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Red Pyramid of Snefru at Dahshur الهرم الاحمر

posted 6 May 2011, 14:16 by Manal Raafat   [ updated 9 May 2011, 10:06 ]

هرم سنفرو الاحمر 

 شيده الفرعون سنفرو والد الملك خوفو فى دهشور بالقرب من القاهره ويسمى ايضا الهرم الشمالى وهو الاكبر بين الاهرامات الثلاث الرئيسيه التى 

بناها الملك سنفرو فى جبانة دهشور 


التسميه

سمى بالهرم الاحمر نظرا للون حجارته المائل للحمره ويسميه السكان المحليين بالهرم الوطواط 

لم يكن الهرم احمر فى بادئ الامراذ انه كان مغطى بطبقه بيضاء من الحجر الجيرى وعندما ازيلت هذه الطبقه ظهرت الاحجار ذات اللون الاحمر من 

تحتها تاركه الغطاء الابيض فقط على الاركان السفليه للهرم    

وهو الهرم الثالث من حيث الحجم بعد هرمى خوفو و خفرع بالجيزه عندما اكتمل بناؤه كان اعلى بنيان اقامه الانسان فى العالم فى ذلك الوقت و يعتقد 

انه المحاوله الناجحه الاولى لتشييد هرم حقيقى املس الجوانب 


تاريخ انشاء الهرم الاحمر 

كان الهرم الثالث الذى بناه الفرعون سنفرو من المملكه القديمه 

فالهرم الاول الذى بناه الفرعون سنفرو فكان هرم ميدوم الذى انهار من قديم الزمان 

 اما الهرم الثانى فكان الهرم الملتوى او المنحنى لان زاويه انحداره تغيرت بشكل كبير و فجائى من 54 الى 43 درجه ميل اثناء تشييده 

وقد كان الهرم الثالث هو الهرم الاحمر موضوعنا اليوم 


يعتقد يعض علماء الآثار ان هرم ميدوم هو اول محاوله لبناء هرم املس مستور الجوانب 

ويتكون الهرم من الداخل من ثلاث حجرات تربطها ممرات  


That is the red pyramid and the passage  to the inside rooms.



The Red Pyramid, also called the North Pyramid .It is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis.Built by Khufu's father, Snefru .


The name 

 Named for the rusty reddish hue of its stones, it is also the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafra at Giza. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest man-made structure in the world. It is also believed to be the world's first successful attempt at constructing a "true" smooth-sided pyramid. Local residents refer to the Red Pyramid as el-haram el-watwat, meaning the Bat Pyramid.

The Red Pyramid was not always red. It used to be cased with white Tura limestone, but only a few of these now remain at the pyramid's base on the corner. During the Middle Ages much of the white Tura limestone was taken for buildings in Cairo, revealing the reddish limestone.


Its History 

It was the third pyramid built by Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu, and is located approximately one kilometer to the north of the Bent Pyramid. It is built at the same shallow 43 degree angle as the upper section of the Bent Pyramid, which gives it a noticeably squat appearance compared to other Egyptian pyramids of comparable scale. Construction began during the thirtieth year of Sneferu's reign, based on graffiti associated with the pyramid it took ten years and seven months to build.


Pharaoh Sneferu has constructed three pyramids.

  • The first was the Meidum pyramid ,that collapsed in antiquity . 
  •  The second was the Bent Pyramid — had the angle of its inclination dramatically altered from 54 to 43 degrees part-way through construction. 
  • The third was the red pyramid of our topic today .

Some archaeologists believe that the Meidum pyramid was the first attempt at building a smooth-sided pyramid, and that it may have collapsed when construction of the Bent Pyramid was already well underway  and that the pyramid may by then have already begun to show alarming signs of instability itself, as evidenced by the presence of large timber beams supporting its inner chambers. The outcome of this was the change in inclination of the Bent Pyramid, and the commencement of the later Red Pyramid at an inclination known to be less susceptible to instability and therefore less susceptible to catastrophic collapse.


The massive corbel-vaulted ceiling of the main burial chamber 


The red pyramid description 

The Red Pyramid is 104 m high (345 feet).A rare pyramidion, or capstone, for the Red Pyramid has been uncovered and reconstructed, and is now on display at Dahshur. 

A pyramidion is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid .They were called it benbenet in the Ancient Egyptian language, it were generally made of diorite, granite, or fine limestone, which were then covered in gold or electrum.

There is a high entrance on the north side , then A passage, 91cm in height and 1.23m wide, slopes down at 27° for 68m to a short horizontal passage leading into a chamber whose corbelled roof is 12.3m high and rises in eleven steps. At the southern end of the chamber ,there is another short horizontal passage leads into the second chamber .The second chamber is similar to the first and lies directly beneath the apex of the pyramid.This gives onto a short horizontal passage that leads to the third and final chamber with a corbelled roof 15m high.


HOW TO MAKE THAT COLLECTION BACKGROUND LIKE STONE ?




Open new document with transparent background .

  • With the Paint Bucket Tool add the color [foreground color] .
  • In the layer panle go to add layer style button and select Bevel and emboss - double click Texture  it will openTexture on the Elements - Pattern click the small black arrow [ click to open the pattern picker ] it will open all the shapes [ open the library from the small round button with the black arrow at the upper right side ].Select the shape you like.
  • Add new layer and place the picture you like and apply layer style if you like.
  • Save your work. 

 I hope you like all the subject and it was useful.

  

  

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