Internal Window Blinds - Awning Instructions.
Internal Window Blinds
- A window blind is a type of window covering which is made with slats of fabric, wood, plastic or metal that adjust by rotating from an open position to a closed position by allowing slats to overlap. A roller blind does not have slats but comprises a single piece of material.
- Inside the body
- occurring within an institution or community; "intragroup squabbling within the corporation"
- Existing or occurring within an organization
- Of or situated on the inside
- happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface; "internal organs"; "internal mechanism of a toy"; "internal party maneuvering"
- home(a): inside the country; "the British Home Office has broader responsibilities than the United States Department of the Interior"; "the nation's internal politics"
internal window blinds - Convective heat
Convective heat transfer coefficients from an internal window surface and adjacent sunlit Venetian blind [An article from: Energy & Buildings]
This digital document is a journal article from Energy & Buildings, published by Elsevier in 2004. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Media Library immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.
The present study examines the convective heat transfer around equally spaced heated, horizontal, and rotateable louvers that are adjacent to a heated vertical and warmer-than-ambient isothermal surface. Physically, the system represents an irradiated Venetian blind adjacent to the indoor surface of a window. The analysis represents an important component of new shaded window models that can determine the benefits of shading devices in reducing building cooling loads. Detailed heat transfer results were obtained using a steady, laminar, two-dimensional, conjugate conduction/convection finite element model for a range of Raleigh numbers, heating levels, and blind placements. Convective heat transfer coefficients were determined for input into a thermal resistance model of the system. Results for additional blind placements and slat angles are in progress ongoing.
Nairn - Original Police Station
Although the Nairnshire Constabulary and (while it existed) Nairn Burgh Police each had an office of sorts within the Burgh of Nairn, this was the first purpose-built Police building. It is minuted in the records of the Nairnshire Police Committee that in March 1868, Mr Hector Maclean produced an offer to sell - at 6d per square foot with ?5 extra for the dykes - as much of his ground "southward of King Street and westward of Free Church Street" as might be required for the Police Headquarters, to include Station House, Police Offices, and dwellings for 2 men". The offer was accepted, to the extent of 70 feet from King Street along Free Church Street. Mr Reid , Architect, Nairn, was instructed to draw up plans. These were produced at a further meeting on 17 March, and several alterations were ordered. Two days later he was back with the amended plans, which were finally approved after some more tinkering. Reid estimated the cost of the building would be ?700, exclusive of the purchase of the land, and the go-ahead was given, subject to the Secretary of State's approval. The Scottish Office duly approved, and on 16/6/68 estimates for constructing the new building were accepted from: Robert Squair, Mason, Nairn for Masonry work: ?358 George B Mackintosh, Douglas Street, for Carpentry work: ?174:18:0d John Russell, Inverness, for Slater work: ? 29:15:9d A.R. Christie, for Plumber work: ? 22: 5:0d I. Watson, for Plaster work: ? 32:10:0d ---------------------------- Total : ?617: 8:0d On 2nd July the contract for the new Headquarters was signed. It was also decided to put glazed bricks instead of ordinary ones in the new cells, to a height of 7 feet from ground level, which would cost an extra ?5. The Chief Constable, Mr Stirling had proposed that PC Fraser occupy the lower flat of the new building rent-free in consideration of him (or more likely his wife) taking charge of the cells and keeping the offices clean and in good order. This was approved, as was the proposal that Fraser also receive an annual allowance of 5/- to cover outlays in this respect. Sergeant Ross (who was the Deputy Chief Constable and only rank in the force other than the Chief) was awarded the tenancy of the upper flat at a weekly rent of 1/4d (one shilling and four pence) which would be deducted from his wages. By the January meeting of 1869 the new Headquarters was built but Mr Reid stated that before being declared completed he felt the internal woodwork of the offices should be painted. After a site visit, the Committee instructed Mr Reid to get the whole internal woodwork painted - except for the houses - with three coats of plain paint. Furnishings and miscellaneous items to kit out the new building had cost ?11:15:3d. Mr Stirling had drawn up a set of rules for the use and cleaning of the offices and cells, for the Sheriff's approval. An inventory was also recorded of absolutely every item in the new Police Office, and it was also agreed to have the words "Police Office" painted above the entrance to the building and in the lobby on the door into the Public office. "Chief Constable's Office" would also be painted on the door of Mr Stirling's office. The inventory makes fascinating reading. Only grates (kitchen and room) and gas fittings in both houses, plus window rollers and fittings (upstairs flat only), are listed in respect of the two flats. The Chief Constable's office was equipped with the following: mahogany writing table, pine pigeon hole cupboard, oil cloth floor covering, 3 chairs (no staff meetings obviously!), grate with fire accessories, letter copying press with stand, 2 wire gauze window blinds, water carafe with 2 tumblers, inkstand and ruler, 6 cutlasses, 2 spring snips, (handcuffs) 40 batons, clothes brush, floor mat and gas light fittings. Supplied for the Police Office proper were: a wooden counter with drawers, 2 chairs and 2 stools, fender and fire irons, a pine table with drawers, a hardwood settle, water can and two tumblers, 2 inkstands and rulers, a coal scuttle and a grate with hanging hooks. (Note: NO KETTLE !) The "Strong rooms" (cells) - were provided with: 2 slop pails, 2 strong jugs, 3 rugs and a stove, shovel and poker. Once all bills were paid for the new Office, including ?106:8:6 to Hector Maclean for the land and Mr Davidson's legal fees, the total sum came to ?792:16:9d. At this stage the Force consisted of 6 men, (1 Chief, 1 Sergrant and 4 Constables, 3 of which were stationed outwith the Burgh). The force grew over time, and eventually outgrew the building. In the 1960s, a new Police Station was built on the opposite side od the road (and has just
Every window points towards God, it all depends upon in which direction you look..!!! (Self thought)
Press L to view on black" The Great Imambara is classified as Nawabi architecture -this last phase of Mughal architecture -indicating the demise of an empire and its cultural product. Nawabi architecture is divided into two phases: the first towards the end of the eighteenth century is characterized by grandiose and stylistic buildings; the second in the nineteenth century is distinguished by the incorporation of European elements. The Great Imambara created in the first period of Nawabi architecture, is one of the few buildings in Lucknow devoid of European elements. Nawabi architecture resulted in a period of political flux when the Nawabs of Avadh had disassociated themselves from Delhi but fell under British control. Though they were reinstated as rulers, the British held real authority. The nawabs, however, relieved of all serious responsibilities as rulers were able to lavishly patronize architecture. As a result, the Great Imambara was built to grandiose scale, but in some aspects suffered from superfluous use of ornamentation. The Great Imambara is part of the Asaf-ud-daula Imabara complex that contains a mosque, courtyards, gateways and a 'bawali' or step-well used as a summer palace. It was built as part of a famine relief program following the famine of 1784. The complex is one of the earlier attempts in Lucknow to imitate a Mughal complex and incorporates high-arcaded battlements even when security was not a concern. The complex is entered through the Rumi Darwaza while leads into a courtyard that connects to the main courtyard through a triple-arch gateway. The Great Imambara is on axis with the triple arch gateway and occupies the southern extreme of the main courtyard while the Asafi mosque takes up the western. The imambara is a unique architectural form that is used for ceremonies performed by Shia Muslims to commemorate the death of Hussain, grandson of Prophet Muhammad, at Karbala in 680 A.D. It is a rectangular brick and mortar structure and in plan is divided into nine chambers. The central chamber is the largest and measures 164 feet by 52 feet (50 by 16 meters) and is over 49 feet (15 meters) high. The eight chambers surrounding the central bay are considerably smaller in both area and height and are more for circulatory purpose. The long central chamber has a concrete vault while the remaining bays are treated in a variety of roofing techniques. The arched roof of the central vault is built without beams, making it one of the largest concrete shells in the world. The central chamber contains the grave of Nawab Asaf-ud-daula and is the only imambara that has six entrances into the central bay as opposed to the conventional five. The exterior facade of the imambara is problematic due to its monumental scale. The central bay and two flanking bays rise above the surrounding bays resulting in a stepped facade. The first level has arched openings and blind niches with octagonal towers marking the internal division of the bays on the exterior facade. The second level tries to break the scale of the facade by having a series of undersized arched openings, arches with latticework at the parapet, guldastas (ornamental minarets) and chattris (small kiosks). The disproportionate scale between the two levels renders the ornamentation of the facade as weak, and combined with the stepping back of the levels serves only to emphasize the ostentatious scale of the building. The numerous openings, however, have made it possible to create a unique feature in the form of a labyrinth. The imambara is popular amongst its visitors for the 'Bhool Bhooliya' or labyrinth that is formed by the many balconies and passages that branch off from 489 identical doorways.