Principles and Practices of Management-PPM

 
 
 
Principles and Practices of Management   page no
  unit -1: Business the purpose of Management  
1 The Nature of Business 3
2 Human needs 3
3 The concept of value 3
4 The role of business 4
5 Business and economic development 4
6 Characteristic of Business 5
7 Uncertainty and Risks 5
8 Minimizing uncertainties and risks 5
9 Need for ownership and entrepreneurial characteristics 6
10 why MBA 7
11 Manager/Management 8
12 Administrator/Administration 8
13 Is manager a professional 9
14 how does business influence management 10
15 initiating resource raising 11
16 how the scale of business influence management 11
17 establishing business network 12
18 social responsibility of business 13
19 role of profitability and liquidity 14
20 management implications of globalization 15
21 management implications of privatization 15
22 role of ownership interest in management  16
     
  unit 2-Designing organisation for business  
1 towards designing organisation 23
2 designing against competition 23
3 cost consideration 23
4 division of labour 24
5 structure and flexibility 24
6 designing living organisation 24
7 designing for human environment 25
8 components of organizing 25
9 creating juridical person 26
10 need for social approval 26
11 need to legally exist 26
12 extended organisation 27
13 informal organizations 27
14 need for flexibility 29
15 opportunities and threats 29
16 strengths and weaknesses 30
17 SWOT analysis 30
18 built to last 31
19 how long does an organisation survive 31
20 ways to survive 31
21 managing to survive 31
22 living on an organisation 31
23 building an organisation culture 31
24 innovation and creativity in an organisation 33
25 need for creativity 33
26 need for democratic organisation 33
27 encouraging creativity 33
28 information based learning 34
29 weaving flexibility in an organisation 34
30 management of change 35
31 problem perspective needs change 35
32 build psyche for change 35
33 organization growth 35
34 resource raising and managing as a part of organisation design 36
35 organisation and management 37
     
  Unit-3 need for organisation and business  
1 Entrepreneurial role 40
2 role of owners 41
3 role of managers 41
4 are non employees managers 41
5 are supervisors managers 42
6 direct task workers managers 42
7 stakeholders in an organisation 43
8 customers 43
9 society at large 43
10 government 43
11 owners and shareholders 44
12 employees 44
13 business partners 44
14 stakeholders network 44
15 differing perspective of management 45
16 bureaucracy 45
17 Co-operative establishment 45
18 socio-technical view 45
19 human aspect of organisation 46
20 information system view 46
21 decision making system 46
22 contingent approach 46
23 system aspect of management 46
24 interpersonal role perspective 47
25 interpersonal role  47
26 informational role 47
27 decision role 47
28 operation school of process management 47
29 general principles of managing work 48
30 the show must go on 48
31 the invisible nature of management 49
32 management is value based 49
33 self control and self management 49
34 universality of management 49
35 managing human relation 49
36 equity among people 49
37 limitations to surplus 50
38 defining management 50
39 Koontz 50
40 Essentials of management 50
41 analyzing definition of management 50
42 managing is a process 50
43 designing and maintain environment for performance 50
44 relations building within and outside 51
45 by utilising optimally all resources 51
46 managing effective and efficient use 51
47 attaining business objective for which organization has been established 51
48 achieving economic surplus 51
49 is management a science or art 52
50 more of an applied art 52
51 why fads emerge 53
52 practice based on knowledge 53
53 a systems approach to the process school of management 55
54 anatomy of systems 55
55 important of process 55
56 creating work ethics 56
57 do women have a place in management 56
58 effect of advances in technology of management 56
59 evolving man-machine interface 56
60 mathematical approach 57
61 more based on world wide knowledge 57
62 specialised functions and general management 57
63 Applications specialisation 58
64 increase in managerial load 58
65 recognition to processes 58
66 customer satisfaction oriented work practices 58
67 days of competitive alliances 58
68 result orientation in management 58
     
  Unit-4 Managing Applications  
1 era of discontinuity 64
2 identifying common factors in business organisation 64
3 owners 64
4 law 65
5 stakeholders 65
6 inputs 65
7 output 66
8 internal processes 66
9 factors external to organisation processes 67
10 financial position 67
11 manpower competition 67
12 organisation structure 67
13 threats and opportunities 68
14 the competition 68
15 features of specialised business applications 69
16 purpose of business 69
17 orientation in business 70
18 technology 70
19 industrial practices 70
20 departmentation in vogue 71
21 specific success factors 71
22 knowledge sources 71
23 job skills 72
24 career needs and steps 72
25 key management problems 72
26 scale of business 72
27 nature of competition 73
28 future of trends 73
29 resource specific business application 73
30 public administration 75
31 voluntary service sector management 76
32 self owned small business 76
33 job specific specialisation 77
34 levels and specialised applications 77
35 towards generalization 78
36 knowledge skills and values 78
37 family versus organisation life 79
38 jumping to other lines of business 79
     
  Unit 5-Management of standard functions  
1 Marketing as a functional specialisation 85
2 importance 85
3 major sections of activities 85
4 sales administration 85
5 market information and intelligence 85
6 market distribution control and guidance 85
7 sales promotion 86
8 after-sales-service 86
9 marketing staff characteristics 86
10 finance as a functional specialisation 87
11 major sections of activities 87
12 owned and borrowed funds(capital raising) 87
13 recoveries and credit control 87
14 costing 87
15 accounts 87
16 finance staff characteristics 87
17 materials as a functional specialisation 88
18 major sections of activities 88
19 purchase and purchase intelligence(purchase administration 88
20 stores 88
21 materials staff characteristics 89
22 operations as a functional specialization 89
23 major sections of activities 89
24 Research and development 89
25 standards and specifications 90
26 Tools, jigs and fixtures 90
27 maintenance 90
28 Quality assurance 90
29 production, planning and control 90
30 production process control 90
31 packing, painting and delivery 91
32 material handling 91
33 time keeping 91
34 characteristic of operations staff 91
35 human resource management as a functional specialisation 91
36 major sections of activities 92
37 staffing 92
38 wages, salaries and welfare administration 92
39 industrial relations 92
40 training and development 92
41 industrial safety 92
42 HRM staff characteristics 92
43 information as a functional specialisation 93
44 major sections of activities 93
45 systems development and software conversion 93
46 hardware  maintenance 93
47 information staff characteristics 93
48 projects as a functional specialisation 94
49 major sections of activities 94
50 project administration 94
51 project execution 94
52 project staff characteristics 94
53 administration as a functional specialisation 94
54 major sections of activities 95
55 incoming mail and dispatch 95
56 filing information 95
57 reception and housekeeping 95
58 general services 95
59 staff characteristics 95
60 levels in organisation 96
61 scale of organisation 96
62 general management 97
63 process orientation 97
     
  unit 6:Managing resources  
1 materials as a resource 102
2 man power as a resource 103
3 money as a resource 105
4 machinery as a resource 106
5 information-knowledge as a resource 108
6 service as a resource 109
7 time knowledge as a resource 110
8 scarcity of resource 112
     
  unit 7-planning  
1 why management process starts with planning 118
2 significance of time 119
3 concept of short term and long term 119
4 performance - the result orientation 120
5 the cost in planning 121
6 planning process-types of plans 121
7 planning hierarchy 121
8 business plans 121
9 SBU plans 121
10 corporate plan 121
11 departmental or functional unit plans 121
12 conceptual planning 122
13 policy objectives 122
14 goals 122
15 procedures 122
16 rules 122
17 budgets 122
18 vision statement 122
19 mission 122
20 variable plans 122
21 the plan document 122
22 premising 122
23 vision statement 123
24  mission 123
25 policy objectives 123
26 objectives 123
27 goals 123
28 procedures 123
29 budgets 123
30 the programme 123
31 steps in planning 124
32 premising 124
33 information intelligence collection and forecasting 124
34 establish vision 125
35 define mission 125
36 decide policy 125
37 set objectives 126
38 set goals 126
39 draw programme 126
40 convert programme to budget 127
41 collect information on feed back 127
42 what guides planning 127
43 navigation tool 127
44 performance standard 127
45 tool to establish synergy 128
46 tool to define jobs 128
47 bridge to  gap present with future 128
48 method to evaluate activities 128
49 implementing tool for SWOT 128
50 link with business 128
51 opportunity to establish consistency 128
52 result orientation 129
53 flexibility 129
54 method to enable resource planning 129
55 planning aids 129
56 computer assistance 129
57 Gantt charts 129
58 PERT-program evaluation and revise technique 130
59 CPM-critical path method 130
60 statistical methods 131
61 graphs and charts 131
62 scenario building 131
63 management by objectives- MBO 131
64 research methodology 132
65 budgeting 132
66 forecasting methods 132
67 balance score card 133
68 strategic planning 134
69 analyzing strategies 135
70 types of strategies 135
71 focus strategies 135
72 growth strategies 135
73 diversification strategies 135
74 liquidation strategies 135
75 cost leadership 135
76 differentiation 135
77 why planning fails 136
     
  unit 8-decision making  
1 nature of decision making 140
2 negative decision making 140
3 decision making is action oriented 141
4 decisions are value based 141
5 decisions are time based 142
6 ease in handling decision 142
7 role of creativity and innovation 142
8 posing right problem for decision making 143
9 resources availability and decision making 143
10 decisions are taken against objectives 143
11 decision involves risk taking 144
12 decision involves change management 144
13 decisions do not come singly 144
14 mangers handle a variety of decisions and its different stages synchronously 144
15 decisions are based on bonded rationality 145
16 decisions need open system approach 145
17 how to generate alternatives to arrive at a decision 145
18 the process of decision making 146
19 premising 146
20 understanding limiting factors 147
21 developing alternatives 147
22 evaluating alternatives 147
23 handling decision 148
24 feedback on outcome, periodical review and revision 148
25 types of decision and their implications for managing 148
26 proactive and reactive decision 148
27 prescriptive decision 149
28 structured and unstructured, programmed and non-programmed decisions 149
29 policy decisions 149
30 rules 149
31 procedural decisions 150
32 strategic decisions 150
33 normative decisions 150
34 qualitative  and qualitative decision 150
35 group decisions 150
36 short term and long term decisions 151
37 technical decisions 151
38 assisting techniques in decision making 151
39 marginal analysis 151
40 cost benefit analysis 151
41 experimentation 152
42 research and analysis 152
43 risks analysis 152
44 decision tree 152
45 preference theory 153
46 decision support system 153
47 management information system 153
     
  unit 9-Organising  
1 importance of human resource 160
2 major principles involved in organizing 161
3 division of labour 161
4 principles of work specialisation 161
5 principles of departmentation 162
6 principles of authority levels 162
7 principles of span of management 162
8 scalar principle of management 163
9 principle of unity of purpose 163
10 principle of navigation 163
11 principle of authority and responsibility delegation 164
12 principle of unity of command 164
13 principle of synergy 165
14 principle of team spirit 165
15 organizational types 165
16 formal organization 165
17 informal organisation 165
18 grapevine 166
19 matrix organisation 166
20 project organisation 167
21 virtual organization 167
22 forms of juridical organization 168
23 sole trading concern or proprietorship 168
24 partnerships 168
25 joint stock companies with limited liability  168
26 Co-operatives 169
27 societies and trust 169
28 delegation and empowerment 170
29 delegation of power 171
30 centralization and decentralization 171
31 centralization of authority 171
32 decentralization of authority 172
33 types of organizational authorities 172
34 line authority 172
35 staff authority 173
36 functional authority 173
37 levels of authority and its effect on management 174
38 organizational levels 174
39 operational level management 174
40 middle level management 174
41 top level management 174
42 vertical organizations 174
43 horizontal or flat organizations 175
44 circular organisation 175
45 concept of departmentation 176
46 departmentation 176
47 department in by time 176
48 departmentation by location/place 176
49 departmentation by function 176
50 departmentation by processes 177
51 departmentation by divisions 177
52 strategic business unit 177
53 benefits of departmentation 177
54 culture, work ethos and morale in organisation 177
55 why organisation degenerate 179
56 lack of leadership 179
57 lack of business growth 179
58 need for re-organisation 179
59 lack of conflict resolution 179
60 lack of delegation of power 179
61 tools assisting organizations 179
62 organisation chart 179
63 organisation manual 180
64 position description 180
65 organization performance audit 180
66 increasing organizational efficiency 180
67 balancing structure and organisation 180
     
  unit 10- staffing  
1 Understanding Human resource 186
2 not a standardized resource 186
3 human satisfaction 187
4 reacting differently at different times 188
5 man as a group member 188
6 man seeks companionship and leadership 189
7 personal role and organizational role 189
8 absence of team spirit 189
9 staffing really means fitting people to jobs, and jobs to people 189
10 men bear different knowledge,skills,value,perspectives and experience 190
11 different needs according to levels and positions 190
12 the nature of jobs 191
13 specialisation and authority 191
14 position description and job description 191
15 job satisfaction 192
16 job enlargement 192
17 job enrichment 193
18 job position 193
19 multi tasking and multi skilling 193
20 steps in staffing 193
21 man power planning 193
22 position announcement 194
23 interviewing 194
24 walk-in-interview 194
25 appointment 194
26 induction 195
27 Orientation 195
28 appraising staff members 195
29 appraising career progression 195
30 training and development 196
31 separation 197
32 exit interviews 197
33 promotion 197
34 salary and wages 197
35 maintaining human relations 197
36 making staffing more meaningful 198
37 succession planning 198
38 social planning 198
39 legal approval 198
40 building a learning organisation 198
41 career management 199
42 building teams 199
43 staffing must contribute to building work ethos and culture 199
     
  unit 11-Leading.Directing.Communicating.Motivating  
1 man as an organisation man 204
2 serving organisation interest 204
3 nature instinct to follow 205
4 bridging gap-using tool of communication 205
5 fore thinking about message 205
6 brevity in message 206
7 communication mode 206
8 importance of language 206
9 barriers in communication process 207
10 synchronizing time, cost, effect and process 207
11 types of communication modes 207
12 modern thinking in communication 207
13 motivating towards organisation objectives 208
14 human factors and motivation 208
15 multiple role 208
16 different by themselves 208
17 rational and economic  208
18 social  208
19 self motivated 208
20 complex motivation 208
21 the underlying human nature 208
22 McGregor's Theory X and Theory  Y 209
23 Mile Dual Model theory 209
24 Encouraging creativity and innovation 209
25 Motivation, Motivators and satisfaction 210
26 the chain of need, want  and satisfaction 210
27 Maslow's Hierarchy of need 210
28 Frederick Herzberg 210
29 Vroom's theory of expectation 211
30 the equity theory reinforcement theory  211
31 McClelland's Needs Theory of motivation 211
32 money as a motivator 212
33 Quality of working life 212
34 participation as a motivator 212
35 job enrichment as a motivator 212
36 managerial role and leadership role 213
37 leadership 213
38 managership 213
39 managerial function of leading 213
40 defining leadership and its role 214
41 leading people to objectives 214
42 theories and its implication on leadership 215
43 traits approach 215
44 authority use based leaders 215
45 management by wandering around 215
46 linkert's four systems of management 215
47 the managerial grid 216
48 leadership continuum 216
49 situational or contingency approach to leadership 216
50 fiedler's contingency approach to management 217
51 the path-goal approach 217
52 supportive leadership 217
53 participative leadership 217
54 instrumental leadership 217
55 achievement orientation 218
56 principled leadership 218
57 primal leadership 218
58 should mangers lead 218
     
  unit 12-Controlling  
1 principles of controlling 224
2 establishing measurable goals 224
3 establishing standards 225
4 controls must be economical 225
5 selection of critical points 226
6 a proper feedback system 226
7 need for discipline and flexibility  227
8 control should  reflect  organisation structure 227
9 controls must be developed objectively 227
10 control must lead to corrections 228
11 types of control 228
12 Direct or preventive controls 228
13 feed forwards control 229
14 feed backward control 229
15 real time control 230
16 automation control 230
17 designing control system 231
18 fix objective of control system 231
19 Design essentials 231
20 control techniques 232
21 activities network control 233
22 statistical data base control 233
23 personal observations 234
24 social controls 234
25 systems and procedures 235
26 management  by objectives 235
27 understanding control philosophy 235
28 not for finding faults 235
29 self control and self correction 236
30 increase performance ability  236
31 controls be a part of planning system 236
32 management values and organisation culture 236
33 automation in control 236
34 computers 236
35 communication tools 237
36 software development 237
37 concept of governance 237
     
  unit 13. Coordinating -synchronizing  
1 coordination and synchronization 242
2 coordination as a function 242
3 many players and many activities 242
4 lopsided planning of managerial functions 242
5 over toning and under toning 243
6 lack of uniform and ready resource supply 243
7 decision making 243
8 balancing situations and decisions 243
9 growth orientation  243
10 synergizing 244
11 personal level coordination 244
12 personal role Vs organizational role 244
13 authority Vs power 245
14 managing Vs leading 245
15 Leading Vs following 245
16 concern for human work 245
17 expectations vs. satisfaction 246
18 participation vs. direction 246
19 competition vs.  cooperation 246
20 male vs. female 246
21 ownership vs. employee attitude 246
22 theory X vs. Theory  y 247
23 principled vs. expedient 247
24 risks vs. stability  247
25 self interest vs. organizational interest 247
26 organizational level coordination 248
27 decision making and information 248
28 authority and responsibility 248
29 divisions, departments and sections 248
30 authority levels 248
31 communication and actions 248
32 internal and external relations 248
33 business vs. organisation 249
34 department and processes 249
35 specialised vs. generalized functions 249
36 informal vs. formal organisation 249
37 creative vs. administrative orientation 250
38 line and staff 250
39 profitability  vs. liquidity 250
40 legal vs. commercial 250
41 time vs. costs 250
42 organizational strengths vs. weakness 250
43 opportunities vs. threats 250
44 long term vs. short term 251
45 task prioritization 251
46 in sourcing vs. out-sourcing 251
47 environment of an organisation and support to coordination 251
48 the degree of centralization 251
49 the team work spirit 252
50 primacy of business 252
51 scale of business 252
52 stability and growth orientation 252
53 work ethos and culture 252
54 the quality of leadership 252
55 overall resource supply position 252
56 extend of automation 253
57 organisation discipline 253
58 tools for coordination 253
59 use of computers for coordination 253
60 ability to broadcast simultaneously 253
61 electronic gadgets 253
62 managerial techniques for coordination 254
63 use of work manuals 254
64 streamlining systems and procedures 254
65 well organized group structure 254
66 good information and feedback system 254
67 code of conduct and discipline 254
     
  unit 14-Evolution of management thought  
1 big organisation creations 261
2 army 261
3 church 261
4 state administrations 261
5 monumental creations 261
6 industrial revolutions 261
7 slow development of management thought 262
8 engrossed in creation 262
9 undermining business as a profession 262
10 money making was unimportant 262
11 political economy 262
12 sociology 262
13 management as an art 263
14 businessmen and mangers 263
15 Indian view 263
16 beginning of scientific management 263
17 Frederick W. Taylor 263
18 operational theory of management 264
19 henri fayol 264
20 human aspect of management 267
21 emergence of behavioral sciences 267
22 human group behavior 267
23 Chester Bernard 267
24 peter drucker 268
25 peeping future 268
26 lessons of the past 268
27 effect of changing environment 269
28 looking at the new knowledge 269
29 looking at future management 270
30 scale of business 270
31 stress on business than management 270
32 stress on knowledge worker 270
33 days of worker manger 270
34 change in organizational forms 270
35 change in management education 271
36 understanding global culture 271
37 composition of mangers 271
     
  unit 15-Practicing managerial career  
1 entry level in managerial career 276
2 not making a list of traits 276
3 understanding career making 277
4 career making is a living 277
5 managing is getting work done from others 278
6 business an essential pre-requisite of a career 278
7 the concept of managerial work 279
8 the essential functions of managerial work 279
9 trust 279
10 transparency 279
11 efficiency and effectiveness 279
12 knowledge 279
13 skills 279
14 becoming a worker manger 280
15 becoming a self worker 280
16 manager must be a coach 280
17 understand work to understand worker 280
18 thinking and analyzing 281
19 inability of assisting to move forward 281
20 building self condense 281
21 accepting new positions and jobs 281
22 parallel managerial functions 282
23 spokesperson role 282
24 ceremonial role 282
25 public relations 282
26 social responsibility 283
27 self control 283
28 discipline as a viewer of imbalance 283
29 process of learning 284
30 experience 284
31 understanding humans 284
32 changing business environment 284
33 alertness coming out of learning 285
34 showmanship 285
35 job hopping and career  285
36 nature of employment 286
37 physical work orientation 286
38 physical fitness 287
39 work stress and strain 287
40 some lessons in human relations 288
41 relation with owners 288
42 relation with bosses 288
43 relation with colleagues 288
44 relation with subordinates 289
45 relation with outsiders 289
46 basis of human relations: slavery 289
47 importance of some work habits 289
48 duration of a job 290
Comments