Human Resource Management

SL NO. TOPIC PAGE NUMBER
Unit .1 NATURE OF HUMAN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT  
1 Features of Human resource management 2
2 scope/goal of human resource management 2
3 human resource planning 2
4 recruitment and selection 2
5 training and development 2
6 organizational development  3
7 career development 3
8 job design 3
9 performance management system 3
10 compensation and benefits 3
11 employee assistance 3
12 labour relation 3
13 HR research and information systems and audit 3
14 role/functions of human resource management 4
15 the inspection function 4
16 development function 4
17 motivation function 5
18 maintenance function 5
19 employment function 5
20 training and development function 5
21 compensation and benefits function 5
22 employee relations function 5
23 benchmark/principles of human resource management 6
24 individualistic approach 6
25 make employees feel worthwhile 6
26 fair and just policies 6
27 rewards should be earned 6
28 access to organizational information 6
29 judge the strength 6
30 equal pay  for equal work 6
31 do what you preach 6
32 Features of Human resource development 7
33 M.M.Khan 7
34 Prof.Len Nadler 7
35 Schlem 7
36 Nature and scope of human resource development 7
37 importance of human resource development 8
38 competent employees 8
39 role clarity 8
40 committed work force 8
41 greater trust and respect 9
42 synergy effect 9
43 breaks resistance to change 9
44 facilities HRP 9
45 other benefits 9
46 human resource development in India 9
47 Problems and solution related to the human resource practices 10
48 organizational problems 10
49 general problems 11
50 suggestions to overcome human resource development problems in India 11
51 organizational measures 11
52 general measures 12
53 features of human resource planning 13
54 definitions of human resource planning 13
55 leap and crine 13
56 De Censor and Robbins 13
57 Stoner and Freeman 13
58 Human Resource planning  procedure 13
59 Need and importance of Human resource planning 14
60 future manpower requirements 14
61 adjusting to change creating talented personnel 14
62 protection of weaker sections 14
63 execution of personnel functions 14
64 human assets 15
65 breaking the resistance to change 15
66 reduction in personnel costs 15
67 managerial development 15
68 international strategies 15
69 limitations of human resource planning 15
70 factors affecting human resource planning 15
71 type of organization 16
72 strategy of organization 16
73 environmental uncertainties 16
74 time period 16
75 information 16
76 nature of job being filled 16
77 off-loading 16
78 limitations of human resource planning 16
     
Unit-2 Human Resource planning  
1 definition of Human Resource planning 24
2 uses and benefits of Human Resource planning 24
3 features of Human Resource planning 25
4 the man power management cycle 25
5 limitations of Human Resource planning 25
6 steps involved in  Human Resource planning 25
7 Resignations 26
8 Retirements 26
9 Deaths 26
10 Dismissals 26
11 Transfers 26
12 Promotions 26
13 need for Human Resource planning 26
14 methods and steps in Human Resource planning 27
15 annual estimate of vacancies 27
16 long-range estimate of vacancies 27
17 fixed minimum man specification requirements 27
18 specific position estimations 27
19 steps in Human Resource planning 28
20 first step 28
21 second step 28
22 third step  28
23 example of Human Resource planning at L & T 29
24 planning job requirements and descriptions 29
25 adequate recruitment 29
26 adequate training 29
27 adequate salary structure 29
28 fair appraisal 29
29 job description 30
30 skills analysis 30
31 desirable managerial skills 30
32 decision making skills 30
33 leadership skills 31
34 communication skills 31
35 organizational and social skills 31
36 the basic managerial skills 31
37 selection adequate source of recruitment 32
38 attrition 32
39 features of attrition 32
40 attrition 32
41 reasons 32
42 impact of employee attrition 33
43 cost of re-recurring 33
44 retaining 33
45 loss of productivity 33
46  rates around the world 33
47  attrition in different industries 33
48  attrition in BPO industry 34
49  attrition in IT companies 34
50  attrition in pharmaceutical sector 34
51 battling attrition 35
52 no poach agreement 35
53 background checks 35
54 involvement of families 35
55 cutting down of freebies 35
56 work culture 35
57 employee branding 35
58  a sense of belonging 35
59 performance based incentives 36
60 job enrichment 36
61 ESOP 36
62 Controlling attrition: the office tiger way 36
63 a proposed solution 36
     
unit-3 Job Analysis,Job descritption,Job specification and Job evaluation  
1 features of Job analysis 40
2 Job analysis 41
3  Job analysis provides information on 41
4 steps in Job analysis 42
5 application of Job analysis preparation of job descriptions 44
6 preparations of job specifications 44
7 development of key result areas 44
8 design of training programmes 44
9 development of compensation structure 44
10 strategic planning 44
11 Job description and job specification 45
12 orgagnisational elements 45
13 environmental elements 45
14 behavioral element 45
15 Autonomy 46
16 variety 46
17 task identity 46
18 feed back 46
19 task significance 46
20 techniques of job redesign 46
21 the action that needs to be taken as 46
22 routine jobs 46
23 overspecialized jobs 46
24 job rotation 46
25 job enlargement 46
26 job enrichment 47
27 job evaluation 47
28 scope of application 47
29 introduction of job evaluation system 47
30 contribution of trade unions to job evaluation 48
31 techniques of job evaluation 50
32 job ranking 50
33 job grading 51
34 factor comparison system 52
35 selection of job characteristics 52
36 selection of key jobs 52
37 determination of correct rates of key jobs 52
38 ranking key jobs under each job factor 52
39 allocation of correct rates to each key jobs 52
40 evaluation of all other jobs 52
41 designing, adjusting and operating the wage structure 52
42 point rating system  53
43 select job factor 53
44 construction of this yardstick 54
45 education 55
46 evaluation of the job 55
47 wage survey 56
48 designing the wage structure 57
49 factors affecting the designing of the wage structure area 57
50 labour market conditions 57
51 economic condition of the country 57
52 wage structure of other firms in the same industry 57
53 adjustment and operation of wage structure 57
54 Education:weightage 58
55 experience :weightage 58
56 decision making:weightage 58
57 work complexity and adaptability:weightage 59
58 supervisory responsibilty:weightage 60
59 work contacts:weightage 60
60 independence of operation:weightage 61
61 responsibility for records and reports:weightage 62
62 responsibility for confidential information:weightage 62
63 physical reports:weightage 63
64 working conditions:weightage 63
65 job evaluation factor rating 64
66 the scheme is based on HAY/MSL and point rating system 65
     
unit 4. recruitment, selection, promotion and transfer  
1 concept of recruitment 70
2 organizational policy 70
3 the wages and compensation structure 70
4 government policies 70
5 labour market 71
6 image and reputation of the organization 71
7 candidate preferences 71
8 recruitment process 71
9 man power planning 71
10 job analysis 71
11 job description 71
12 job specification 71
13 personnel specification 71
14 identification of vacancies 71
15 preparation of budget 71
16 preparation and publication of information 72
17 advertisement 72
18 internet 72
19 receipt of application form 72
20 other method of recruitment 72
21 employee  agencies and head hunters 72
22 campus recruitment 73
23 walk in interviews 73
24 employees referral 73
25 aspects of recruitment 73
26 alternatives to recruitment 73
27 overtime  74
28 outsourcing 74
29 temporary employment 74
30 cost effectiveness of recruitment 74
31 source of recruits 74
32 method of recruitment 74
33 internal and external recruitment 75
34 internal source 75
35 external source 76
36 new Vs old blood 77
37 benefits of recruiting from within 78
38 benefits of using external sources 78
39 sources of recruitment commonly used in India 79
40 concept of selection 81
41 criteria for selection 81
42 the selection process 81
43 preliminary screening 81
44 interview 81
45 structures interview 81
46 unstructured interview 82
47 situational interviews 82
48 stress interviews 82
49 assessment centers 83
50 employment test 83
51 reference checks 83
52 medical examination 83
53 promotion 83
54 meaning 83
55 types of promotion 84
56 purposes of promotion 84
57 basis of promotion 85
58 merit as a basis of promotion 85
59 seniority as a basis of promotion 85
60 advantages of seniority based promotion 85
61 disadvantages of seniority based promotion 86
62 seniority-cum-merit 86
63 benefits of promotion 87
64 problems with promotion 87
65 promotion policies 87
66 transfer 88
67 meaning 88
68 reasons of transfer 88
69 types of transfer 89
70 production transfer 89
71 replacement transfer 89
72 rotation transfer 89
73 shift transfer 89
74 remedial transfer 89
75 panel transfer 89
76 reasons for transfer 89
77 temporary transfer 89
78 permanent transfer 89
79 company initiated transfer 90
80 benefits of transfer 90
81 problems of transfer 90
82 principles of transfer 90
83 usefulness of interviews 94
84 structured interviews 94
85 situational 94
86 one to one 94
87 common interview mistakes 94
88 snap judgment 94
89 negative emphasis 94
90 poor knowledge of the job' 94
91 contrast error 95
92 non-verbal communication 95
93 too much/too little talking 95
     
unit-5 training and development  
1 training and development 98
2 development 98
3 objectives of training 98
4 to increase productivity 98
5 to improve quality 98
6 to help company fulfill its future personnel needs 99
7 to improve organizational climate 99
8 to improve health and safety 99
9 obsolesce prevention 99
10 personal growth 99
11 ole of transfer 100
12 trainer or facilitator 100
13 identification of training needs 101
14 need for training 101
15 sources of identifying training needs 102
16 performance appraisal 102
17 career plans 102
18 system introduction 103
19 example of training needs identification: SSL technology 103
20 modules are on 104
21 apex body for need identification 105
22 classifying employees 113
23 deadwood 113
24 work horses 113
25 stars 113
26 problem children 114
27 training efforts 114
28 systems approach to training 114
29 methodology of training and development 115
30 employee training method 115
31 on-the-job training 115
32 apprenticeship programs 116
33 job instructions training 116
34 off-the-job training 116
35 classroom lectures or conferences 116
36 films 116
37 simulation exercises 116
38 cases 117
39 experimental exercises 117
40 computer modeling 117
41 vestibule training 117
42 programmed instructions 117
43 management development methods 118
44 on-the-job development 118
45 coaching 118
46 job rotation 119
47 committee assignment 119
48 appointment to permanent committee 119
49 off-the-job development 119
50 sensitivity training 119
51 transactional analysis 120
52 lecture courses 120
53 simulation exercises 120
54 case study 120
55 simulation decision games 120
56 role-playing 121
57 support of line managers 122
58 evaluating the training programs 123
59 basic criteria 123
60 reactions 123
61 learning 123
62 behavior 123
63 results 123
64 publicise and gain visibility 126
65 goal of training 126
     
unit-6 Perormance improvement  
1 performance counseling 134
2 features of performance counseling 134
3 conditions of effective counseling 134
4 performance counseling phases 135
5 rapport building 135
6 exploration 135
7 action planning 136
8 processes in performance counseling 137
9 feedback 137
10 pre-interview preparation 138
11 interview 139
12 potential appraisal 141
13 meaning of potential 141
14 the first set 141
15 the second set 142
16 features  of performance appraisal 142
17 objectives of potential appraisal 142
18 important qualities 143
19 analytical power 143
20 creative imagination 144
21 sense of reality  145
22 holistic view form a detached position 146
23 approach to problems or situations 146
24 speed/insight 146
25 action planning 146
26 seeing the relative nature 147
27 judgment 147
28 alertness 147
29 effective leadership 147
30 format of potential appraisal 148
31 development plan 149
     
unit-7 performance appraisal  
1 features of performance appraisal 156
2 advantages of performance appraisal 156
3 format 157
4 examples of performance appraisal 158
5 management performance review -guidelines 158
6 the system  158
7 salient features 158
8 period of appraisal 158
9 assessment routes 159
10 role of assessors and reviewers 159
11 major possibilities/ duties 159
12 performance and its assessment 160
13 critical factors and attributes 160
14 job knowledge 160
15 planning 160
16 organizing and resource utilization 160
17 communicating 161
18 decision making 161
19 winning instinct 161
20 relationships and management style 161
21 overall assessment 162
22 A-excellent 162
23 B-superior 162
24 C-good 162
25 D-fair 163
26 E-poor 163
27 record of appraisal and counseling interview 163
28 placement 164
29 career progression 164
30 overall remarks 164
31 the format 165
32 experience with the working of the system 169
33 discussion in the senior mangers conference 171
34 percentage distribution of overall rating 171
35 rating fluctuations 172
36 timeliness of submission of records 172
37 attributes 172
38 strengths and area of improvement 172
39 some other areas of concern 173
40 merit rating system in famous international al airlines 173
41 review factors 177
42 quality consciousness 177
43 performance 177
44 character 177
45 discipline and attendance 177
46 360 degree appraisal 178
47 objectives of 360 degree feedback 178
48 basis of 360 degree assessment 179
49 advantages of 360 degree feedback 179
50 prerequisites for participation in 360 degree feedback 180
51 360 degree feedback 182
52 orientation 182
53 questionnaire distribution 183
54 monitoring and follow-up 184
55 data feeding and report 185
56 workshop 186
57 counseling 187
58 using 360 degree appraisal effectively-some guidelines 187
59 planning levels 188
60 objectives of 360 degree feedback 188
61 appraisal instrument/questionnaire 188
62 appraiser identity 189
63 appraise preparedness 189
64 appraise preparedness 189
65 feedback process 189
66 organizational culture 190
67 implementation level 190
68 feedback management 190
69 identifying improvement areas 190
70 action planning 190
71 monitoring and follow-up 190
72 reinforcement of new behaviors 190
73 results level 191
74 improved individual behavior 191
75 heater awareness of others expectations 191
76 individual and organizational learning 191
77 methods of performance appraisal 192
78 traditional methods 192
79 graphic rating scales 192
80  ranking method 193
81 paired comparison method 193
82 forced distribution method 194
83 checklist method 194
84 simple checklist method 194
85 weighted checklist 195
86 forced choice method 195
87 critical incident method 196
88 essay or free from appraisal 197
89 group appraisal 197
90 confidential reports 198
91 modern methods 198
92 behaviorally anchored rating scales-BARS 198
93 how to construct BARS 198
94 collect critical incidents 198
95 identify performance dimensions 198
96 reclassification of incidents 199
97 assigning values to the incidents 199
98 producing the final instrument 199
99 assessment center 200
100 human resource accounting 201
101 management by objectives 201
102 psychological appraisal 203
     
unit-8 career and succession planning  
1 career planning 210
2 career anchors 210
3 managerial competence 210
4 technical-functional competence 210
5 search for security 210
6 desire for creating and developing something new 210
7 freedom or independence 211
8 features of career planning 211
9 career development cycle 211
10 exploratory stage 211
11 establishment stage 211
12 maintenance stage 211
13 stage of decline 212
14 career need assessment 212
15 career opportunities 212
16 need opportunity alignment 212
17 plateaued employees 212
18 example of a career path model 213
19 some other experiences 214
20 development grade 214
21 officiating assignment 215
22 understudy 215
23 business group 215
24 foreign assignment 216
25 specialized training 216
26 facilities for self-development 217
27 model for planned self-development 217
28 success formula 217
29 job responsibilities 218
30 leadership qualities 218
31 relationships 218
32 self evaluation balance sheet 218
33 job responsibility 218
34 leadership qualities 219
35 relationships 219
36 self evaluation balance sheet 219
37 for my relationships 223
38 succession planning 223
39 features of succession planning 225
40 time frame 225
41 promotion from within 225
42 example of an excellent succession plan 227
43 unexpected succession 228
44 doppelgangers phenomenon 229
45 whose responsibility 230
     
unit-9 quality management  
1 features of total quality management 236
2 tenets of total quality management 237
3 Dr.joseph Juran 237
4 Dr.W.Edwards Deming 238
5 Philip B.Crosby 238
6 Elements of TQM 239
7 The key TQM concepts 239
8 management commitment to quality  239
9 focus of the customer 239
10 prevention rather than detection of defects 239
11 universal quality responsibility 240
12 quality measurement 240
13 continuous improvement 240
14 root cause corrective action  240
15 employees  involvement and empowerment 240
16 synergy of team s 240
17 bench marking 241
18 inventory reduction 241
19 value improvement 241
20 supplier teaming 241
21 training 241
22 need and importance of TQM 241
23 improving customer satisfaction 241
24 enhancing quality 241
25 reduction in waste 241
26 reduction in inventory 242
27 improving productivity 242
28 reducing product development time 242
29 flexibility  242
30 motivates human resource 242
31 enhances competitiveness 242
32 problems in implementing TQM 242
33 TQM incorporates several dimensions 242
34 the crisis implementing TQM arises from  243
35 difficulties experienced in bringing about change 243
36 rising expectations 243
37 features of quality  244
38 definition of quality  244
39 dimensions of quality  244
40 performance 244
41 feature 244
42 reliability  244
43 conformance 244
44 durability  245
45 serviceability  245
46 aesthetics 245
47 perceived quality  245
48 features of quality circles 245
49 introduction 245
50  definition of quality circle 246
51 characteristics of quality circle 246
52 process of quality circles 246
53 the process of QC's involves 247
54 problem collection  247
55 problem analysis 247
56 problem solution  247
57 management presentation  247
58 implamentation,review and follow up 247
59 benefits of quality circles 247
60 self development 247
61 social development 247
62 opportunity to acquire knowledge 247
63 potential leader 248
64 improved communication skills 248
65 job satisfaction 248
66 healthy work environment 248
67 organizational benefits 248
68 important condition of quality circles 248
69 unconditional support 248
70 prompt approval 248
71 long term approach 248
72 proper orientation 248
73 morale trickles from the top 249
74 expenditure scrutiny 249
75 dispel fears 249
76 identify of interests 249
77 regular communications 249
78 proper environment 249
79 effective leader 249
80 features of quality control 249
81 components of quality control system 249
82 types of quality control 250
83 on-line 250
84 off-line 250
85 objectives of quality control 250
86 quality audit for quality control 251
87 need for quality audit 251
88 inspection 251
89 definition of inspection 251
90 Alford and Beauty 251
91 Sprigel and Lansburgh 251
92 objectives of inspection 251
93 quality product 251
94 removing defects 260
95 reduction in costs 260
96 consumer satisfaction 260
     
unit -10 HRD Audit  
1 concept of HRD audit 258
2 HRD audit is comprehensive 258
3   HRD audit examines linkages with other systems 260
4 HRD audit is business driven 261
5 why do most companies wanted HRD audit 261
6 role of HRD audit in business improvement 263
7 methodology of HRD audit  267
8 individual interviews 267
9 group interviews 267
10 workshop 268
11 questionnaire method 269
12 observation 270
13 analysis of secondary data 270
14 analysis of reports, records, manuals and other published literature 270
15 limitations of HRD audit 271
     
unit-11 managing changes through continuous improvement  
1 challenges before the human resource manager 277
2 responding to change 278
3 the new environment 279
4 effect of competition on human resource management 280
5 techniques of continuous improvement 282
6 benchmarking 283
7 benchmarking for competitive advantage 283
8 types of benchmarking 283
9 internal benchmarking 283
10 competitive benchmarking 283
11 functional benchmarking 284
12 generic benchmarking 284
13 another classification of benchmarking 284
14 benchmarking process 285
15 benchmarking human resource policies an practices 286
16 example of human resource management benchmarking 287
17 participation of management 287
18 peon style of management 287
19 delegation of risk-taking power to managers 287
20 composition of top management team  287
21 training of managers 287
22 incentives of top management 287
23 succession planning 287
24 performance appraisal 288
25 action steps for effective benchmarking 288
26 business process re-engineering 289
27 action steps for Re-engineering 292
28 urgency motivation 294
29 human resource accounting 294
30 human resource audit 294
     
unit-12 Good HR practices  
1 components of HR practices 300
2 three components 300
3 Competencies, Commitment and culture 300
4 elements of Good HR 301
5 corporate strategy and business-linked HRD 302
6 systems-engineered and systems-driven HRD 303
7 component systems of HRD-Pareek and RAO 303
8 career systems 303
9 work planning system 303
10 development system 303
11 self renewal system 303
12 culture sub system 304
13 functions of HRD department 305
14 appropriately structured and competent HRD 305
15 roots of organizational culture 308
16 research evidence 309
17 pfeffer 310
18 Yeung and Berman 310
19 Macduffie and krafcik 310
20 stroff 310
21 Huselied 310
22 Bimets 312
23 Welbourne and andrews 312
24 Arthur 312
25 Schneider and Bowen 312
26 Johnson, Ryan and schemit 312
27 Delery and Doty 313
28 impact of good HR practices 314
29 HRD organizational effectiveness 318
30 HRD and HR 321
31 elements of Good HRD 322
32 approach to evaluate the HR function 323
33 The balanced score card approach 323
34 the strategic HR framework 325
35 business strategy 325
36 organizational capabilities 325
37 human resource practices 325
38 the integrative framework  326
39 Arthur Anderson's human capital appraisal approach 327
40 clarification stage 328
41 assessment stage 328
42 design stage 328
43 implementation stage 328
44 monitoring stage 328
45 the HRD score card: A proposed Model 329
     
unit-13 recent techniques in human resource management  
1 employees for lease 336
2 moon lighting by employees 337
3 blue moon to full moon 337
4 blue moon  337
5 quarter moon lighting 338
6 half moon lighting 338
7 full moon lighting 339
8 effect of moon lighting on HRM in future 339
9 dual career options 340
10 reasons for increase in the number of female employees 340
11 consequences and challenges 341
12 concern for other party's grievances too 341
13 absenteeism 342
14 stress 342
15 restricted freedom 342
16 work sharing 342
17 restricted freedom 342
18 work sharing 342
19 difficult task to line managers 342
20 promotions 342
21 transfers 343
22 flexi time and flexi work  344
23 flextime 344
24 flexi work  345
25 over specialization in the work 345
26 lack of challenging work 346
27 lack of interest 346
28 routine nature of work 346
29 training and development 347
30 organization's educational institutes 347
31 management participation in employees organisation s 349
32 influence of employees organization 349
33 need for participation  351
34 nature and extend of participation  351
35 prerequisites for participation  352
36 parties to participation  352
37 contribution to trade union functioning 352
38 possible opposition  353
39 consumer participation in collective bargaining 355
40 causes of disputes 355
41 collaborative management-multi dimensional approach 359
42 workers participation 360
43 customers participation 361
44 government participation 361
45 stockholders participation  362
46 employee's proxy 363
47 human resource accounting  364
48 human resource -meaning 364
49 human resource accounting -definitions 364
50 objections against the treatment of people as assets 364
51 need for human resource accounting 365
52 current practice 367
53 consequences  367
54 aims and objectives of HRA 368
55 methods of valuation of human resources 369
56 historical cost method 369
57 replacement cost 369
58 standard cost method 369
59 present value 369
60 current purchase power method -CPM 370
61 opportunity cost method 370
62 economic value method 370
63 statistical based method 370
64 valuation models 370
65 Lev and Schwartz model 370
66 Eric Flamholtz Model 370
67 Jaggi-Lau's model 370
68 benefits of HRA 370
69 human resource accounting in India 371
70 organizational politics 372
71 who act politically 373
72 causes of organizational politics 373
73 techniques of organizational politics 375
74 effect of organizational politics 376
75 exit policy and practice 377
76 meaning 377
77 Governemtn policy before 1991 and its consequences 377
78 extend of surplus 377
79 consequence of surplus manpower 378
80 problems and solutions of pruning 378
81 VRS 382
82 voluntary retirement scheme 383
83 merits of VRS 383
84 Demerits of VRS 383
85 measures to minimize 384
86 national renewal fund 384
87 the challenges of employee exit 385
88 manage employee exit 385
89 future of human resource management 387
     
unit-14 human resource practice in IT industry  
1 best practices in an industry 394
2 strategic partner 395
3 employee advocate 396
4 change champion 397
5 compensation structure 398
6 the components of compensation system 399
7 job descriptions 399
8 job analysis 399
9 job evaluation 399
10 pay structures 399
11 salary surveys 399
12 types of compensation 400
13 base pay 400
14 dearness allowance 400
15 commissions 400
16 overtime pay 400
17 bounses,profit sharing, merit pay 400
18 stock options 400
19 travel, meal ,Housing allowances 400
20 Benefits- dental ,insurance, medical ,vacation,leaves,retirement 400
21 determination of grades 401
22 establish grade pricing and salary range 401
23 determine an appropriate salary structure 401
24 develop a salary administration policy 401
25 obtain top executives approval of the basic salary program  402
26 communicate the final program to employees and managers  402
27 compensation practices 402
28 form 402
29 quantum 403
30 structure 403
31 Mix 403
32 effectiveness of compensation system 403
33 reinforcement 403
34 expectancy 403
35 equity theory  403
36 compensation survey 403
37 development of salary structure 404
38 job evaluation 404
39 financial incentive systems 404
40 piecework  405
41 production bonuses 405
42 commissions 405
43 executive incentives 405
44 group incentive plans 405
45 production incentive plans 405
46 profit sharing plan 405
47 cost reduction plan 405
48 employee benefits 405
49 insurance 406
50 medical benefits 406
51 retirement benefits 406
52 paid leave 406
53 other benefits 406
54 knowledgement management 406
55 meaning 406
56 characteristic of workers in the knowledge society 407
57 emergency HR strategies of a knowledge economy  408
58 60 HR practices 411
59 Floyd Kemske 411
60 workplace flexibility  411
61 global business 412
62 work and society 413
63 definition of jobs 414
64 strategic roles 415
                                                                
Comments