Car wheel hub assembly - Tractor power wheels - Power wheels for older kids.
Car Wheel Hub Assembly
- a wheel that has a tire and rim and hubcap; used to propel the car
- A type of wheel designed for use on cars
- a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit
- fabrication: the act of constructing something (as a piece of machinery)
- forum: a public facility to meet for open discussion
- A group of people gathered together in one place for a common purpose
- A group of people elected to make laws or decisions for a particular country or region, esp. the lower legislative house in some US states
- The action of gathering together as a group for a common purpose
- A place or thing that forms the effective center of an activity, region, or network
- Okko is a comic book published in a series of mini-series, or cycles. Originally published in France by Delcourt, Archaia Studios Press started reprinting the series in English in 2006. This series is intended for Mature Readers; it contains adult content, graphic violence, and nudity.
- the central part of a car wheel (or fan or propeller etc) through which the shaft or axle passes
- The central part of a wheel, rotating on or with the axle, and from which the spokes radiate
- a center of activity or interest or commerce or transportation; a focal point around which events revolve; "the playground is the hub of parental supervision"; "the airport is the economic hub of the area"
car wheel hub assembly - The Art
The Art of Assembly Language
Assembly is a low-level programming language that's one step above a computer's native machine language. Although assembly language is commonly used for writing device drivers, emulators, and video games, many programmers find its somewhat unfriendly syntax intimidating to learn and use.
Since 1996, Randall Hyde's The Art of Assembly Language has provided a comprehensive, plain-English, and patient introduction to assembly for non-assembly programmers. Hyde's primary teaching tool, High Level Assembler (or HLA), incorporates many of the features found in high-level languages (like C, C++, and Java) to help you quickly grasp basic assembly concepts. HLA lets you write true low-level code while enjoying the benefits of high-level language programming.
As you read The Art of Assembly Language, you'll learn the low-level theory fundamental to computer science and turn that understanding into real, functional code. You'll learn how to:
Edit, compile, and run an HLA program
Declare and use constants, scalar variables, pointers, arrays, structures, unions, and namespaces
Translate arithmetic expressions (integer and floating point)
Convert high-level control structures
This much anticipated second edition of The Art of Assembly Language has been updated to reflect recent changes to HLA and to support Linux, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD. Whether you're new to programming or you have experience with high-level languages, The Art of Assembly Language, 2nd Edition is your essential guide to learning this complex, low-level language.
Kinetic analysis in front view for a Porsche 911s front strut suspension while turning to driver's right. When the tires are turned, they deform against the car’s inertial reaction force and that slip angle produces a force towards the inside of the turn, which acts on the car’s mass center. If the road is the fixed reference frame, then the mass center exerts an equal and opposite inertial reaction force towards the outside of the turn. Weight must transfer from the inside tires to the outside tires to counter the moment of this force about the outside tire/road contact patch. The inside wheels must be supporting less weight in order to balance out this moment while still keeping the total normal force equal to the weight (neglecting aerodynamic effects for simplicity), so that the car stays on the ground. The extra outside wheel force comes from the weight transfer and is reacted by extra compliance in the tires, suspension links, and in many cases compression of the main springs and anti-roll bars. To act on the sprung mass center, tire forces travel through the suspension links in a complex series of interacting moments and axial forces distributed through the suspension link material as different stress/strain components. Fortunately, if one is sure that the suspension is strong enough and unsprung mass is relatively small, the tire forces can be simplified as linear forces acting along imaginary lines. The “virtual” suspension links are those imaginary lines; going from the centers of the tire contact patches to the instant centers of wheel motion. An instant center is the point in space about which a wheel is moving at one particular instant in time. The point can change as the suspension moves. The top diagram shows the instant center for one front wheel with a strut suspension. It is found by drawing a line through the A-arm and another line through the top strut pivot, perpendicular to the strut. The instant center is where these two lines intersect. The tire’s lateral force acts on the ground plane and the pivot point (instant center) for the wheel is above it. This creates a moment on the wheel+hub+strut assembly. A vertical “jacking” force on the tire arises to resist this moment since the road is the fixed reference frame, preventing the suspension rotating into the ground. In this example, the outside tire has upward jacking and the inside tire has downward jacking. The combined jacking forces will determine whether the sprung mass center (body) moves up or down in relation to the road during cornering. Body roll is caused by the tire force vectors not acting on lines through the sprung mass center. In space, this causes a rotational moment about the sprung mass center. With the road as the reference frame, this moment is manifest as a moment of the mass center’s inertial reaction force about the point where the two forces do go through. This point is the roll center, and it represents the “coupling point” between the unsprung masses (where the tire forces come from) and the sprung mass (where the tire forces go to). To find the roll center in this example, first draw a vertical line at a point 60% of the front track width away from the outside wheel, since the 10% of the total weight transfers to the outside wheel, which increases the outside wheel’s grip and allows it to provide 60% of the front end’s cornering force. Next, find where the lines of action of the two tires’ forces intersect this vertical line. On the vertical line, draw a point equidistant from both of the intersection points. This is the roll center. In summary, the roll center is determined by the angles of the suspension links, tire diameter, track width, and the differing amounts of grip in each tire. If one raises the roll center, there is a smaller moment arm for the sprung mass center’s reaction force, and so less roll. This also means that there must be jacking forces (upward here). The jacking forces are countered by an extension of the spring (and associated reduction in spring force), which means reduced or reversed roll of the sprung mass. The jacking forces are substituting for force from the main springs and anti-roll bars and the jacking bypasses them, being sent through the suspension links. One can trade off jacking forces versus body roll moment and the spring/anti-roll bar rates needed to control the chassis in that situation. The total lateral load transfer still stays constant for a steady state turn. If the roll center coincides with the mass center, there is no moment arm for the inertial reaction force of the mass center in response to the lateral acceleration. There is no unsprung mass roll moment to cause normal suspension compression on the outside wheel but there are still the jacking forces which cause the main springs and anti-roll bars to extend. The associated changes in suspension link angles raise the roll center, which increases the jacking force in a providing positive feedback loop. E
Urban Assault Vehicle ~ Alpha
Hummer was a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee. In 1998, General Motors (GM) purchased the brand name and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the Humvee; and the H2 and H3 models that were based on smaller, civilian-market GM platforms. The original Hummers were first designed and built by AM General Corporation, which was formerly AMC-Jeep's General Products division, in its Mishawaka, Indiana, assembly plant. The vehicles were created under a contract for the United States armed forces. The first model, the Humvee, was built in a variety of military-based equipment and versions. The US$1.2 billion contract won by AM General in 1983 was to produce 55,000 Humvees by 1985, which was later increased to 15,000 additional units. AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of the Humvee as far back as the late 1980s. Having the same structure and most mechanical components, the civilian Hummers were finished in automotive gloss paint, adding passenger car enhancements such as air conditioning, sound insulation, upgraded upholstery, stereo systems, wood trim, and convenience packages. The civilian model began in part because of the persistence of Arnold Schwarzenegger, who saw an Army convoy while filming a movie. In 1990, two matching white Humvees were driven from London to Beijing over the rough roads of central Soviet Union. The Hummers made the trip with ease, for they were built to drive on off-road terrain. The highlights of this journey were broadcast in the United States on CNN. This publicity would pale in comparison to the attention that the Humvee received for its service in Gulf War Operation: Desert Storm, the following year. Also, a privately-owned Humvee was modified into the first Snow-Vee, including the addition of caterpillar tracks, a new rear compartment and a new engine. This vehicle was designed for use in and just below the Arctic Circle, and the Antarctic. In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee vehicle to the public under the brand name "Hummer". The Hummer H1 is a civilian off-road vehicle based on the M998 Humvee, which was created by AM General. The vehicle was produced from 1992 through 2006, and was the first of what became the Hummer line. It was initially known only as the "Hummer"; however, in 1999 in a joint venture between General Motors and AM General, GM began marketing the Hummer H2, which was built on the Chevrolet Tahoe chassis. It was at this point that the original Hummer was given the H1 designation. For collectors, the most desirable model is the H1 Alpha, produced in the final model year of 2006. It had the most powerful engine and the best fuel mileage of the H1 vehicles. Overall, the H1 was a very limited production vehicle. "Originally designed strictly for military use the four-wheel-drive utility vehicle was released to the civilian market due to popular demand. Boasting 16 inches of ground clearance as well as super-aggressive approach and departure angles, the Humvee could clamber over a 22-inch high obstacle, handle a 60 percent grade and wade through up to 30 inches of water." Originally released in the civilian market in 1992, the Hummer H1 owed its birth to the popularity of photos from Operation Desert Storm and the enthusiastic campaign from actor-politician Arnold Schwarzenegger, who owns several variants of Hummer vehicles. AM General announced that 2006 would be the last model year for the Hummer H1, with production winding down in June 2006 due to a new emission law for diesel engine vehicles, which took effect in 2007. The Hummer H1 has three common variants: a convertible-like soft top, a four-door hard top Sport Utility Truck and an Alpha Wagon body version. Other less known variants include a two-door pickup truck, most commonly seen in the military sporting Anti-Air turrets and other launchers, or used as troop and cargo transports, and a four-door slantback, which shares the same body style of the Humvee employed by the U.S. Military. The convertible/soft top and the station wagon versions were the last ones available in the mass market. The two door and four door pickup versions are only available in fleet livery. Currently, five engine types and three automatic transmission types can be found in Hummer H1s. The common engine/automatic transmission combinations are: 6.2 L GM Diesel V8/GM TH400/3L80 3-speed 6.5 L GM Diesel V8/GM 4L80-E 4-speed 5.7 L Vortec 5700 gasoline V8 TBI/GM 4L80-E 4-speed 6.5 L turbo GM Diesel V8/GM 4L80-E 4-speed 6.6 L turbo Duramax LLY V8 turbo Diesel/Allison 1000 5-speed (model year 2006) The Hummer H1 shares some common driveline parts with its HMMWV brethren. Items like brakes, axles, frame and major body panels (hood, tailgate and quarter panels) are identical between the HMMWV and the Hummer H1. All Hummer H1s and HMMWVs come off the same
car wheel hub assembly
Thoroughly revised and updated throughout, the Second Edition of Introduction to 80x86 Assembly Language and Computer Architecture provides students with a clear and concise introduction to the inner workings of the computer, and their many levels and functions. Through introducing real instruction sets and writing real assembly language programs, students will become acquainted with the basics of computer architecture. The Second Edition now includes the use of the Microsoft Visual Studio environment, which is widely available to students and professionals, and provides a robust environment for editing, assembling, debugging, and executing problems. The text continues to emphasize basic architecture, not just the 80x86 line, and now includes 64-bit operations but is still appropriate for those working with 32-bit computers. Programmers are expected to program effectively at any level. Ensure students are up-to-speed with Introduction to 80x86 Assembly Language and Computer Architecture, Second Edition.