ไผ่ดำ (phai dam).
  • English name: Timor Black Bamboo.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, cultivated; a native of TIMOR; also cultivated in INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, introduced to several other countries in the tropics worldwide.
  • Local distribution: Occasionally found planted in the Chiang Mai area; seasonally offered for sale at Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai.
  • Culm size: Height 15 m, diameter 6 (9) cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos Bambooweb.info; BS-0197; MrBamboo.com.au. Videos in YouTube 1, 2.
  • Specimens: BS-0197, BS-0197-1 (living plants).
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked. Culms erect, forming a tight clump habit. Shoots dull (dark or light) reddish brown with dull green apex, glabrous, emerge from late April. Culm internodes terete, to 6.5 cm in diameter, glabrous, green at first, changing to dark brown or black with maturity, occasionally with a narrow dark green stripe, thin-walled (2nd internode 8 cm above ground with wall 5 mm thick by 2.4 - 2.5 cm culm diameter). Culm nodes not prominent or slightly prominent. Branch complement with intra-vaginal branching; branches several, subequal. Culm sheaths deciduous, straw-colored when dry. Foliage leaves 6 - 9 per twig; leaf blades middle-green, glabrous on both sides, slightly glossy above, medium-sized, usually 14 - 20 cm long and 20 - 23 mm wide. Leaf sheaths light orange when young, dull straw-colored when dry, sparsely covered with short rigid hairs (light colored when young, dark brown when dry); leaf ligule inconspicuous; auricles none; bristles none.
  • Uses: Plants as a solitary garden ornamental.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing in loamy moist soil with good drainage, exposed to half shade or full sun
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) Seeds were marketed as "Bambusa lako" at least since 2007 (still offered by a European seed supplier in 2015). Plants grown from these seeds obtained in 2007 and 2008 turned out to be a different species. (3) Flowering records: No records are known on flowering from Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. However, there are some records on flowering of a few plants in cultivation in Australia (Bamboo Society of Australia, Oct. 2008), and in the USA (Doug Perry in Florida Bambooing, 6 Aug. 2009, providing photos of flowering B. lako and citing Chris Stapleton's response; bambooweb.info), but no viable seeds were obtained. A further record on B. lako (flowering since July 2014) is for a single small plant grown in southern California, USA (Drew, pers. comm., 15 Jan. 2015); no seeds were found.
  • Specimens: BS-0919 (living plant), received from Mr. Thammarat Boonthammee, Boonthammee Bamboo Garden, Hang Dong, Chiang Mai, who in turn recently obtained this plant from a nursery in Prachin Buri, central Thailand.
  • Comments: The plant is small and potted, and, when having received, had developed in an early stage a single flowering branch with a few pseudospikelets. By mid-May 2017, a single anther was partly protruding from a spikelet; the anther was possibly yellowish, the filaments were not seen (Compilation of Bamboo Seeds).

Bambusa maculata Widjaja
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Indonesian name: pring tutul (tutul = dot, spotted)
  • Distribution: INDONESIA: Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands, wild; cultivated in Bali and Java.
  • Culm size: Height 15 m, diameter 4 - 7 cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; BambooLand (culms, shoot); Whitsunday (culms, habit).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0439 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010; BS-0468 (living plant), received from Singapore Botanic Gardens, June 2010.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked; culms erect, apically pendulous, branched from lower culm up; culm inter­nodes green, glabrous, with a few narrow cream stripes, surface becoming blackish splotchy with maturity, thick-walled; nodes without aerial roots; branches several, central dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, setose on shoulders, auriculate; foliage leaf blades large, 22 - 38 cm long, 1 - 4.5 cm wide, glabrous.
  • Uses: Culms for making furniture, musical instruments, wall panels, flooring, handicrafts.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in full sun, soil 6.1 pH - 7.5 ph, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: Flowers known.

Bambusa malingensis McClure
  • Thai name: ไผ่สันม้า (phai san ma). Chinese name: 马岭竹 (ma ling zhu).
  • English names: Sea Breeze Bamboo, Maling Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Hainan, native, open fields on hills; cultivated in Guangdong.
  • Culm size: Height 8 - 10 m, diameter 4 - 6 cm.
  • Descriptions: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in plantjdx.com (culms); BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net; Caldwell (habit, culms).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0442 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Culm internodes initially thinly white powdery, thick-walled; branching from about second node up; branchlets on lower branches usually forming weak or sometimes sharp, tough thorns; culm sheaths auriculate; foliage leaf blades small.
  • Uses: Culms for light construction and handicraft; plants for hedges, screening and wind-break.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and vigorously growing, produces a large number of culms annually; in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 - 6.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage; medium water needs. Tolerates (dry) heat and humidity, sheltered seashore sites and wind; said to be tolerant to salt laden wind, and assumed to be tolerant to soil of low salinity.
  • Comments: Flowers unknown.

Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult.
  • Synonyms: Ludolfia glaucescens Willd.; Bambusa glaucescens (Willd.) K. Koch; Arundo multiplex Lour.; Leleba multiplex (Lour.) Nakai; Bambusa nana Roxb.
  • Thai name: ไผ่เสฉวน (phai sechuan); "sechuan" means hermit crab.
  • English names: Tropical Hedge Bamboo, Hedge Bamboo.
  • Distribution: Only known in cultivation. Supposed origin is southern China, and is nowadays distributed all over tropical and subtropical regions. Found in cultivation throughout Thailand, chiefly in cooler northern areas.
  • Local distribution: Not frequently planted in Chiang Mai; occasionally offered for sale at Kham Thiang Market.
  • Culm size: Height 2 - 4 m, length to 6 m, diameter 1 - 3 cm.
  • Descriptions: (1) S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja in S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja (editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7, Bamboos, 1995: p. 65-67, fig. (2) Kew GrassBase. (3) Flora of Taiwan [#1106]. (4) K. M. Wong, Bamboos of Peninsular Malaysia, 1995: p. 97-99 [#1210].
  • Images: Line drawing in Tropicos, Flora of Taiwan [#1106]; photos in USDA (culms), BGLA (habit).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0111, BS-0111-1 (living plants).
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked, forming a tight clump. Culms erect, bending over from weight of foliage, height 2 - 4 m, length to 6m (in Thailand), "can attain 40 feet in height" (BGLA); young shoots pale yellowish-green, shooting from late March. Culm internodes terete, green, changing to yellowish with age (if culm exposed to sun), covered with short, rough white hairs when young and slightly scabrous to touch, glabrous and smooth when old; diameter 1 cm. Culm nodes not prominent, glabrous. Culm sheaths late deciduous, loosen from the sides, remain attached at the middle part of sheath base, then dropping; sheath with sheath blade long-triangle shaped, with inconspicuous auricles and long setae, sheath ligule not present, sheath with sheath blade pale to mid straw-colored when dry, glabrous, inner side of sheath shiny, inner side of sheath blade dull. Branch complement with intra-vaginal branching; culm bud developing into several (over 10) small subequal branches. Branches short, also present on lower part of culm. Foliage leaf blades green (not variegated), glabrous on both sides, glossy green on upper side, dull bluish-green on lower side, small, usually 4-11 cm long, 8-13 mm wide, apical leaf blades somewhat larger; leaf sheath ligule present, with light colored setae 3-7 mm long.
  • Uses: Plants for hedges and screening.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing in heavy moist soil with good drainage, exposed to half shade or full sun.
  • Comments: (1) This bamboo, with green stems and leaves, probably represents the parent plant of all the named cultivated varieties of this species. The parent plant is sometimes found named as 'Greenhedge' or 'Hedge' to distinguish it from all the other varieties of the Hedge Bamboo. (2) Two botanical names, Bambusa multiplex (based on Arundo multiplex Lour.) and Bambusa nana Roxb., have been applied to the Hedge Bamboo, the latter widely considered a synonym of B. multiplex (#1093: 7-8) (#1094: Bambusa multiplex, in: Distribution of Bamboos in India). Supposedly, the names B. multiplex and B. nana have been applied over decades erroneously to more than one species. In Chiang Mai or elsewhere in Thailand, plants known as ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang) are sometimes identified as B. multiplex or B. nana but it seems very unlikely that phai liang is conspecific with the Hedge Bamboo (as described herein). (3) Flowers known. (4) Two plants of the Hedge Bamboo, grown at Baan Sammi, have shown characteristics of beginning sporadic flowering: Several twigs thickened, and foliage leaf blades reduced their size (see two photos of BS-0111). A search on the Internet for recent records of flowering of the Hedge Bamboo remained without result except for one unconfirmed record from March 2008 (#1095). However, photos of flowers of B. multiplex 'Alphonse Karr' are shown in bambooweb.info (USA, Florida, 2005). (5) This species has developed many different forms of which a few are known to be cultivated in Thailand.

Bambusa multiplex 'Alphonse Karr'
  • Synonyms: Bambusa alphonso-karrii Mitford ex Satow; Bambusa multiplex f. alphonso-karrii (Mitford ex Satow) Nakai.
  • Thai name: ไผ่สีชมพู (phai si chomphu); "si chomphu" means pink color.
  • English name: Alphonse Karr Hedge Bamboo.
  • Distribution: In Thailand occasionally found cultivated.
  • Comments: Flowers and seeds known. Seeds recorded in Compilation of Bamboo Seeds.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0192 (living plant).
  • Characters: New culms with pink, yellow and green stripes.
  • Uses: Plants as ornamental.
  • Comments: This cultivar may occasionally revert to the green-stem form.

Bambusa multiplex 'Stripestem Fernleaf'
  • Synonyms: Bambusa multiplex 'Viridistriata'; Bambusa nana f. viridistriata Makino ex I. Tsuboi.
  • Thai name: ไผ่เสฉวน (phai sechuan).
  • English name: Stripestem Fernleaf Hedge Bamboo.
  • Distribution: In Thailand occasionally found cultivated.
  • Culm size: 3 - 4 m height, 1.5 cm diameter.
  • Images: Photos MrBamboo (habit), BambooWholesale (habit, foliage).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0230 (living plant).
  • Characters: Culms smaller in size, upright; internodes of new culms with pink, yellow and green stripes; foliage leaves small, tightly arranged on the twig which gives a fern-like appearance.
  • Uses: Plants as ornamental and for low hedges.
  • Comments: This cultivar may occasionally revert to the green-stem form.

Bambusa nana hort., phai liang (ไผ่เลี้ยง) group

In this contribution, members of the phai liang group are listed and described, which by horticulturists in the USA and Australia are usually referred to as "Bambusa nana". There is currently no evidence that all members listed herein belong to a single species. However, there are indications that at least phai liang dam (ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ), phai liang wan (ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน), phai liang thawai (ไผ่เลี้ยงทวาย), and phai liang si thong (ไผ่เลี้ยงสีทอง) are conspecific and represent minor variations within a single species, whereas there are currently doubts if phai liang yak (ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์) in Thailand, and "Bambusa nana" from Quail Botanical Gardens (San Diego Botanic Garden, since 2009), USA, belong to that species. This assumed single species has no name that follows the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature (Melbourne Code). As there is the need of referring to this species, it is currently best to cite the species as "Bambusa nana hort.", until a valid name has been published. It was recently found out that Bambusa thorelii from Laos might represent Bambusa nana hort. However, the name "Bambusa thorelii" is considered "unresolved" by The Plant List and should currently not be applied as a "new name" to members of the phai liang group.
  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang), ไผ่สร้างไพร (phai sang phrai); "liang" = to keep, to grow, domestic. The Thai name, phai liang, can be translated "domestic bamboo". It indicates that this bamboo is not known in the wild, only in cultivation. The other Thai name, phai sang phrai, is applied in central and north­eastern Thailand, but not in northern Thailand.
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, widely cultivated, not known in the wild. LAOS; possibly also in MYANMAR, southern CHINA, CAMBODIA and VIETNAM.
  • Culm size: Height up to 15 m.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing, thrives well in heavy moist soil with good drainage, exposed to full sun, tolerates partial and light shade.
  • Provisional identification: (1) The generic assignment of phai liang remains uncertain. This species might have been treated by botanists in early times, and it has been considered to be Bambusa nana Roxb. (in ชื่พรรณไม้ในเมืองไทย, [2525 B.E., = 1982 C.E.]: p. 336), which is commonly treated as a synonym of Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult., a bamboo only known in cultivation. However, phai liang is certainly not conspecific with Bambusa multiplex, as culm sheaths are markedly different, and also other characters (culm wall thickness, foliage leaf blades) differ substantially. (2) The overall appearance of phai liang is similar to Thyrsostachys oliveri, but characters that would distinguish between these two species have only been scantily observed and not yet described in detail. (3) The structure of flowers and flowering branches of members of the phai liang group is similar to Bambusa or Dendrocalamus, and does not resemble both species of Thyrsostachys, T. oliveri and T. siamensis. Furthermore, anthers in phai liang wan are red in all flowering plants observed so far, whereas Thyrsostachys species have yellow anthers (pale yellow in Thyrsostachys siamensis, fl. specimen BS-0569 from Phetchaburi, Thailand). It can be therefore ruled out that members of the phai liang group belong to Thyrsostachys. (4) On page 72 in Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum by T. P. Yi & al., 2008, a bamboo is described (in Chinese) and illustrated with 4 photos (showing habit and culm sheaths) under the name "1. 大泰竹 [dà tài zhú, bigger Thai bamboo] Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble". Judging on the base of these photos, there is no doubt that the illustrated bamboo is true phai liang dam as described herein under BS-0001-1. (5) Thyrsostachys oliveri is commonly named in Thai ไผ่รวกดำ (phai ruak dam). Actually, the name "phai ruak dam" is also applied to ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam) as a second name or synonym, at least by local people in Chiang Mai (Mr. Rat, pers. comm. in Oct. 2008, and inquiries at Kham Thiang Market), but "phai ruak dam" is also applied to another similar unidentified species. (6) One might presume from the overall appearance of phai liang dam (BS-0001-1) and phai liang wan (BS-0001-2), that they are intergeneric hybrids derived from Thyrsostachys and Dendrocalamus (D. membranaceus could be a candidate), and it is hoped that a molecular study will soon reveal their closest related species. (7) Seeds are rare. A recent discovery in late 2012 and early 2013 of a few seedlings on the ground of flowering plants (which are doubtless phai liang or phai liang wan) give rise to the hope that at least some clones are able to produce fertile flowers. Seeds have recently been discovered on a plant of phai liang in Krabi, but the seeds did not germinate.
  • Comments: (1) ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang) is not to be confused with ไผ่เหลือง (phai lueang) of similar pronunciation. (2) Plantings of ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang) are found mislabeled as "Bambusa multiplex" in Royal Flora Ratchaphruek, Chiang Mai, although true B. multiplex exists in this garden, too. Misidentification has continued since the 1980s or earlier.

(1) ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam) • BS-0001-1 &c.
  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam), "dam" = black, dark; ไผ่เลี้ยงหนัก (phai liang nak), "nak" = heavy, hard; ไผ่สร้างไพร (phai sang phrai), "sang" = to constuct, to build, "phrai" = forest, jungle; ไผ่เลี้ยงลำ (phai liang lam), "lam" = trunk, stem; ไผ่เลี้ยงบันได (phai liang ban dai), "ban dai" = ladder; ไผ่เลี้ยงบ้าน (phai liang ban), "ban" = village, house; ไผ่รวกดำ (phai ruak dam), "dam" = black, dark.
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, widely known in cultivation, less common in southern Thailand.
  • Local distribution: Widely and intensively planted in urban areas of Chiang Mai; probably the most appreciated and best sold bamboo at Kham Thiang Market, available throughout year. At Kham Thiang Market, this bamboo can be found planted several hundred meters along borders as a windbreak or visual screen.
  • Culm size: Height 10 - 12 (15) m, diameter to 5 cm.
  • Images: Photos in A. Anantachot, 1991: 33.


  • Bambusa nana hort., phai liang dam (BS-0001-1): Two old clumps

     
  • Specimens: BS-0001-1 (living plants), Chiang Mai, cult., received as "ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang)", 2003. BS-0001-4 (living plants), Chiang Mai, cult., 2008. BS-0404 (living plant), วัดป่าตึง (Wat Pa Tueng), แม่จัน (Mae Chan), Chiang Rai, cult., received as "ไผ่รวก เชียงคำ (phai ruak chiang kam)", 13 Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Habit tight caespitose. Rhizomes pachy­morph, up to 50 cm long; neck short. Culms erect, straight, over 10 m tall, slightly bending outward above; young shoots emerge from early June, light cinnamon-colored, sparsely covered with minute soft hairs, sheath blades dark green to dark reddish brown. Culm internodes terete, dark green, glabrous (except most internodes of basal culm covered with short velvety white hairs when young), shiny, usually less than 30 cm long, diameter to 5.0 cm, thick-walled. Culm nodes slightly or not prominent, glabrous, with a 6 mm tall light gray band on young culms; sheath scar ring dark; without thorns; occasionally with a few short aerial roots at the lower culm nodes. Culm sheaths deciduous, but the lowermost culm sheaths may remain tightly attached to the culm and decay on it; sheath proper 30 cm long, 20 cm wide, longer than internode, cinnamon-colored and sparsely covered with minute soft hairs when young, dull light brownish and nearly glabrous when dry; sheath blades long triangle-shaped, 12 cm long, base 2.5 cm wide, typically not reflexed, darker than culm sheath proper, sheath blades usually persistent but may loosen from culm sheath proper; sheath ligule present, short, 3 mm long, broader than base of sheath blade, dark brown, toothed; auricles in­con­spicuous, or lacking on smaller sheaths, bristles one or few, broad-based and short, or lacking on smaller sheaths. Branch complement with intravaginal branching; initial-developing branches 3, unequal, not thick, one dominant; soon after additional but much smaller branches develop, altogether to about 10. Branch buds on lower part of culms present but remain usually dormant. Foliage leaves: twig with 5-8 leaves; leaf blades dull medium to dark green, glabrous on both sides, small and narrow, usually 10-14 cm long, 7-11 mm wide, leaf sheath light green when young, dull straw-colored when dry, leaf ligule in­con­spicuous, auricles none, bristles none.
  • Uses: Shoots edible, said to be of good taste. Culms strong, used for construction purposes; furniture and ladders are preferably made of this bamboo. Plants are highly appreciated as garden ornamental, best suitable as solitary plant, tall visual screen, or tall trimmed hedge.


  • Bambusa nana hort., phai liang dam (BS-0001-4):
    Upper part of dried culm leaf, adaxial view, showing ligule and attachment of sheath with blade (1st photo from left), dried culm leaf, abaxial view (2nd),
    young shoot, showing color transition from green to cinnamon-colored culm leaves, and dark green culm leaf blade (3rd), culms, lower section, in dark green, unbranched (4th)

     
  • Specimens: BS-0080 &c., comprising: BS-0080, BS-0080-2 (living seedlings), BS-0080-1 (living seedling, died). All are seedlings, collected from the ground of a single flowering tall plant of phai liang dam, cultivated at เชิงดอย (Choeng Doi), Doi Saket district, Chiang Mai, collected mid Jul. 2012 and late Aug. 2013.
  • Comments: When the seedlings were collected, the flowering mother plant was not gregariously flowering; most branches showed vividly green leaves, and strong new shoots developed. The flowering branches were high up the plant and could not be observed in detail. Seeds were not found. The flowering plant showed cinnamon-colored new shoots, and dark green old culms (as can be seen on the photos taken when seedlings were collected), thus it clearly represents phai liang dam.
  •  
  • Distribution: LAOS.
  • Specimens: None collected.
  • Images: Post and photos by Niramit Sareerudt in facebook, 7 Feb. 2014: Flowering of "ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ" (phai liang dam), "Bambusa nana", in Laos.
  • Comments: No seeds were found. The photos clearly show that the plant from Laos represents phai liang dam.


Bambusa nana hort., phai liang lam si lueang (BS-0001-5):
Culms

(1a) ไผ่เลี้ยงลำสีเหลือง (phai liang lam si lueang)
  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงลำสีเหลือง (phai liang lam si lueang).
  • English names: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND: northern part, cult., possibly widely distributed throughout Thailand.
  • Culm size: Height less tall and diameter smaller than in ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0001-5 (living plant), Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai, cult., 25 Mar. 2011; CM-010 (living plants), Land+Houses, Mae Hia, Chiang Mai, cult.; CM-007 (living plants), Rim Ping, Mueang, Chiang Mai, cult.
  • Characters: Culms green, turning yellowish or orange-yellow; young shoots cinnamon-colored, or brownish-green.
  • Comments: The culm color gradually turns from green to yellowish when exposed to the sun. A selection with yellowish culms independent of sun exposure is not known.

(2) ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan) • BS-0001-2
  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan), "wan" = sweet, thus indicating that the taste of young shoots is delicious; ไผ่เลี้ยงหน่อ (phai liang no), "no" = shoot; ไผ่เลี้ยงเบา (phai liang bao), "bao" = light; ไผ่เลี้ยงสามฤดู (phai liang sam redu), "sam redu" = three seasons; ไผ่เลี้ยงหัวโตพันธุ์เบา (phai liang hua to phan bao), "huo to" = big head, "phan" = species, variety, "bao" = light; ไผ่เขียวอิสาน (phai khiao isan), "khiao" = green, "isan" = northeastern Thailand.
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, widely known in cultivation.
  • Local distribution: Although widely planted in urban areas of Chiang Mai, it is less frequently found than phai liang dam, and not available for sale at Kham Thiang Market through­out year. It has been intensively cultivated in Prachin Buri province (central Thailand) and mainly distributed from there through­out Thailand.
  • Culm size: Same height or somewhat lower than phai liang dam, diameter to 5 cm.
  • Images: Post and photos of ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan) by สวนไผ่นานาพันธุ์ สวน (suan phai nana phan suan) in facebook, 12 Feb. 2014, and in facebook, 10 Feb. 2014, plants in flower show red anthers.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0001-2 (living plant).
  • Characters: Similar to phai liang dam (BS-0001-1), except the following: Culm internodes and foliage light green to mid green, not dark green, foliage leaf blades 5.5 - 9 cm long and 8 - 10 mm wide; culm internodes terete but with a slight sulcus above branch buds; nodes without a (light gray) band on young culms; sheath scar ring light gray, not dark; culm sheath proper shorter than internode. Culms thick-walled, basal part solid or nearly so (7th inter­node 67 cm above ground, culm diameter 3.2 cm, solid). New shoots emerge from early or mid June, glabrous, green (from light green to brownish green), occasionally with a few cream streaks, with sheath margins and sheath blade dark purplish.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; plants have high ornamental value and can be used as a solitary, tall visual screen, or hedge.
  • Provisional identification: Quite certainly the same species as BS-0001-1, distinctive at cultivar level.
  • Comments: (1) Single plants of this species started flowering in the Chiang Mai area in 2009, and continued flowering till 2010. No flowering plants have been detected in 2011. Plants seen in flower most often seem to represent phai liang wan, less frequent phai liang dam. Individual plants died after flowering. Again, in 2012 several plants have been found in flower, and still in 2013 and 2014. (2) Mass flowering of plants of the phai liang group has not been observed. Over the years, only very few individual plants were found flowering. As this bamboo is most often planted as a tall hedge, a few individual plants within a hedge have been found in flower, but never all individuals of a hedge. It seems that if an individual plant is starting sporadically flowering, the plant soon can be found gregariously flowering with little foliage leaves, or even bare of leaves. All individual flowering plants that could be overserved long-term, are likely going to die or have already died. Records of flowering plants that have survived are not known. (3) Flowering branches of all plants of phai liang wan seem to have red anthers. No seeds were found from flowering phai liang wan in the Chiang Mai area.


  • Bambusa nana hort., phai liang wan (BS-0001-2):
    Culms, lower section, in mid-green, unbranched (left),
    young culm showing culm leaf sheath in green and culm leaf blade in dark color (right)

     
  • Specimens: BS-0200 (living plant), received from cultivated stock as "ไผ่หวาน" (phai wan) from a nursery in Prachin Buri, 9 Dec. 2008.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked. Culms erect, forming a tight clump, lower part of culm remains branchless. Internodes glabrous, thick-walled or nearly solid. Branches several, unequal, one dominant. Culm sheaths glabrous, light green when young, light straw-colored when dry; sheath ligule short, irregularly fringed, rather dark; sheath auricles small, dark or nearly black, bristles rather short or lacking; culm sheath blade dark green with light green apex when young, not or slightly reflexed on lower culm. New shoots bright green, with reddish margins and reddish apex of culm sheaths when young, fading later, glabrous, sheath blades of upper culm sheaths reflexed. Shoots emerge from early June.
  • Uses: Shoots for food.
  • Provisional identification: This plant from Prachin Buri is similar in habit and general appearance to BS-0001-2, ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan). It is quite certainly the same species as BS-0001-1, merely distinctive at cultivar level.
  • Comments: Several culms of the clump started flowering early Dec. 2014 and died about Aug./Sep. 2015, no seeds found in the flowers, no seedlings found on the ground. The remaining non-flowering culms continued vegetative growth (27 Oct. 2015).


  • Bambusa nana hort., phai liang wan (BS-0200):
    Upper part of dried culm leaf, adaxial view, showing ligule and attachment of sheath with blade (left),
    terminal section of a flowering branch (center), spirit collection of flowering and leafy branches (right)

     
  • Specimens: BS-0215 (living plant), received from cultivated stock as ไผ่หวาน (phai wan) from Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai, 5 May 2009.
  • Characters: Shoot, culm, culm leaves and foliage leaves are very similar to those of ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan) (BS-0001-2); culm leaves occasionally with white streaks.
  • Comments: This plant is similar in habit and general appearance as BS-0001-2, ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan). The mature plant in 2013 clearly shows that it belongs to the same species as phai liang dam or phai liang wan, and differences, if any, are clonal variations.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0239 (living plant), received from cultivated stock as ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan) from Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai, 5 Aug. 2009; started flowering in Jan. 2013, died in May 2014, no seeds found.
  • Comments: This plant is similar in habit and general appearance as BS-0001-2, ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan). Flowers have red anthers.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0091 (living plant), seedling, found on the ground of a few flowering culms of phai liang wan planted along the driveway at the Office of Foreign Trade, Mueang Chiang Mai, Jul. 2012. No seeds were found. Unfortunately, the seedling died later.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0121 (seeds), collected from cultivated plants of flowering phai liang wan in Krabi, Sep. 2013. Unfortunately, none of the seeds germinated.

Bambusa nana hort., phai liang wan (BS-0121):
Seeds wrapped in bracts (left), one seed, bracts removed (right)


(3) ไผ่เลี้ยงทวาย (phai liang thawai) • BS-0189 &c.
  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงทวาย (phai liang thawai), ไผ่ทวาย (phai thawai).
  • Distribution: THAI­LAND, in cultivation.
  • Local distribution: This bamboo was found offered at Kham­ Thiang Market, Chiang Mai.
  • Culm size: Height ca. 10 m, diameter ca. 4 cm, said to be the smallest variety of the phai liang group.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0189 &c.: comprising: BS-0189 (living plant, died after flowering); BS-0189-1 (living plants).
  • Characters: Rhizomes short, pachymorph, forming a tight clump. Shoots emerge from March; light to dark green, occasionally with yellowish-green or cream streaks when emerging, glabrous. Culm internodes light green, glabrous, thick-walled. Branch complement with one dominant branch. Culm sheaths deciduous, green with light green streaks when young, darker green towards apex, glabrous, smooth; sheath auricles and bristles none; sheath ligule conspicuous, brownish-green, margin ciliate. Foliage leaf blades green, small, glabrous on both sides; leaf sheaths light green when young, straw-colored when dry, glabrous.
  • Uses: Shoots for food.
  • Cultivation requirements: Same as in phai liang dam (BS-0001-1).
  • Provisional identification: This plant is similar in habit and general appearance as BS-0001-2, ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan). The plant before flowering clearly shows that it belongs to the same species as phai liang dam or phai liang wan, and differences, if any, are clonal variations.
  • Comments: (1) This bamboo started gregarious flowering at Baan Sammi in Dec. 2011 and died in 2012. Not a single seed could be found. (2) I cannot find clear distinguishing characters between phai liang wan and phai liang thawai.


  • Bambusa nana hort., phai liang thawai (BS-0189): Culm in flower (left), sections of flowering branches (right)

     
  • Distribution: THAI­LAND, northern part: Nan, in cultivation.
  • Images: Post and photos of flowering plant in Nan, northern Thailand, by Nanbamboo น่านแบมบู in facebook, 8 Feb. 2014. Post and photos of plants in Nan, by Thoop Nakasen in facebook (1), (2), (3), 13 Feb. 2014.
  • Specimens: None collected.
  • Comments: Seeds were collected from the flowering plants in Nan. Photos of the flowers show anthers in red color.

(4) ไผ่เลี้ยงสีทอง (phai liang si thong) • BS-0391 &c.

Bambusa nana hort., phai liang si thong (BS-0391): Flowering branch

  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงสีทอง (phai liang si thong), ไผ่หวานสีทอง (phai wan si thong), ไผ่ดอยหล่อ (phai doi lo); "si" = color, "thong" = gold, golden. The Thai name, "si thong", might refer to the yellowish-green color of the foliage leaves.
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, cultivated, known from Chiang Mai, Nan, and Prachin Buri.
  • Culm size: Ultimate size not recorded. Culms are said not to grow taller than 5 m and to 5 cm in diameter. This is true if shoots are harvested on a commercial basis (for which this bamboo has been selected), but undisturbed plants grow considerably taller, and BS-0391, still an immature plant, has already reached a diameter of 5.5 cm by 8 m height.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0391 (living plant, flowering), received from a nursery in Chiang Mai province under the names ไผ่หวานสีทอง (phai wan si thong) and ไผ่ดอยหล่อ (phai doi lo), a few culms started flowering in Dec. 2013, soon continued gregarious flowering and died mid 2015. BS-0146 (living plant, non-flowering), received from a nursery in Hang Dong, Chiang Mai province, under the name ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan).
  • Characters: Culms solid; foliage leaves yellowish-green in mature clumps.
  • Uses: Plants are grown for commercial shoot production, shoots are very sweet and can be eaten raw, or used for bamboo pickles (ดอง, dong) laid in salt water for conservation. Plants have ornamental value, too, and can be used as garden plants and for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: The plants are usually grown in nurseries in full sun with drip irrigation. Young shoots can be harvested throughout year (3-4 shoots per clump during main shooting season, 2-3 shoots out of main shooting season).
  • Comments: (1) Flowers of BS-0391 show red anthers and don't seem differ from flowers in phai liang wan. (2) No seeds were found in the flowers, no seedlings were found on the ground of the mother plant.

(5) 'Wiman Thong' (วิมานทอง) • BS-0606 &c.

Internodes of Bambusa nana hort.
'Wiman Thong' (วิมานทอง), BS-0606 (top);
'Wiman Saithong' (วิมานสายทอง), BS-0081 (bottom)


  • Thai names: ไผ่เลี้ยงลายทอง (phai liang lai thong), ไผ่เลี้ยงลาย (phai liang lai), ไผ่แคนดี้ (phai kaendi).
  • English names: Wiman Thong Bamboo, Candy Bamboo.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, cultivated. Discovered in a village in Prachin Buri (ปราจีนบุรี).
  • Culm size: Not recorded, apparently somewhat smaller than phai liang dam.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0606 &c.: comprising BS-0606, BS-0606-1, BS-0677, BS-0677-1 (living plants), received 2010 and 2011.
  • Characters: Same as ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam), but culm internodes with bright green and yellow stripes of varying width. Culm sheaths of young shoots are cinnamon-colored, as in phai liang dam.
  • Uses: Plants as ornamental garden plants, and for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing; in full sun to partial shade, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: This cultivated variety is quite stable but culms can occasionally revert to green.

(5a) 'Wiman Saithong' (วิมานสายทอง) • BS-0081
  • English name: Wiman Saithong Bamboo.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, cultivated.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, similar size as phai liang dam.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0081 (living plant), received Jul. 2012, died soon thereafter.
  • Characters: Culms green with narrow yellowish stripes.
  • Uses: Plants as ornamental garden plants, and for landscaping.

The following bamboos may or may not be members of the phai liang group. They cannot be assigned to any of the aforementioned cultivated varieties, and cannot be properly described, due to lack of information.


(6) ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak)
  • Thai name: ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak).
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND: northern and northern central Thailand (e.g. in Phet­chabun).
  • Culm size: Height taller and diameter thicker than in ไผ่เลี้ยงดำ (phai liang dam).
  • Images: Post and photos by Niramit Sareerudt in facebook, 24 Jan. 2014: .
  • Specimens: No specimens collected.
  • Comments: (1) Plant in flower by February 2014, seeds still unknown. (2) It is currently unclear if ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak) is a genuine member of the phai liang group, or if it represents a separte species. Although vegetative parts seem to be rather similar (judging from photos), flowers might be somewhat different and need to be investigated. The only apparent difference at first sight is that anthers are yellow in ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak), whereas they are red in all those plants of ไผ่เลี้ยงหวาน (phai liang wan) and ไผ่เลี้ยงทวาย (phai liang thawai) that I was able to observe flowering. (3) It has been assumed that ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak) represents Dendrocalamus barbatus.

(6a) ไผ่เลี้ยงยักษ์ (phai liang yak) from Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์) • BS-0047
  • Specimens: BS-0047 (living plant), collected in Petchabun from the wild at about 800 m altitude, plant received Oct. 2011, died in 2012.

(7) cl. Quail • BS-0436

Bambusa nana hort. cl. Quail (BS-0436):
Upper part of young culm leaf, showing rim-like auricles, a fringed,
very long ligule, and a sheath covered with appressed brown hairs.
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: USA, cultivated at San Diego Botanic Garden, formerly Quail Botanical Gardens, San Diego, Calif., of unrecorded origin, supposedly received from Thailand long time ago.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, apparently tall growing.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0436 (living plant), received from cultivated stock as "Bambusa sp. 'Nana', Quail Gardens clone" from the USA, C. T., 22 Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: As the plants are still immature, characters cannot be described in detail. Culm sheaths are covered with dark hairs and have rim-like auricles. Branches with central dominant branch, two subdominant side branches and some smaller branches. Foliage leaves small, though possibly slightly larger than in plants of phai liang. Shoots emerge from June.
  • Uses: Plants for landscaping.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and vigorously growing; in full sun, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage, does not tolerate flood.
  • Comments: It is not clear if the Quail clone is a member of the phai liang group, and conspecific, although there are some similarities. However, culm sheaths are similar to species of genus Gigantochloa, but foliage leaves are small, which is not common in Gigantochloa.

(8) ไผ่เหนียว (phai niao) • BS-0042
  • Thai names: ไผ่เหนียว (phai niao), ไผ่น้ำหนาว (phai nam nao).
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND: northern central part: Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์), wild, rare.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, said to be taller in culm height and bigger in diameter than phai liang.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0042 (living plant), received Sep. 2011, started flowering in Nov. 2012 and died in 2014.
  • Characters: As the plant was still immature when flowering, characters could not be described in detail. It is said that the general appearance is similar to phai liang but with rhizome long-necked forming a somewhat open clump habit, culms are strong, almost solid. Young culm sheath have a pinkish sheath blade when fresh, the truncate sheath apex has nearly black, conspicuously fringed shoulders and ligule. Other characters of young shoot and culm are similar to phai liang wan.
  • Uses: Not recorded.
  • Comments: The flowers seem to be similar to phai liang wan; anthers are red.

(9) ไผ่สร้างไพร (phai sang phrai) from Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์) • BS-0054, BS-0054-1
  • Thai name: ไผ่สร้างไพร (phai sang phrai).
  • English name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: THAILAND: northern central part: Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์), wild.
  • Culm size: Not recorded, said to be taller in culm height and bigger in diameter than phai liang.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0054, BS-0054-1 (living plants), seedlings received from the Royal Development Study Center, Huai Hong Khrai (ห้วยฮ่องไคร้), Doi Saket, Chiang Mai, Nov. 2011, grown from seed collected from flowering plants in Petchabun.
  • Characters: As the plants are still immature, characters cannot be described yet. General appearance is said to be similar to phai liang. However, culm sheaths of the plants look more like a species of Thyrsostachys (June 2015). The plants are certainly not Bambusa nana hort, phai liang, but most likely a species of Thyrsostachys (July 2017).
  • Uses: Not recorded.

Line drawing of
Bambusa thorelii
from pl. 100
in É. G. Camus,
Les Bambusées,
Atlas, 1913.


(10) Bambusa thorelii É. G. Camus
  • Local name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: Location of the collection of the type specimens of Bambusa thorelii is "Kang" (É. G. Camus, Les Bambusées (1913), p. 136). A location name in this spelling could not be identified on available temporary and historical maps. It is assumed that "Kang" is a French phonetic transcription of the location name, and it actually sounds similar like [kʰɔːŋ] (IPA phonetic symbols). There is one location, usually named "Khong" on maps, in ຈໍາປາສັກ (Champassak) province of southern Laos: ດອນໂຂງ (Don Không, don = island), and ເມືອງໂຂງ (Muang Không, muang = fortified city) or in Thai เมืองโขง (Mueang Khong). It could be that the specimens were collected on this big island ໂຂງ (Không) of the Mekong River, as this would fit well regarding collection year and route of the expedition. Further, a distribution of B. thorelii was assumed to extend along the Mekong River from Nong Khai (northern North-East) to Ubon Ratchathani (southern North-East of Thailand) on both the Thai and Laotian areas, but there is not a single record known that would support this speculative assumption. The specimens of B. thorelii were collected in 1866 by C. Thorel during the French "Expédition du Mè-Khong" (1866-1868), which went upstream Mekong River by a gunboat (Francis Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-chine, effectué pendant les années 1866, 1867 et 1868, 2 volumes, Paris, 1873; rééd. La Découverte, 1985 (ISBN 270711409X)). Many specimens were collected during this expedition in the first year (1866) in Stung Treng ក្រុងស្ទឹងត្រែង, located on the Mekong River, and nowadays part of Cambodia. As Bambusa thorelii was found in the same year, the collecting area could not be too distant from Sung Treng. A nearby area upstream was the former Kingdom of ຈໍາປາສັກ (Champassak, under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Siam, and nowadays a southern part of Laos), but was not an occupied area by the French at the time of the expedition. As the expedition went further upstream, the specimens of B. thorelii could have been collected on the banks of, or on an island in the Mekong River in nowadays Laos. It is therefore justified and recommended searching first on the Kong Island for possible re-collecting this species, B. thorelii.
  • Culm size: Not recorded.
  • Images: Line drawing É. G. Camus, Les Bambusées, Atlas, 1913, pl. 100; photos Herb. Mus. Paris (culm sheath, flowers).
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known. (2) The species name is considered to be an "unresolved" name by The Plant List. (3) The photo of the culm sheath (Herb. Mus. Paris) shows a close similarity with culm sheaths of the still unidentified bamboo ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang), "Bambusa nana hort.". However, the spikelets in the line drawing of B. thorelii are small, whereas in ไผ่เลี้ยง (phai liang) the spikelets are known to be larger. A closer look on the photographs of the type specimens was taken: The pseudospikelets of B. thorelii are 5–6 mm long only, whereas those collected from phai liang are double sized, 10–12 mm long. This rules out B. thorelii to be conspecific with phai liang. (K. M. Wong, pers. comm., 24 Mar. 2016).

Bambusa odashimae Hatus. ex Ohrnb.

Line drawing of
upper section of culm sheath of
Bambusa odashimae,
from Flora of Taiwan, 2nd ed.,
pl. 258, as "Bambusa edulis".

  • Synonyms: Leleba edulis Odash.; Bambusa edulis (Odash.) Keng f., illeg.; Sino­calamus edulis (Odash.) Keng f.; Dendrocalamopsis edulis (Odash.) Keng f.; Bambusa taiwanensis L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung, illeg.
  • Thai name: ไผ่โอดาชิมา (phai odachima). Chinese name: 乌脚绿竹 (wū jiǎo lǜ zhú), which translated means "blackfoot green bamboo" or "dark foot green bamboo"; "blackfoot" might refer to the dark nodal hairs.
  • Distribution: The species is known from Taiwan, from where it was introduced to Thailand.
  • Culm size: 10 - 20 m height, 4 - 12 (13) cm diameter.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms 10-20 m tall, 4-12 cm in diam., slightly zigzag; nodes prominent, with a ring of dense brown hairs at nodes when young; internodes 15-50 cm long; walls 1-2 cm thick; branches numerous at nodes. Sheath of culm deciduous, coriaceous, densely pubescent especially on lower portion, brown-fimbriate along margins when young; auricles of sheath small or incon­spicuous; ligule of sheath narrow, 1-5 mm high, aristate; blade of sheath narrowly triangular, brown-pubescent on both surfaces at base. Leaves 9-13, oblong or broadly linear-lanceolate, 10-33 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm broad, glabrous above, densely pubescent beneath; veins 6-10, veinlets 9, parallel, densely spinulose-scabrous along margins; petiole short, 2-4 mm long; auricles of leaf small, with brown bristles at apex; ligule of leaf rounded, aristate; sheath of leaf 4.5-15 cm long, glabrous. ... [flowers described]." — Flora of Taiwan.
    (2) "Culms to 20 m, 7.5–13 cm in diam.; internodes 20–35 cm; wall 1–1.8 cm thick; nodes flat. Branches many from basal nodes, main ones slightly dominant at mid-culm. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, hispid, base of outer margin usually with an arrowlike expansion below point of attachment; auricles small; oral setae few; ligule ca. 1 mm, entire or ciliate; blade erect, base ca. 1/2 as wide as sheath apex, adaxially hispid. Leaf sheaths glabrous; auricles minute; oral setae few, 7–10 mm; ligule truncate, ca. 1 mm; blade oblong-lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 20–34 × 3–5 cm. ... [flowers described] Caryopsis unknown." — Flora of China.
    (3) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of Taiwan. Photos in Bambooweb.info; 陳靖賦 in facebook, 6 July 2015.
  • Uses: Shoots for food.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0786 (living plant), Taiwan, cult., 6 Dec. 2013.
  • Characters: Young shoots emerge April - September.
  • Comments: The plant is currently too small to attempt identification, but the characters rather seem to match with Bambusa oldhamii.

Bambusa oldhamii Munro
  • Synonyms: Leleba oldhamii (Munro) Nakai; Sino­calamus oldhamii (Munro) McClure; Dendro­calamopsis oldhamii (Munro) Keng f.; Bambusa atrovirens T. H. Wen; Dendrocalamopsis atrovirens (T. H. Wen) Keng f. ex W. T. Lin.
  • Chinese name: 绿竹 (pinyin transcription: lǜ zhú), which translated means "green bamboo".
  • English name: Oldham Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA: native to southern mainland China; introduced to Taiwan in early times.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms 6–12 m, 3–9 cm in diam.; internodes slightly flexuose, 20–35 cm, initially white powdery, glabrous; wall 4–12 mm thick; nodes flat. Branches many from mid-culm up, 3 dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, dark brown spinous-hairy, soon glabrescent; auricles small, rounded, ciliate; ligule ca. 1 mm, subentire; blade erect, base ca. 1/2 as wide as sheath apex. Leaf sheaths initially hispid; ligule truncate, ca. 1 mm; auricles suborbicular; oral setae few; blade oblong-lanceolate, 15–30 × 3–6 cm. ... [flowers described]. Caryopsis unknown. New shoots May–Nov, fl. summer–autumn." — Flora of China.
    (2) "... caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 1000–1600 cm long; woody; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete; hollow; 17–20 cm long; light green. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one, or two, or three. Culm-sheaths 7.5 cm long; glabrous. Culm-sheath blade triangular; erect, or spreading; 0.6 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths striately veined; hirsute. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Collar with external ligule. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 5.5 cm long; 12 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with 10–12 secondary veins; without cross veins. Leaf-blade surface pubescent; hairy abaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate. ... [flowers described]." — Kew GrassBase.
    (3) Flora of Taiwan.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China 1, 2; Flora of Taiwan.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy growing; in part shade to full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist.
  • Comments: Flowers known, seeds unknown.

Bambusa oldhamii cl. Phai Yok (shoot production strain)
  • Thai names: ไผ่หยก (phai yok), ไผ่หลี่จู๋ (phai li chu), ไผ่ลี้จู๋ (phai li chu), ไผ่ลุ่ยจู๋ (phai lui chu).  When Bambusa oldhamii was introduced from Taiwan into Thailand, the Chinese name was adopted by the Thai and transcribed into ไผ่ลุ่ยจู๋ (phai lui chu, or spelling variant "phai lu chu"), ไผ่หลี่จู๋ (phai li chu), or ไผ่ลี้จู๋ (phai li chu), and used as a Thai common name for this bamboo in some publications. The Royal Project (at Mae Hia, Pang Da, and Doi Ang Khang in Chiang Mai province) applied an own Thai name, ไผ่หยก (phai yok).
  • Distribution: Introduced from Taiwan to Thailand, presumably in the 1960s. Chiefly cultivated in central and northern Thailand. Recently (in 2009), it became known that a huge plantation with plants of the shoot production strain exists in southern California, U.S.A.; the plants came from Taiwan.
  • Local distribution: Intensively cultivated, propagated and distributed by the Royal Project in northern Thailand; occasionally found planted in the Chiang Mai area, rarely offered for sale at Kham Thiang Market, Chiang Mai.
  • Images: Photos in AsianFlora (habit).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0204, BS-0271 (living plants).
  • Characters: Rhizome pachymorph, short. Culms erect, 6 - 8 (10?) m tall, not stiffly upright, bending, forming a V-shaped clump habit. Young shoots dull brownish green, emerge from late April. Culm-internodes medium to dark green, glabrous, moderately thick-walled (3rd internode 51 cm above ground with wall 7 mm by 2.7 cm culm diameter). Branches several, central dominant, from low-culm up; branching predominantly extra­vaginal. Culm-leaves deciduous. Culm-leaf sheath glabrous, light green or orange-green when young, light straw-colored when dry; culm-leaf auricles small, bristles pale; culm-leaf ligule entire. Foliage-leaves 6 - 8 per branchlet. Foliage-leaf sheaths orange when young, dull straw-colored when dry, initially hairy, soon becoming glabrous and smooth; foliage-leaf auricles small, bristles few, 5 mm long, pale; foliage-leaf ligule inconspicuous; foliage-leaf blades small to medium-sized, usually 9 - 15 cm long and 1.6 - 3.0 cm wide, medium to dark green, glabrous on both surfaces, upper surface somewhat glossy.
  • Uses: Shoots for food, very palatable.

Bambusa oldhamii f. revoluta W. T. Lin & J. Y. Lin
  • Synonyms: Dendrocalamopsis oldhamii f. revoluta (W. T. Lin & J. Y. Lin) W. T. Lin; Neosinocalamus revolutus (W. T. Lin & J. Y. Lin) T. H. Wen; Sinocalamus oldhamii f. revolutus (W. T. Lin & J. Y. Lin) W. T. Lin; Bambusa oldhamii f. gimmei hort.
  • Distribution: CHINA: Guangdong.
  • Images: Photos in AsianFlora (culms, branches, leaves).
  • Characters: Culm internodes with yellow stripes; culm sheaths glabrous; sheath ligule denticulate.
  • Comments: Not recorded to occur in Thailand.

Bambusa oldhamii cl. US (landscape clone)
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: Introduced from southern China into the U.S.A., possibly in the first half of the 20th century, mainly planted in California and Florida. Introduced from the U.S.A. into Thailand in 2010, or maybe earlier.
  • Culm size: 10 - 20 m height, 5 - 10 cm diameter.
  • Images: Photos in TropicalBamboo; BobRicci; BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net; bamboodirect.com in facebook, 11 Mar. 2015.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0333, BS-0452 (living plants).
  • Characters: Culms up to 20 m tall, erect, stiffly upright, tips drooping (appearance cascade-like). Young shoots green, apex glabrous, culm-leaf blade erect; emerge from May. Branches many, from mid-culm up, fairly short; branching intravaginal. Culm-leaf sheaths covered with dark brown hairs. Foliage-leaf sheaths hairy.
  • Uses: Plants for landscaping, as solitary or in groups for tall screening, most suitable for tight-space screening and windbreak.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and vigorous-growing; in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 - 6.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist, tolerates wind, heat, drought, and a wide range of atmospheric moisture.
  • Comments: This bamboo is widely distributed in southern U.S.A. and known as Bambusa oldhamii. It is doubtful that this and the Thai shoot production strain represent the same species.

Bambusa pervariabilis McClure
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 撑篙竹 (cheng gao zhu).
  • English name: Punting Pole Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangdong; on riverbanks, around villages.
  • Culm size: Height 7 - 10 m, diameter 4 - 5.5 cm.
  • Description: Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in AsianFlora (culms, culm sheaths, habit); BambooWeb.info.
  • Characters: Culms erect, upright; culm internodes green, thick-walled, basal internodes with narrow pale yellow stripes; branches from basal nodes up.
  • Uses: Culms for farm tools and punting poles.
  • Comments: Flowers known.

Bambusa pervariabilis 'Viridistriata'
  • Synonym: Bambusa pervariabilis var. viridistriata Q. H. Dai & X. C. Liu.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 花撑篙竹 (hua cheng gao zhu).
  • English name: Sunburst Bamboo.
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2009 or earlier, in cultivation. CHINA (South): Guangxi, in cultiv­ation in Nanning.
  • Culm size: Height 7 - 10 m, dia­meter 4 - 5.5 cm.
  • Description: Flora of China.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0259, BS-0465 (living plants).
  • Characters: Culm and branch inter­nodes cream with green stripes when young, maturing to yellow with varying dark green stripes.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamentals.

Bambusa pervariabilis McClure × Dendrocalamopsis daii Keng f. No. 3
  • Synonym: Bambusa pervariabilis McClure × Dendrocalamopsis grandis Q. H. Dai & X. L. Tao ex Keng f. No. 3.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 撑绿竹3号 (chēng lǜ zhú 3 hào).
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2012, in cultivation.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0725 (living plants).

Bambusa pervariabilis McClure × Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro No. 7
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 撑麻竹7号 (chēng má zhú 7 hào).
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2012, in cultivation.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0727 (living plants).

Bambusa pervariabilis McClure × (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro × Bambusa textilis McClure) No. 1
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 撑麻青竹1号 (chēng má qīng zhú 1 hào).
  • Distribution: THAILAND, introduced in 2012, in cultivation.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0726 (living plants).

Bambusa rigida Keng & Keng f.
  • Synonym: Bambusa stipitata W. T. Lin.
  • Thai name: ไผ่ริกิดา (phai rikida). Chinese name: 硬头黄竹 (ying tou huang zhu).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Sichuan, usually cultivated along riversides and around villages of the Sichuan basin; also cultivated in Yunnan.
  • Culm size: Height 5 - 9 (12) m, diameter 2 - 5 (6) cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China 1, 2. Photos fpcn.net (habit, culms); BambooWeb.info.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0518 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Aug. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms erect, apically slightly arching; culm internodes initially thinly white powdery, glabrous, moderately thick-walled (1 - 1.5 cm thick); nodes slightly prominent, without aerial roots; branches from basal or 2nd node up, several to many, clustered, central dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, stiffly dark brown hairy on lower section; culm sheath auricles conspicuous, dark brown, unequal, usually ovate, oral hairs long, light-colored, waved; culm sheath ligule con­spicuous, fringed; culm sheath blade erect, early deciduous; foliage leaves 2 - 12 per branchlet; leaf blades small to medium-sized, narrow, 8 - 18 (24) cm long, 0.8 - 2 (2.7) cm wide, dark green, glabrous and shiny above, densely pubescent beneath; leaf sheaths with conspicuous auricles and long oral hairs.
  • Uses: Culms for construction; plants as ornamental, for hedges and screening.
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage. Tolerates wind.
  • Comments: Flowers known, seeds unknown.

Bambusa sp. 'Richard Waldron'
  • Synonym: Bambusa edulis hort. US; not to be confused with Phyllostachys edulis (basionym: Bambusa edulis Carr.); not to be confused with Bambusa odashimae (syn. Bambusa edulis (Odash.) Keng f.).
  • English name: Richard Waldron Bamboo.
  • Distribution: USA, in cultivation, introduced by Richard Waldron, of unknown origin, said to derive from seed.
  • Culm size: Height up to 3 m, diameter 0.6 cm.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info.
  •  
  • Specimen: BS-0451 (living plants), received from cultivated stock from the USA, June 2010.
  • Characters: Habit a tight clumper with erect culms. Culm internodes green, thick-walled. Nodes with a few fine light brown hairs when young. Branches few. Culm sheaths glabrous. Sheath auricles large, with long pale bristles. Sheath blade lanceolate, erect. Foliage leaves about 5 per twig. Leaf sheath glabrous. leaf blades small and narrow.
  • Uses: Plants for small gardens and pots.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy and slow-growing; in full sun, or partial shade, soil normal moisture-retentive. Frost-tolerant to –3 °C.
  • Comments: Flowers unknown.

Bambusa sp. Ruili
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: CHINA: from Ruili (瑞丽), Dehong Prefecture, western Yunnan.
  • Culm size: Height 20 m, diameter 10 cm.
  • Description: None available.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0760 (living plant), raised from seeds received from China in June 2012.
  • Characters: Not yet described as plants are still in a juvenile state. The species is said to be similar to Bambusa polymorpha, but with grey culms.
  • Uses: Not recorded.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) More likely, this plant represents a Gigantochloa species, similar to G. apus.

Bambusa sp. long internodes, Yunnan
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 长节簕竹 (zhǎng jié lè zhú).
  • Distribution: CHINA: Yunnan, in cultivation.
  • Culm size: Height 10 - 16 m, diameter 8 - 15 cm.
  • Description: None available.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0773 (living plant), raised from seeds received from China in Apr. 2013.
  • Characters: Not yet described as plants are still in a juvenile state. A main feature are said to be the long culm internodes.
  • Uses: Recorded to be good for both shoot and timber production.
  • Cultivation requirements: Recorded to be drought resistant, and to tolerate a little frost (to -3 °C).
  • Flowering and seeding: Flowers and seeds known, plants in Yunnan flowered in 2013, records in Compilation of Bamboo Seeds: BS-0773 etc.

Bambusa subtruncata L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung
  • Thai name: ไผ่หินซิ่นหยี (phai hin sinyi). Chinese name: 信宜石竹 (xin yi shi zhu).
  • English name: Not recorded; the Chinese name translates "Xinyi Stone Bamboo". Xinyi is the name of a district in Guang­dong province where this bamboo occurs.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangdong, on slopes around villages.
  • Culm size: Height 4 - 5 m, diameter 2 - 2.5 cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase; Flora of China.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0261 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Sep. 2009.
  • Characters: Culm internodes initially thinly white powdery, several lower internodes striped yellow-green, thick-walled, solid or nearly so on basal culm; culm sheath apex truncate, sheath auricles conspicuous, unequal, ovate, waved-bristly; foliage leaf blades small, glabrous above, densely pubescent beneath.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamentals, for low hedges and screening.
  • Comments: Flowers unknown.

Bambusa textilis McClure
  • Synonyms: Bambusa annulata W. T. Lin & Z. J. Feng; Bambusa glaucescens var. annulata (W. T. Lin & Z. J. Feng) N. H. Xia; Bambusa minutiligulata W. T. Lin & Z. M. Wu; Bambusa textilis var. persistens B. M. Yang; Bambusa textilis var. pubescens B. M. Yang; Bambusa varioaurita W. T. Lin & Z. J. Feng.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 青皮竹 (qing pi zhu).
  • English name: Weaver's Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi; usually cultivated; on riversides and around villages at low elevations. THAILAND: in cultivation.
  • Culm size: Height 8 - 12 m, diameter 5 - 6 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "Culms 8–10 m, 3–5 cm in diam., apically slightly drooping; internodes green, 40–70 cm, initially thinly white powdery, ± stiffly pale brown hairy; wall 2–5 mm thick; nodes flat, glabrous; branching from 7th to 11th node upward. Culm sheaths deciduous, leathery, rigid, slightly glossy, basally stiffly dull brown strigose, apex slightly slanted and asymmetrical, broadly arched; auricles unequal, ends not decurrent, larger one narrowly oblong to lanceolate, slightly slanted, ca. 1.5 × 0.4–0.5 cm, smaller one oblong, not slanted, ca. 1/2 size of larger; oral setae slender, undulate; ligule ca. 2 mm, dentate or sometimes laciniate, ciliolate; blade deciduous, erect, narrowly ovate-triangular, ca. 2/3 as long as sheath, abaxially sometimes stiffly hairy between veins, basally sparsely dull brown hairy, adaxially scabrid, base slightly cordate, narrowed, nearly 2/3 as wide as sheath apex. Leaf blade linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 9–17 × 1–2 cm, abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially glabrous. ... [flowers described]. Mature caryopsis unknown." — Flora of China.
    (2) Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in AsianFlora (habit); fpcn.net (habit); plantjdx.com (leaves, leaf sheaths); TaiBIF (culm sheath); BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net.
  • Uses: Culms split for woven ware and basketry; plants as garden ornamental and for screening.
  • Cultivation requirements: In part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 - 6.5 pH, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: (1) There is a recent record in GuaduaBamboo.com of a cultivated, flowering B. textilis plant in Costa Rica that set seed. (2) Seed, most likely originated from P.R. China, claimed to be B. textilis and distributed by several European seed selling companies (also privately offered through Ebay) turned out to be true thorny Bambusa bambos (syn. B. arundinacea) (GardenWeb Forum, and own observation).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0522 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Aug. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms tight, erect, bending above, tops slightly drooping, branchless on lower section; culm internodes initially thinly white powdery, more or less stiffly pale brown hairy, thin-walled; culm sheaths on basal section with stiff brown hairs; culm sheath auricles unequal; culm sheath blade erect; foliage leaf blades glabrous above, densely pubescent beneath.

Bambusa textilis var. gracilis McClure
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 崖州竹 (ya zhou zhu).
  • English names: Graceful Weaver's Bamboo, Slender Weaver's Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South), cultivated. THAILAND, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; BambooLand; RichardLyons; video in YouTube.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0243 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Aug. 2009; BS-0453 (living plant), received from Singapore Botanic Gardens, June 2010.
  • Characters: Smaller in ultimate height, culms slender, diameter less than 3 cm, tops nodding; culm sheath with sparse, stiff, dull brown hairs near both sides and base.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental, for screening and hedges.

Bambusa textilis 'Kanapaha'
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: USA, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info; BambooCraft.net.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0443 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms taller than normal B. textilis, lower half of culm branchless, culm internodes copiously covered with white powder which contributes to a prominent blue appearance.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental and for screening.

Bambusa textilis 'Mutabilis'
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: USA, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0444 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms with persistent white powder and long internodes.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental and for screening.
  • Comments: Previously misidentified as Bambusa mutabilis McClure, and as Bambusa textilis var. fusca McClure.

Bambusa textilis 'Scranton'
  • Thai name: Not recorded.
  • Distribution: USA, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0445 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Clumps more open; branches short.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental.

Bambusa textilis var. fusca McClure
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 椽竹 (chuan zhu).
  • English names: Dark Weavers Bamboo.
  • Distribution: AUSTRALIA, USA, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos in fpcn.net (culms, habit).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0486 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Australia, June 2010.
  • Characters: Culm sheaths with brown hairs.
  • Uses: Plants as garden ornamental and for screening.
  • Comments: Identification of this bamboo is not confirmed; it might be true Bambusa pachinensis var. hirsutissima (Odash.) W. C. Lin.

There are several other cultivated varieties, some of them might have been introduced into Thailand:
Bambusa textilis 'Maculata' (some basal culm internodes and culm sheaths with purple-red spots and streaks);
Bambusa textilis 'Purpurascens', syn. Bambusa textilis f. purpurascens, 紫竿竹 (zǐ gān zhú) (culms purplish, or basal culm internodes with purplish stripes), photos in nature.org.cn, it has been said that this variety was recently introduced into Thailand, but evidence is lacking;
Bambusa textilis 'Dwarf', syn. 'Mrs. Small' (much smaller in ultimate size, height about half of normal B. textilis);
Bambusa textilis var. glabra (culm internodes and culm sheaths glabrous);
Bambusa textilis var. albostriata (culm internodes with cream stripes).


Bambusa tuldoides Munro

Line drawing of culm sheath (upper part) of
Bambusa tuldoides, from Flora of China.


  • Synonyms: Bambusa angulata Munro; Bambusa breviflora Munro; Bambusa fauriei Hackel; Bambusa flavonoda W. T. Lin; Bambusa longiflora W. T. Lin; Bambusa parvifolia W. T. Lin; Leleba tuldoides (Munro) Nakai.
  • Thai name: ไผ่ผลักเรือ (phai phlak ruea). Chinese name: 青秆竹 (qīng gǎn zhú).
  • English name: Punting Pole Bamboo.
  • Distribution: Possibly origins from southern China and Vietnam, only known in cultivation; said to be cultivated in Thailand. There is one collection record (identified as B. tuldoides) from northern Thailand by A. F. G. Kerr in 1921: "Chiang Mai: Muang Pan", at 450 m altitude in deciduous jungle (Kew Herb.). No other record of wild occurrence is known from Thailand.
  • Culm size: Height 6 - 10 (15) m, diameter 3 - 5 cm.
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... Culms 6–10 m, 3–5 cm in diam., apically slightly drooping; internodes 30–36 cm, initially thinly white powdery; wall thick; nodes slightly prominent, basal 1 or 2 with rings of gray-white silky hairs below and above sheath scar; branching from base up. Branches several to many, clustered, central 3 dominant. Culm sheaths deciduous, convex and slanted along outer margin for 1/10–1/8 of length of sheath, with 1–3 pale yellow stripes toward outer margin, glabrous, apex asymmetrically arched; auricles unequal, outer one larger, ovate to ovate-elliptic, ca. 2.5 × 1–1.4 cm, slightly wrinkled; inner one smaller, ovate to elliptic, ascending, ca. 1/2 size of larger; oral setae slender, undulate; ligule 3–4 mm, laciniate, densely fimbriate; blade deciduous, erect, asymmetrically ovate-triangular to narrowly triangular, sparsely deciduously stiffly brown or pale brown strigose, base slightly rounded and then extending outward to join auricles for 5–7 mm, nearly 2/3–3/4 width of sheath apex, margin slightly wrinkled near base and fringed, apex subulate, acuminate. Leaf blade lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 10–18 × 1.5–2 cm, abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially glabrous or sparsely pilose near base ..." — Flora of China.
    (2) P. P. H. But & L. C. Chia in S. Dransfield & E. A. Widjaja (editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7, Bamboos, 1995: p. 72-74, fig.
  • Images: Line drawing Flora of China; photos Bambooweb.info (culm sheath 1, 2, shoot, culms, culm node, habit).
  • Uses: Shoots for food, culms for light construction, plants for screening.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers and seeds known. (2) Supposedly, the location note "Chiang Mai: Muang Pan" refers to เมีองปาน (Mueang Pan) district with its Chae Son National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติแจ้ซ้อน), adjacent to Chiang Mai province, but located within Lampang province and not far from the city of Chiang Mai.

Bambusa tuldoides 'Swolleninternode'
  • Synonym: Bambusa tuldoides f. swolleninternode (N. H. Xia) T. P. Yi.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 鼓节竹 (gǔ jié zhú).
  • Distribution: Originates from southern China, frequently cultivated in gardens.
  • Characters: Culm internodes shortened and enflated at basal culm, compression weaker than in Bambusa ventricosa.
  • Uses: Ornamental garden plant.
  • Comments: (1) Not to be confused with Bambusa ventricosa. (2) Occurrence in Thailand of this cultivar is not recorded.

Bambusa valida (Q. H. Dai) W. T. Lin
  • Synonyms: Dendro­calamopsis valida Q. H. Dai; Dendrocalamus validus hort.
  • Thai name: ไผ่กวางสีแข็งแกร่ง (phai kwang si khaeng kraeng). Chinese name: 壮绿竹 (zhuàng lǜ zhú).
  • English name: Guangxi Power Bamboo.
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangxi, in cultivation in Nanning; cf. notes in Flora of China under Bambusa, "Taxa incertae sedis".
  • Culm size: Height 12 - 16 m, diameter 8 - 12 (15) cm.
  • Description: Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Photos in BambooWeb.info.
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0262, BS-0462, BS-0329 (living plants), received from the USA in 2009-2010.
  • Characters: Culms erect, often ascending or somewhat bending, tips nodding, lower third branchless; new shoots reddish-orange; culm internodes moderately thick-walled; nodes slightly prominent; branches long; foliage leaf blades large, dark green.
  • Uses: Shoots very delicious, one of the best species for commercial shoot production in subtropical climates. Culms strong, used for construction, mainly if somewhat bent poles are needed in construction, e.g. large bent beams for gates and halls. Plants have ornamental value (reddish shoot, vivid non-straight habit, large leaves), excellent for landscaping and for larger gardens.
  • Cultivation requirements: Easy, strong and fast-growing; in part shade to full sun, thrives well in heavy, moisture-retentive soil with good drainage. Tolerates flooding.
  • Comments: Not yet described in the Flora of China (accessed 24 July 2017); flowers unknown.

Bambusa variostriata (W. T. Lin) L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung
  • Synonyms: Sinocalamus variostriatus W. T. Lin; Dendrocalamopsis variostriata (W. T. Lin) Keng f.; Neosinocalamus variostriatus (W. T. Lin) J. F. Zuo.
  • Thai name: Not recorded. Chinese name: 吊丝箪竹 (diao si dan zhu).
  • Distribution: CHINA (South): Guangdong, in lowlands, hilly areas.
  • Culm size: Height 5 - 12 m, diameter 4 - 7 cm.
  • Description: Flora of China; Kew GrassBase.
  • Images: Line drawing in Flora of China. Photos in gzagri.gov.cn (shoot); BambooWeb.info; BambooLand (culms, leaves, habit).
  •  
  • Specimens: BS-0485 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Australia, June 2010.
  • Characters: Rhizomes pachymorph, short-necked; culms erect, apically pendulous; shoots purplish with swirling yellowish to cream stripes when emerging; culm internodes mid green, with yellowish-green or cream stripes, initially pubescent and thinly white powdery, moderately thick-walled (0.8 - 1 cm thick); nodes not prominent, branches from basal nodes up; branches many, main ones slightly dominant; culm sheaths deciduous, with yellow hairs, setose on shoulders; culm sheath auricles small, oral hairs few, short; culm sheath ligule 3 - 9 mm high, entire or dentate; culm sheath blade erect; foliage leaf blades medium-sized, 13 - 26 cm long, 1.6 - 3 cm wide; leaf sheaths subglabrous, auriculate, oral hairs few.
  • Uses: Shoots for food; culms for light construction; plants for gardens and landscaping (privacy screen, natural hedge).
  • Cultivation requirements: Grows in part shade to full sun, soil 5.5 pH - 6.5 ph, sandy loam to clay loam, normal moisture-retentive to moist with good drainage.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) Not to be confused with "Dendrocalamopsis vario striata" hort. (BS-0488), a totally different and yet undetermined species.

Bambusa ventricosa McClure

Line drawing of culm sheath (upper part) of
 Bambusa ventricosa, from Flora of China



  • Synonyms: Leleba ventricosa (McClure) W. C. Lin; Bambusa tuldoides 'Ventricosa'.
  • Thai name: ไผ่น้ำเต้า (phai nam tao). Chinese name: 佛肚竹 (fú dù zhú).
  • English names: Buddha's Belly Bamboo.
  • Distribution: Origins from southern CHINA, only known in cultivation, distributed throughout the tropics. Introduced to Thailand, possibly from China.
  • Culm size: Height 8 - 10 (16) m, diameter 3 - 5 (5.8) cm (if planted in the ground under favorable growth conditions).
  • Descriptions:
    (1) "... Culms dimorphic; normal culms 8–10 m, 3–5 cm in diam., basally flexuose, apically slightly drooping; internodes 30–35 cm, basally slightly swollen, not white powdery, initially glabrous; lower nodes with rings of gray-white silky hairs below and above sheath scar; branching from 3rd or 4th node up, basal 1 or 2 nodes also with short aerial roots; branches 1–3 on lower nodes; branchlets of these sometimes condensed into weak thorns; branches several to many at mid-culm and upper nodes, with central 3 slightly longer and thicker. Abnormal culms (usual in potted plants) 25–50 cm, 1–2 cm in diam., internodes shortened and swollen at base, branch internodes also shortened and swollen; branches only on upper nodes, usually solitary, without thorns. Culm sheaths deciduous, obviously ribbed-striate, glabrous, apex nearly symmetrical, broadly arched or subtruncate; auricles unequal; larger auricle narrowly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 5–6 mm; smaller auricle ovate, 3–5 mm; oral setae curved; ligule 0.5–1 mm, very shortly finely fimbriate; blade deciduous, erect or recurved, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, base slightly arched, narrowed, slightly narrower than sheath apex. Leaf sheath glabrous; ligule subtruncate, very short; auricles ovate or falcate; oral setae several, curved; blade linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 9–18 × 1–2 cm, abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially glabrous ..." — Flora of China.
    (2) Flora of Taiwan [#1106].
  • Images: Line drawing Flora of China; Flora of Taiwan (1106); photos Bambooweb.info (culm sheath 1, 2, shoot, culms 1, 2, 3, culm node, habit).
  • Uses: As a solitary ornamental, mainly as a pot plant.
  • Comments: (1) Flowers known, seeds unknown. (2) Bambusa ventricosa was assumed to be conspecific with Bambusa tuldoides, but all parts of their culm leaves (sheath, ligule, auricles, blade) are noticeably distinct.

Bambusa ventricosa 'Kimmei'
  • Synonyms: Bambusa ventricosa f. kimmei Muroi & Y. Tanaka ex H. Okamura & Y. Tanaka; Bambusa tuldoides 'Ventricosa Kimmei'.
  • Thai name: ไผ่น้ำเต้าทอง (phai nam tao thong).
  • Distribution: The cultivar originates from JAPAN and has been introduced into several countries; THAILAND, in cultivation.
  • Images: Photos Bambooweb.info (culms).
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  • Specimens: BS-0342 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from Kanchanaburi, Thailand, Nov. 2009; BS-0440 (living plant), received from cultivated stock from the USA, Jan. 2010.
  • Characters: Culms yellow with narrow green stripes; foliage leaf blades occasionally with a narrow cream stipe.
  • Uses: As an ornamental pot plant.