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(1) Native and Naturalized Species

This chapter comprises both native (indigenous) and naturalized bamboo species, over 80 species in total. Most species native to Thailand are also known to be native to one or more neighboring countries. There are very few endemic bamboo species, species known only from Thailand: e.g. Dendrocalamus khoonmengii, Phuphanochloa speciosa, and Temochloa liliana.

Collection data of many bamboos are scarce from Thailand, thus the pattern of geographical distribution of Thai bamboos remains vague. Many species have not been re-collected for decades, or even for half a century or longer.

Identification of Thai bamboos is very difficult, mainly due to the lack of a national or regional floral publication on bamboos, like the Flora of China for Chinese bamboos. For bamboos from southern Thailand, floral publications from Malaysia are of some help. For most bamboo species of Thailand, there is little more than their original publication of the 19th and 20th centuries, with descriptions often lacking some of the species' vegetative characters useful in bamboo identification.

Several widespread, useful bamboo species in Thailand might not be of indigenous occurrence but rather were introduced by men, on immigration routes many decades, centuries, or even a millennium ago. Such bamboos, like Dendrocalamus asper and Bambusa blumeana, have become naturalized with numerous populations in the wild, and are still widely cultivated.

Unidentified species are also included herein, if they are considered native or naturalized. A botanical name might have been applied to a species with questionable identification, but this is indicated by a question mark, or by "sp." as a replacement for the specific epithet, or by a statement mainly under "Comments". The application of a certain common (Thai) name does not constitute identification; common names are ambiguous, and there are no rules to apply them.

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