Intermittent Sand Filters - Replacement Charcoal Filters
Treatment of dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters [An article from: Bioresource Technology]
This digital document is a journal article from Bioresource Technology, published by Elsevier in 2007. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Media Library immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.84% (6)
In Ireland, the most common method of disposal of dairy parlour washings is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high-labour requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface and ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonly used for treatment of secondary municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ireland. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. This paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alternative treatment mechanism for agricultural wastewater and suggests design guidelines.
1903. Side and rear view of Station
1903. Side and rear view of Station showing proximity to Merrimack River. A protective dike was constructed following the 1901 flood. The 1936 flood inundated all this area including the main laboratory buildings up to a level just below the laboratory benches. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Station's Middle Years For sixty-five years the studies of the intermittent filtration of sewage have gone on their methodical way and still the last word has not yet been said en that subject. One finding opens up another question and that leads to further planned research. Just why, for instance, does it improve performance in some coarse grain filters to re-circulate a part of the effluent? What are the best proportions of re-circulated effluent and raw sewage during each of the seasons? What about the useful disposal of gas formed in sludge? What to do about the seasonal variations in the "pH" of raw sewage? These are only some of the questions for which the final answers are only now being worked out. But the treatment of domestic sewage became only a lesser part of the total research effort of the Station. Other and more insistent problems presented themselves during the early and "middle years" of the Lawrence Experiment Station history — the "twenties" and "thirties" and on into the "forties." In one field alone, the problem of industrial wastes, the continuing researches would have justified the long existence of the Experiment Station. It has been a quiet year indeed when the expanding industries of New England have not added at least one new industrial process to what constitutes the economic life-blood of the region. And many of the new processes bring with them a new problem — the disposal of the waste products they create. Industrial wastes uncared for may create an intolerable nuisance when poured into streams. They may make the waters totally unfit for drinking purposes, or they may ruin the streams for other industrial use. Not unimportant also is the damage industrial wastes can do to streams as places for recreation. On the other side of the coin, is the fact that research sometimes leads the way to valuable compounds which may be recovered from the wastes thought to be only useless but hazardous to life and property. Researches in the treatment and disposal of industrial wastes began at the Experiment Station as early as 1895. That year one of the experimental sand filters. received wool scourings with eventual purification — though at an extremely low rate. Paper-mill wastes were applied to another filter and more satisfactory results were achieved. The following year tannery wastes were tried on both a sand filter and a trickling filter of coke. Soon textile wastes were being pre-treated by passing them over iron filings, and in 1901 dye wastes were subjected to study. The staff early recognized that many industrial wastes would require different treatment methods than those used for domestic sewage because these wastes were damaging to the bacterial growth necessary for sewage treatment, so determined efforts were made to minimize the bacteria-killing factors in these chemicals by coagulation and chemical treatment. In 1900 Mr. Clark enumerated the five chief difficulties in the biological treatment of sewage raised by the addition of industrial wastes:—their bactericidal action; excessive carbonaceous matter; volume of liquor; varying chemical characteristic of wastes from essentially similar industrial processes from plant to plant; and liability of change in process in any plant. This statement made almost a half century ago is still a concise and pertinent picture of the difficulties still encountered. The only additional factor is that of entirely new products, processes and wastes continually being introduced in an aggressive industrial expansion. Work through the years established the fact that many industrial wastes highly bactericidal could by pre-treatment be reduced to a condition that permitted them to be added safely to municipal sewage, but the problems of making them safe were found to be enormous and to vary markedly from season to season and from waste to waste. What and how much chemicals must be added? How great is the dilution required? How are filters to be made accustomed to each new waste? How much recirculation will be required in each instance? Questions like these all called for long and painstaking studies to find the answers, as they do to this day. But the answers were found as year followed year, and these answers often were crucial to the continued industrial development of Massachusetts, as well as to the health of the people of the State. Study of industrial wastes has continued unremittingly to this very day as one of the most productive services of the Experiment Station and it is logical to assume that similar studies will be required a1903. “New” building housing the bacteriological and chemical laboratories. Front view approaching station from Island Street.
1903. “New” building housing the bacteriological and chemical laboratories. Front view approaching station from Island Street. -------------------------------------- The early studies of the staff were searching, wide-ranging, and thorough. They applied the principles learned from their sewage work, kept those that fitted, and discarded those that did not. Because intermittent application of sewage had proved beneficial, they tried this on water and found it unnecessary. Because aeration had helped with sewage, they built water filters with horizontal and vertical grooves and breathing tubes, and they built layer over layer of fine sand with the water dropping through the air in between. As they had with sewage, they did a great deal of work in the pre-treatment of water before filtration, including aeration and the addition of chemicals "to facilitate better filtration results." They built strainers of coke, and they sprayed water over treated pebbles. These early trial and error explorations foreshadowed many of our present day procedures for the removal of carbon dioxide, of odors and tastes, and of iron and other metals. In 1903 they pre-treated water with chloride of lime. They tried the new chlorine gas as soon as it became available from Germany. In 1003 they worked out a perforated false bottom for water filters; in 1006 they reported that water could be filtered at 30 million gallons per acre per day, and in 1907 they doubled this rate "with a backwash of the sand when necessary." All of these things we do today.
Inline Sand Separator Whole House Water Filter 100 Gallons Per Minute This system is ideal for filtering out course sediment without the need for cartridge replacement. A polyester screen filters the sediment. Periodically the sediment will need to be removed. This can be done by simply opening the 1/2" MIPT drain cleanout allowing the sediment to be flushed out. A clear sump permits monitoring of trapped sediment. The 2" inlet outlet provides a 100 GPM flow rate. This filter housing is manufactured from the highest quality NSF listed, FDA grade materials. Approximate dimensions 6" width x 10" length. High impact, molded polyester 100 mesh filter screens.Similar posts:
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