**EEE 441: Level 4, Term 2.**(Semester: April, 2012.)

Quick Links and Downloads: Question of Class Test 1: DownloadSolution of Class Test 1 : DownloadMarks of Class Test 1: Download Question of Class Test 2: Download Solution of Class Test 2 : DownloadMarks of Class Test 2: Download Question of Class Test 3: Download Solution of Class Test 3 : DownloadMarks of Class Test 3: Download Question of Class Test 4: Download Solution of Class Test 4: Download Marks of Class Test 4: Download | Course outline and Reference texts: Download PDFOverview of term final syllabus:Telephone apparatus, circuits and networks, switching system, traffic analysis, digital transmission, channel coding.Modern telephone services and networks, SONET/SDH, multiple access techniques, mobile cellular telephony, satellite communications. For complete syllabus description,
students are advised to check the syllabus of the class tests. They
should also refer to their class notes.Study Materials: Download PDFSimple telephone circuits: Students can study the entire document for clear understanding. The yellow highlighted sections contains the topics covered in class. The green highlighted sections also contain useful information. Traffic distribution in a trunk group: Download PDF The material covers analysis method of calculating what percentage of total traffic in a trunk group is carried out by a subset of that trunk group (under simplified approximations). Traffic Tables: Download PDF The Earlang traffic table (or Earlang B table) relates offered traffic, number of channels/circuits and blocking probability. The table is necessary for solving math problems. Cyclic Codes: Download PDFThe material covers the coding procedure of simple cyclic codes using generator polynomial. The error detection and correction based on syndrome decoding is also covered here. Satellite Link Design: Download PDF The material covers the various aspects of satellite link design. Satellite Link Design Math Problems: Download PDF An example math problem related to satellite link design is covered here. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): Download PDFBasic concepts of VoIP are explained here. Self Study:1. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 2. Internet telephony and Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) 3. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 4. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 5. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Students should be able to write short notes on these topics. For reference, students can check Bellamy's book. Class Test 1:28th May, 2012. (Monday)Date: Time: 8:00 amLocation: Room No.: 237, ECE buildingDuration: 22 minutesFull marks: 20Syllabus:Basic Concepts: Analog and digital signals, signal bandwidth, transmission bandwidth, noise, interference, distortion, sampling, PAM, PCM, bit rate and bandwidth calculations, TDM, FDM.
Network Topology and Telephone networks: Tree,
mesh, star, bus and ring topology, switching levels, end-office, trunk
office, trunk lines, simple telephone network hierarchy.Telephone circuits:
Simplex and half-duplex simple telephone circuits, "sidetone"
phenomenon, two-wire to four-wire conversion, "singing" phenomenon.Traffic Analysis:
Traffic characterization, traffic measurement, average arrival rate,
holding time, traffic intensity, offered traffic, call arrival
distributions, negative exponential and Poisson arrival distribution,
holding time distribution, loss system, lost calls cleared system,
Earlang's formula and blocking probabilities, traffic tables, circuits
required in a network for a specific blocking rate, network blocking
analysis. [Ref.: Bellamy, "Digital Telephony", Chapter 12. Additional
Ref.: Flood, "Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks",
Chapter 4.]Any other topics covered in class are also included in the syllabus. Question of Class Test 1: Download PDFSolution of Class Test 1 : Download PDF Marks of Class Test 1: Download PDF Class Test 2:12th June, 2012. (Tuesday)Date: Time: 12:00 pmLocation: Second floor ECE buildingDuration: 25 minutesFull marks: 20Syllabus:
Traffic table, Offered traffic, carried traffic, overflow traffic,
blocking probabilities, Lost calls returning system, Lost calls held
system, Lost calls cleared-finite source, Network blocking probability
and end-to-end blocking probability of lost call system.Loss System Traffic Analysis: Queuing System Traffic Analysis: Queuing system, infinite queue, Erlang's second distribution, finite queue, probability of delay, probability of call lost.Switching Systems:
Local switching, transit switching, space division switching, switching
matrices (rectangular, square and triangular/folded), graded switching
matrices, multiple stage switching, three stage switching, strictly
non-blocking condition for three stage switching, optimum three stage
switch, blocking probability and Lee graphs.Any other topic covered in class is also included in the syllabus. Question of Class Test 2: Download PDF Solution of Class Test 2 : Download PDF Marks of Class Test 2: Download PDF Class Test 3:30th September, 2012. (Sunday)Date: Time: 10:00 amLocation: Room No.: 237, ECE buildingDuration: 25 minutesFull marks: 20Syllabus:Time Division Switching (TDM): Analog TDM, digital TDM, T1
system, E1 system, memory access speed and limitations on number of
channels that can be switched, digital memory switch.Two dimensional switching: Time-space switching, memory of control data in space stage, implementation complexity.Space-Time-Space (STS) switching: Concepts, implementation complexity, memory and cross-points requirement.Concepts, implementation complexity, memory and cross-points requirement.Time-Space-Time (TST) switching: Time-Space-Space-Time (TSST) switching: Concepts, implementation complexity, memory and cross-points requirement.Digital transmission: Synchronous and asynchronous transmission, line coding, voice digitization, bit error rate (BER), BER flooring, burst errors, Channel coding: Parity bits, linear block codes, cyclic codes: generator polynomial, code generation, syndrome detection.Mobile-Cellular communication:
Fundamental concepts of cellular communications, concepts of cell and
cluster, hexagonal cells, frequency reuse techniques, frequency reuse
factor, determination of nearest co-channel neighbor, co-channel
interference and carrier to co-channel interference ratio (CCIR), worst
case CCIR, cell-splitting and cell sectoring.Any other topics covered in class (excluding multiple access techniques) will also be included in the syllabus. Question of Class Test 3: Download PDF Solution of Class Test 3 : Download PDF Marks of Class Test 3: Download PDF Class Test 4:13th October, 2012. (Saturday)Date: Time: 10:00 amLocation: Room No.: 237, ECE buildingDuration: 25 minutesFull marks: 20Syllabus:Multiple Access Techniques: FDMA,
TDMA, Direct sequence spread spectrum CDMA (DS-CDMA), frequency hoping
CDMA (FH-CDMA), PN (Pseudo-random noise) codes, interference calculation
for DS-CDMA system, relative advantages and disadvantages of FDMA, TDMA
and CDMA, spectral efficiency calculation for different multiple access
techniques, voice activity factor, chip rate and hoping rate, bandwidth
calculations of DS-CDMA and FH-CDMA, transmitter and receiver of
DS-CDMA system, frequency division duplex (FDD) and time division duplex
(TDD) etc.Optical Fiber: SONET/SDH: Basic concepts,
functional block diagram of SONET multiplexing, STS-1 frame format,
STS-1 overhead rate and frame rate calculations, frequency justification
etc.Satellite communications: Antenna gain, effective
aperture, aperture efficiency, Friis power transmission formula,
familiarization with dB, dBW and dBm units and unit conversion, path
loss, effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) etc.Any other topics covered in class will also be included in the syllabus. Question of Class Test 4: Download PDF Solution of Class Test 4: Download PDF Marks of Class Test 4: Download PDF | Incredible People: Alexander G. Bell (1847 – 1922) “A man is what he makes of himself” Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born American inventor and teacher of the deaf, is best known for perfecting the telephone to transmit, or send, vocal messages using electricity. The telephone began a new age in communications technology. The U.S. Patent Office granted Bell the patent for the "electric speaking telephone" on March 7. It was the most valuable single patent ever issued. It opened a new age in communications technology. Read More |

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**24****th December, 2012.**