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Black Pyramid of Dashur OF Amenemhat III

posted 25 Jan 2012, 04:53 by Manal Raafat

Black Pyramid
King Amenemhat III built the Black pyramid during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2055-1650 BC). It is one of the five remaining pyramids of the original eleven pyramids at Dahshur ( Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, largest and best preserved in Egypt, which are Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid built from 2613-2589 BCE. ) in Egypt. It was named the Black pyramid for its dark, decaying appearance as a rubble mound.The Black Pyramid is not as well known as the Bent or Red Pyramids at Dashur, as it has been closed to tourists due to its collapsed condition. The Black pyramid was the first to house both the deceased pharaoh and his queens. 

Its Structure and shape 
It was originally about 75 meters tall with a base 105 meters long and an incline of 57°.It was built  out of mudbrick and then covered the outside with white limestone[Typical for pyramids of the middle kingdom ].

Today it appears without its original glory.

The pyramidion, which is the capstone of a pyramid, was covered with inscriptions and religious symbols.
The design of the Black Pyramid was very ambitious, with several passageways and chambers for two queens in addition to the king. The pyramid has two entrances on the south end of the east and west sides, with staircases leading into the interior.

The king was not buried there. When construction of the pyramid was nearly complete, the architects of Amenemhat III became aware of structural problems. The pyramid was being crushed under its own weight– walls and ceilings were being pushed down and doorframes began to buckle, so the workers quickly reinforced it with mudbrick and cedar beams. While their quick thinking saved the pyramid from immediate collapse, it had to be abandoned as the burial place of the king. Amenemhat III chose the site of Hawara, south of Cairo in the Fayum region, as the location of his new pyramid.

Thanks 

Women in the era of the Pharaohs المرأه فى عصر الفراعنه

posted 7 Jan 2012, 04:56 by Manal Raafat

You can know the progress of peoples and nations from the status of women in society andtheir position and prestige and their rights compared to men and their independence from men. 

 In Pharaonic Egypt women had enjoyed almost full equality with men ,and great respect,Social status determined by the level of the person in social hierarchy rather than gender,Egyptian women enjoyed more freedom, rights and privileges compared to what women had known in Greeks. 

Multitude of goddesses (the feminine gods) won sanctification through the history of Egypt.Was to show disrespect to a woman, according to the law (Ma'at) means the opposing the foundations of the Egyptian beliefs and ubiquity.

The Egyptians had Authorized for a woman to become the heir of the throne, but the man who she had chosen to be her husband, would become a ruler or Pharaoh. and Her mission was to preserve the royal blood and its continuity.


The women enjoyed many of the legal rights and the civil rights , such as participation in trade transactions,business dealings and ownership of land and the private real estate, management and sale.

Women had the right to arrange adoptions, and the liberation of slaves, and the formulation of legal settlements, and the conclusion of contracts. They were testify in court, and doing claims against other parties, and represent themselves in legal disputes without the presence of a relative or a representative of the men.During the Pharaonic era women won their full rights in marriage and inheritance. 

They were allowed to get professional jobs such as knitting and sewing, midwife and counselor for the Pharaoh, and were able to also took over senior positions in the temple, such asdancers or High Priestessa position deep respect. 

As for the social situation it was not surprising or prohibited to rise a working woman in terms of social status or position. Among the famous women( from outside the royal family), a woman named (Benet). Was married to a governor of one of the provinces during the reign of the Sixth Dynasty.That lady has got the highest position surnames, the titles of the ruler, and the judge and the Minister of the pharaoh.

It was available for women to work as writers, doctors, but their numbers were less than their male counterparts.
Stated in the Ancient records the names of doctors of the Old Kingdom. Of these doctors Mrs.(Baishest) that lived during the reign of the Fifth Dynasty, and carried the title (President of Physicians) according to the inscription on her grave.
Women's access to the title of writer made them hold the most senior ,and highest positions such as accountant in Pharaonic palace or the store directors,and manager and the work of many women in thetrade and management of stores temples.

Equality between the gender was something normal and innate in ancient Egyptian society, even in the countryside but without an exaggeration, and to preserve the woman's basic role as a mother and wife and housewife. 

The graphics of the era that showed women as workers in the field helping their husband in the harvest, like a man if it was needed. And also in education each girl child was born in the upper layer or in the Royal family should start teaching such as any of the boys in the fourth year of life .
Girls as boys were learning to read and write hieroglyphs and ancient Egyptian literature and letters in a simple form of ancient Egyptian writing of hieroglyphics,to be used in everyday life and not used in official and religious texts, as in the hieroglyphs.
Daughters of kings and princes, had the right to learn the full curriculum, which contains the principles and basics of mathematics and engineering.


There is a saying of one of the Elders of Ancient Egypt:
If you are looking for wisdom and happiness, love your wife and your partner ,take care of her and she will take care of you and treat your home and caring for your children, and with love. Take care of her as long as you are alive because she is a gift and a blessing from the God, who responded to your prayer . Enjoy this blessing because the sanctification of the gift of God is what pleases your Lord.
Feel her passion before her because she is the mother of your children .If you made her happy,she will delight your children If you look after her ,she would take care of them.She is a trust in your heart and your hands and you are responsible about her to the God because you took on yourself a promise in front of the God,that you will be a brother and a father and a partner and a friend of your wife and lover.

تستطيع أن تعرف مدى تقدم الشعوب و الأمم من مكانه المرأه فى المجتمع و وضعها ومكانتها و حقوقها مقارنه بالرجل و استقلاليتها عن الرجل. ففى مصر الفرعونيه حظيت النساء بالمساواة التامه تقريبًا مع الرجال. وتمتعت المرأه باحترام كبير، حيث الوضع الاجتماعي يحدده مستوى الشخص في السٌلم الاجتماعي وليس نوع الجنس وتمتعت نساء مصر بقدر أكبر من الحرية والحقوق والامتيازات مقارنة بما عرفته نساء الإغريق. وحظي عدد وافر من الربات (الآلهه المؤنثه) بالتقديس عبر تاريخ مصر. وكان إظهار عدم الاحترام لامرأة، وفقًا لقانون (ماعت) يعني معارضة أسس المعتقدات المصرية والوجود المطلق. 
وأجاز المصريون للمرأة أن تصبح وريثة للعرش، إلا أن الرجل الذي تختاره زوجًا لها هو الذي يصبح حاكمًا أو فرعونًا. وتتمثل مهمتها في الحفاظ على الدم الملكي واستمراره.

الملكه الجميله نفرتيتى

وتمتعت النساء بالعديد من الحقوق القانونية و المدنيه ، مثل المشاركة في التعاملات التجارية، وامتلاك الأراضي والعقارات الخاصة، وإدارتها وبيعها. و كان للنساء حق ترتيب عمليات التبني، وتحرير العبيد، وصياغة التسويات القانونية، وإبرام التعاقدات. وكن يشهدن في المحاكم، ويقمن الدعاوي ضد أطراف آخرين، ويمثلن أنفسهن في المنازعات القانونية من دون حضور قريب أو ممثل لها من الرجال. و نالت المرأه فى العهود الفرعونيه حقوقها كاملة فى الزواج و الإرث . 
وفتح باب العديد من الوظائف المهنية أمام النساء مثل النساجة والحياكة والقابلة ومستشارة الفرعون، واستطعن أيضًا تولى مناصب عليا في المعبد، مثل الراقصات أو كبيرة الكاهنات وهو منصب بالغ الاحترام.
أما عن الوضع الإجتماعى فلم يكن مستغربًا أو محظورًا أن ترتقي امرأة عصامية من ناحية الوضع الاجتماعي أو المنصب فمن بين النساء الشهيرات من خارج الأسرة الملكية امرأة تدعى (بنِتِ) بكسر النون والباء. كانت متزوجة من حاكم أحد الأقاليم خلال عهد الأسرة السادسة، وقد حملت هذه السيده أعلى الألقاب مكانة، لقب الحاكم، والقاضي ووزير الفرعون.
واتيح للنساء العمل ككاتبات وطبيبات وأن كن بأعداد أقل من نظرائهم الرجال. وترجع السجلات التي ورد فيها أسماء طبيبات إلى الدولة القديمة. ومن هؤلاء الطبيبات السيدة (بيشيشت) التي عاشت إبان عهد الأسرة الخامسة، وحملت لقب (رئيسة الأطباء) وفقًا للنقش الموجود على شاهد قبرها.
و حصول المرأه على لقب كاتب جعلها تتقلد ارفع المناصب مثل وظيفة المحاسب في القصر الفرعوني أو مدير المخزن كما عمل العديد من نساء في التجارة و إدارة مخازن المعابد
المساواة بين الجنسين كان شيئا طبيعيا و فطريا في المجتمع المصري القديم حتى فى الريف لكن بدون مبالغة و بالحفاظ على دور المرأة الأساسي كأم و زوجة و ربة بيت و كانت الرسومات من العصر هذا تبين المرأة كعاملة في الحقل تساعد زوجها في جمع المحصول مثلها مثل الرجل إذا احتاج الأمر.
و كذلك فى التعليم كل طفلة مولودة في الطبقة العليا أو في الأسرة الملكية كان من الواجب أن تبدأ تعليمها مثل الصبيان أي في السنة الرابعة من عمرها و البنات مثل الأولاد كن يتعلمن الكتابة و القراءة بالهيروغليفية و الأدب المصري القديم و الحروف الهيرية و هي شكل من أشكال الكتابة المصرية القديمة لكن ابسط من الهيروغليفية و تستعمل في الحياة اليومية و لا تستخدم في النصوص الدينية و الرسمية كما في الكتابة الهيروغليفية. بنات الملوك و الأمراء كان لديهم الحق في تعلم المنهج كاملا و الذي كان يحتوي على مبادئ و أساسيات علم الرياضيات و الهندسة . 

وهناك قول لأحد حكماء مصر القديمة : 
إذا كنت تبحث عن الحكمة و السعادة أحب زوجتك و شريكتك و اهتم بها و أرعاها فهي ستهتم ببيتك و ترعى أطفالك و ترويهم بحبها. اهتم بها ما دمت على قيد الحياة لأنها هدية و نعمة من ربك الذي استجاب لصلاتك و دعواتك. تمتع بهذه النعمة لان تقديس هذه العطية الالهية هو ما يرضي ربك.حس بآلامها قبلها لأنها أم لأطفالك . إذا جعلتها سعيدة ستسعد أولادك وإذا اعتنيت بها ستعتني بهم . هي وديعة في قلبك و يديك و أنت المسئول عنها أمام ربك لأنك أّخذت على نفسك عهدا أمام مزار الالهة انك ستكون أخا و أبا و شريكا و صديقا لزوجتك و عاشقتك. 

ارجو ان تكونوا قد استمتعتم بهذا المقال الذى يعرفنا كيف كانت المرأة فى مصر من آلآف السنين 

شكرا لكم 

Queen Tiye The Wife of Amenhotep III&The Mother of Akhenaten الملكه الفرعونيه تى زوجة امنحوتب الثالث

posted 7 Jan 2012, 04:06 by Manal Raafat

Her names:  Tiye , also spelled Taia, Tiy and Tiyi.
The Photoshop manipulated photo
The Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III. 

The original photo
Her Father : Yuya, was a wealthy landowner from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmin, where he served as a priest( A priest is a person authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion ),and superintendent of oxen.

Her Mother : Thuya, was involved in many religious cults, as her different titles attested (Singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min.( Min was an Egyptian fertility god),which suggests that she was a member of the royal family. 



Her Brother : Anen, who was Second Prophet of Amun.Anen was an Ancient Egyptian official during the late Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. 

Tutankhamen and Ay : Other egyptologists speculated that Ay, a successor of Tutankhamen as pharaoh after the latter's death, also might have been descended from Tiye. No clear date or monument can confirm the link between the two, but these Egyptologists presumed this by Ay's origins, also from Akhmin, and because he inherited most of the titles that Tiye's father, Yuya, held during his lifetime, at the court of Amenhotep III.

Her roots : Some scientists had suggested that Tiye's father, Yuya, was of Asiatic(Asian ) or Nubian descent due to the features of his mummy and the many different spellings of his name, which might imply it was a non-Egyptian name in origin. Some suggest that the queen's strong political and unconventional religious views might have been due not just to a strong character, but to foreign descent.

Her life : No previous queen ever figured so prominently in her husband's lifetime like Tiye.Tiyi regularly appeared besides Amenhotep III in statuary, tomb and temple reliefs, and stelae while her name is paired with his on numerous small objects, such as vessels and jewelry, not to mention the large commemorative scarabs, where her name regularly follows his in the date line. Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. They had at least six children, one of whom,Akhenaten, went on to become pharaoh. Tiye's eldest daughter, Sitamun, also is likely to have married her father, Amenhotep III, and become entitled,Royal Great Wife as well. Recent works explain that it was mostly a symbolical marriage involving many religious and administrative duties, as it occurs during Tiye's lifetime and, probably, with her consent. Other than those two, Tiye also gave birth to Henuttaneb, Nebetiah, Isis, and Thutmose. A fifth daughter, Baketaten, is presumed as attributed to Tiye, but the father still is not confirmed.

Recent DNA analysis sponsored by the Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities Zahi Hawass published in February 2010, shows that Tutankhamun, the successor of Tiye's son Akhenaten, was born of a brother-sister union.This rules out any possibility that Tutankhamun's mother was Akhenaten's secondary wife Kiya, because no known artifact accords Kiya the title or attribute "the king's daughter." Kiya was not, therefore, the daughter of a Pharaoh (and thus not a daughter of Queen Tiye) and could not have been Akhenaten's sister. An extant mummy, known as The Younger Lady and found in the same tomb (KV35) as Tiye's mummy, was identified through the same DNA testing as being Tutankhamun's mother, but it is unclear which of Akhenaten's sisters it might be; whether Henuttaneb, Nebetiah, Iset, Baketaten, or, if she was indeed Akhenaten's sister, Sitamun. 

Influence at court:
Tiye wielded a great deal of power during both her husband’s and son’s reigns. Amenhotep III became a fine sportsman, a lover of outdoor life, and a great statesman. He often had to consider claims for Egypt's gold and requests for his royal daughters in marriage from foreign kings.
Tiye became her husband’s trusted adviser and confidant. Being wise, intelligent, strong, and fierce, she was able to gain the respect of foreign dignitaries. Foreign leaders were willing to deal directly through her. She continued to play an active role in foreign relations and was the first Egyptian queen to have her name recorded on official acts.She may have continued to advise her son, Akhenaten, when he took the throne.
Amenhotep III died in Year 38 or Year 39 of his reign (1353 BC/1350 BC) and was buried in the Valley of the Kings in WV22, however, Tiye is known to have outlived him for as many as twelve years. Tiye continued to be mentioned in the Amarna letters( are an archive of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. ) and in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king. A lock of Tiye's hair was found in a nest of miniature coffins in Tutankhamun's tomb which is stated as belonging explicitly to Tiye.
Tiye is believed to have been originally buried in Akhenaten's royal tomb at Amarna alongside her son and granddaughter, Meketaten, as a fragment from the tomb not long ago was identified as being from her sarcophagus.


  الملكه تى هى الزوجه العظمى المفضله للملك امنحوتب الثالث فرعون الأسرة الثامنة عشر الشهير ،ووالدة أخناتون وربما جدة توت عنخ أمون..كانت سيده حكيمه و ساندت زوجها وابنها في حكم البلاد ولعبت دورا ما في إعداد توت عنخ آمون ليصبح ملكا.

 و الدها و أسرتها
لم تأت من بيت ملكي، وإنما كانت فقط من أسرة منالوجهاء والأعيان . 
كان إسم والدها يايا و يعتقد بعض العلماء أنه من اصل آسيوي بسبب ملامح مومياءه ومن هجاء اسمه بطرق مختلفه، والذي قد يعني ضمنا ان اسمه في الأصل كان غير مصري.
و هناك علماء آخرون يميلون الى أن تى من اصول مصريه وذلك بسبب قوى الملكه السياسية والدينية غير التقليديه، وكان لها وجهات نظر ذات طابع قوي و يميل بعض العلماء الى انها من أصل مصرى نوبى بسبب ملامح وجهها .
كانت اسرة تى تعيش فى أخميم و كان أبوها (يايا) ضابطا بالجيش، وترقي حتي حصل علي رتبة 'قائد العجلات الحربية'­ اي سلاح الفرسان­ اما أمها فكانت كاهنة في معبد الإله 'مين' مما اتاح لتِيْيِ ان تحصل علي قدر من الثقافة.أما أخا تِيْيِ، anen، كان (النبي الثاني لآمون).
تم العثور على خصلة من الشعر تى فى عش توابيت مصغرة في قبر توت عنخ آمون الذي ينص صراحة على أنها تنتمي إلى تى .


Thanks 
MR
Related links
Women in the era of the Pharaohs

Menes The Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh مينا موحد القطرين

posted 14 Aug 2011, 07:18 by Manal Raafat

The original picture of Menes 
The Photoshop manipulated picture 

King Menes is traditionally believed to have begun Egyptian history.Ancient tradition ascribed to Menes the honour of having united Upper and Lower Egypt into in a single kingdom and becoming the first pharaoh of Dynasty I .

 Actually, Menes is the Greek form of the name provided by the third century BC Egyptian historian, Manetho.The name, Menes, means "He who endures" ,denoting a semi-legendary hero .

 
Menes was the founding king of the 1st Dynasty, and was the first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. Ancient Egypt's most predominant form of civilization began with his crowning, and did not end permanently until the beginning of the  Roman era, which started with Augustus Caeser. Menes founded the city of Memphis, and chose as its location an island in the Nile, so that it would be easy to defend. He was also the founder of Crocodopolis. During his time, the Egyptian army performed raids against the Nubians in the south and expanded his sphere of influence as far as the First Cataract. However, his name does not appear on extant pieces of the Royal Annals (Cairo Stone and Palermo Stone), which is a now-fragmentary king's list that was carved onto a stela during the Fifth dynasty. He typically appears in later sources as the first human ruler of Egypt, directly inheriting the throne from the god Horus. He also appears in other, much later, king's lists, always as the first human pharaoh of Egypt. Menes also appears in demotic novels of the Graeco-Roman Period, demonstrating that, even that late, he was regarded as important figure.

  Who is Menes ? 
Menes and Narmer.
  The almost complete absence of any mention of Menes in the archaeological record, and the comparative wealth of evidence of Narmer, a protodynastic figure credited by posterity and in the archaeological record with a firm claim to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, has given rise to a theory identifying Menes with Narmer.
 
  Aha (the pharaoh Hor-Aha) The relationship between Hor-Aha and Menes (as one person or as successive pharaohs) have arisen. The Palermo stone, inscribed on both sides of a black basalt slab, dates from the  Fifth Dynasty and records names of the kings of the 1-5th Dynasties. The first three dynasties consist almost exclusively of events that give the years their names. The King-list on this stone mentions several pre-dynastic kings as well as the name of Narmer, Menes, and Aha. Some states that "Menes is Narmer and the First Dynasty begins with him". However,some others states that it is "a fairly safe inference" that Menes was Hor-Aha.

 
His Family :
His chief wife was Queen Berenib, though she was not the mother of his heir, King Djer, and his mother was probably Neithotepe, if that lady was not also his wife. His death is a mystery, for, according to legend he was attacked by wild dogs and  Nile crocodiles in the  Faiyum . Aha's tomb resides at Saqqara, the famed necropolis of Memphis.

Capital 
Manetho associates the city of Thinis with the first dynasties (Dynasty I and Dynasty II) and, in particular, Menes, a "Thinite" or native of Thinis. Herodotus contradicts Manetho in stating that Menes founded the city of Memphis as his capital after diverting the course of the River Nile through the construction of a dyke. Manetho ascribes the building of Memphis to Menes' son, Athothis, and calls no pharaohs earlier than Dynasty III "Memphite".

  His Death
Menes, we are told ruled for about 62 years, led the army across the frontier and won great glory. He was killed by a crocodile.


 
الملك مينا صاحب التاجين و موحد القطرين
سمى هذا العصر بالعصر العتيق وهو يشمل الأسرتين الأولى والثانية من تاريخ مصر القديم 
الملك مينا موحد القطرين فرعون من الأسرة المصرية الأولى مدينة طيبة (الأقصر
 حاليا)، استطاع أن يوحد القطرين(المملكتين الشمال والجنوب) حوالي عام 3200 ق.م ولقب لهذا الفضل العظيم بعدة ألقاب مثل ملك الأرضين، صاحب التاجين، نسر الجنوب، ثعبان الشمال
 أصبح الملك "مينا" مؤسس أول أسرة حاكمة فى تاريخ مصر الفرعونية، بل فى تاريخ العالم كله، ولبس التاج المزدوج لمملكتي الشمال والجنوب

أصل اسم مينا
يذكر اسم مينا في بعض الكتابات المصرية القديمة باسم (ميني)، ومن ثم حرف المصريون الاسم إلى مينا و كلمة (ميني) تعنى باللغة المصرية القديمة "يؤسس" أو "يشيد"، فكأن المصريين أرادوا أن يبجلوا عمله في اسمه  وبعض المؤرخين يؤكدون أن (ميني) فعل أو لقب وليس اسما. أما في اللغه القبطية(المصرية القديمه) فاسم مينا له مرادفات كثيرة منها  ثابت أو راسخ أو مكين أو دائم أو باق

 انشاء قلعة الجدار الأبيض و العاصمه الموحده
أدرك الملك "مينا" ضرورة بناء مدينة متوسطة الموقع، يستطيع منها الإشراف على الوجهين القبلى والبحري، فقام بتأسيس مدينة جديدة على الشاطئ الغربي للنيل مكان قرية "ميت رهينة" الحالية بمحافظة الجيزة، وقد كانت في أول الأمر قلعة حربية محاطة بسور أبيض، أراد بها صاحبها أن يحصن ويحمى المملكة من غارات أصحاب الشمال، وكان "مينا" قد أسماها "نفر" أى الميناء الجميل، وفيما 
بعد سميت باسم "ممفيس" عصراليونان، ثم اطلق عليها العرب "منف" عند فتح مصر، وقد أصبحت مدينة "منف" عاصمة لمصر كلها فى عهد الدولة القديمة حتى نهاية الأسرة السادسة

لوحة نارمر
تم تسجيل انتصارات الملك مينا على مملكة الشمال وتوحيده البلاد على هذه اللوحه   ويرجح المؤرخون أن نارمر هو مينا


How to manipulate the picture ?
Open the picture in Photoshop .
1 - To adjust the color levels, open the Adjustments Panel [from Window]- select Levels [ the second icon from the left] drag the sliders at the right and left to the middle . 
2 - Now to change the background color, select the white color of the background select it with the Quick Selection Tool then delete it with the delete key . With the Paint Bucket Tool add the color you like to the deleted background.
3 - Add new layer under the background layer and increase its size from canvas [ Image -Canvas]and do as the illustration below .
4 - Add the same color of the background to the new layer with the Paint Bucket Tool[ select the layer then apply the color]. 
5 - Apply style you like to the layer from the Styles Panels to give the effect of frame [ Window - Styles].
6 - Type the name and apply the same Style to it . 
7 - Save your work. 

Alexander the Great الإسكندر الأكبر

posted 31 Jul 2011, 07:03 by Manal Raafat

Alexander III of Macedon ,The ancient king of Macedon.

He was a king of Macedon , a state in the north eastern region of Greece, and by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history, stretching from the Ionian sea[ is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.] to the Himalaya [ or Himalaya Mountains is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.]. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time.He was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle. In 336 BC he succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne after Philip was assassinated [ killed ]. Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony, using both military and diplomatic means. Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army.

 
His birth and childhood : 
Alexander was born July 356 BC,in Pella, the capital of the Ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon. He was the son of Philip II, the King of Macedon. His mother was Philip's fourth wife Olympias[the principal wife], the daughter of Neoptolemus I, the king of Epirus .

  On the day that Alexander was born: 

Philip ( his father) had won the war against the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus—one of the Seven Wonders of the World—burnt down, leading Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it burnt down because Artemis was attending the birth of Alexander.


 Alexander the Great's horse [ Bucephalus ] 

It mean  "ox-head" It is one of the most famous actual horses of antiquity. Bucephalus died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326[ due to old age , he was already thirty] BC, in what is now modern Pakistan, and is buried Pakistan. The story of the horse started when Alexander was ten years old a horse trader from brought Philip a horse The horse refused to be mounted by anyone, and Philip ordered it to be taken away.Alexander, detected the horse's fear of his own shadow and asked for a turn to tame the horse, which he eventually managed.Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horse for him.


His Education :

When Alexander was thirteen years old, Philip began to search for a tutor .Many people were passed over,In the end, Philip offered the job to Aristotle, who accepted, and Philip provided the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira .


  Alexander in Egypt : 

He spent several months in Egypt as part of his on-going campaign against the mighty Persian  Empire of Darius III. After conquering Persia's naval bases all along the coastline of Asia Minor and Syria-Palestine, Alexander marched south into Egypt [ in an eccentric diversion]where he remained for some six months. Alexander's Egyptian sojourn was essential to his future plans. He needed a strong coastal base for both strategic and commercial purposes, from which he could not only communicate across the Mediterranean but which could also handle the highly lucrative sea-borne trade network he wanted to divert from Phoenicia    For almost 200 years Egypt had been occupied by Persia who had incorporated it into the growing empire, and assuming the Egyptian crown by right of conquest the Persian king had ruled in absentia through a satrap, exploiting its vast grain reserves and taxing its people. Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator[ liberate the Egyptians from Persia' occupation ].He was pronounced the new "master of the Universe" and son of the deity of Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert,Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and subsequent currency depicted him adorned with ram horns as a symbol of his divinity. he was offered the double crown of the Two Lands. Anointed as pharaoh in Memphis on 14 November 332 bc, the culmination of his coronation was the climactic moment when the high priest named him 'son of the gods' according to traditions dating back almost 3,000 years. This title deeply affected him, and Olympias' references to him being the son of Zeus must have filled his mind; indeed, there were even scenes of the king of the gods Amun ('Zeus') impregnating selected queens with the heir to the throne! In a world where the gods were perceived as living entities and were considered a part of everyday life, Alexander must now have began to believe in his own divinity as a fact rather than a simple exercise of propaganda.  Alexander left Egypt in the spring (mid-April) of 331 bc a changed man. Although he would never return alive to see the city he had founded, it would eventually be his final resting place when his embalmed body was returned there for burial only 10 years later. During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.

 
His Death :

The story of Alexander's death is a bit mysterious .On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the  in Babylon at the age of 32 .
14 days before his death, Alexander entertained his admiral Nearchus[ was one of the officers, in the army of Alexander] and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa[ a friend of Alexander ].He developed a fever, which grew steadily worse, until he was unable to speak .
Another story hat Alexander was struck down with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honor of Hercules, and died after some agony.
Another possible cause of Alexander's death is an overdose of medication containing hellebore, which is deadly in large doses.


Fate after death :

Alexander's body was placed in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus, which was in turn placed in a second gold casket. Some said that the land where Alexander was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever".
At any rate, Ptolemy stole the funeral cortege, and took it to Memphis.His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least Late Antiquity.Ptolemy IX Lathyros, one of the last successors of Ptolemy I, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could melt the original down for issues of his coinage. Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria .



Alexander wished to be remembered as a god by burial at Siwah, but this wish was not fulfilled. He may have been remembered as a great king of Macedon by burial at Aegae, but this possibility too was not realized. Though he was indeed buried at Alexandria, he did not become the legitimizing symbol the Ptolemies had hoped. Not truly god, not merely king, refusal in death to become another’s icon, it seems the memory of Alexander as traced through his physical remains is as ancient and distant to us as the body itself.

I had tried to make the story as short as possible so you will not got tired of reading it .
Sorry also for not including Photoshop lesson today cause the post will be so long .
Thanks 
الإسكندر الأكبر أو الإسكندر المقدونى
كان ملك مقدونيا  وهى مقاطعه تقع فى شمال شرق اليونان  قبل سن الثلاثين استطاع تكوين أكبر الامبراطوريات في التاريخ القديم و التى تمتد من البحر الأيوني(فرع من البحر المتوسط ) حتى جبال الهيمالايا كان القائد الذى لا يقهر ويعتبر واحدا من القادة الأكثر نجاحا على الإطلاق  وقد درس على يد أرسطو الفيلسوف الشهير  في 336 قبل الميلاد خلف والده فيليب الثاني المقدوني الى العرش بعد اغتياله وحد فيليب قبل موته معظم دول المدينة اليونانية والبر الرئيسى تحت الهيمنة المقدونيةباستخدام كل الوسائل العسكرية والدبلوماسية  ورث الاسكندر مملكة قوية وجيشا ذو خبرة تلقى والده يوم مولده العديد من البشارات فقد انتصرت جيوشه فى احدى الموقع الهامه بينما فازت خيله في دورة الالعاب الاولمبية  

حصان الإسكندر  
وهو واحد من الخيول الفعلية الأكثر شهرة في العصور القديمة مات الحصان و دفن فى باكستان بسبب كبر سنه فقد بلغ ثلاثون عاما من العمر  لهذا الحصان قصه شهيره عندما اراد فيليب والد الإسكندر ان يشتريه ولم يستطيع احد ان يركبه ولكن الإسكندر عرف كيف يتعامل معه و كان عمره آنذاك عشره أعوام فداعبه أبوه قائلاً" يا بنى يجب أن تجد مملكة كبيرة بما يكفي لطموحاتك. مقدونيا صغير جدا بالنسبة لك " و قبله حانياً عليه و الدموع فى عينيه 

الإسكندر فى مصر 
كانت رحلة الإسكندر ضروريه له لتأمين فتوحاته و كانت مصر تقع تحت اللإحتلال الفارسى  فلما هزم الإسكندر الفرس و دخل مصر شعر المصريون انه المحرر لهم من الإحتلال الفارسى و الذى دام 200 عاما  و نصبوه ابن الآلهه و البسوه التاج المزدوج  مما زاد من حب الاسكندر لمصر  و لكن اقامته بها لم تستمر الا ما يقرب من ستة اشهر و اكمل رحلته بعدها الى فارس  توفى الإسكندر فى بابل عن عمر يناهز 32 عاما ولم يثبت حتى الآن السبب الحقيقى لوفاته فقيل انه مات بالسم  او الحمى  اختلف على مكان دفنه فسرقه احد ملوك البطالمه بعده و دفنه فى الاسكندريه التى اسسها 


هذا ملخص بسيط لحياة هذا العملاق العظيم شكرا لمتابعتكم

Eighth Wonder of the World

posted 10 Jul 2011, 02:50 by Manal Raafat

Eighth Wonder of the World is a term sometimes used to describe things in comparison to the Seven Wonders of the World.
For understanding the meanings of this . 
Wonders of the World are lists according to the age of man made constructions to. 

  Seven Wonders of the Ancient World : the popularly known ancient list.( there is a post in the blog please just click the link)
 
Wonders of the World :
New Seven Wonders of the World : contemporary attempt to create a list of new seven wonders to update the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World concept with a modern list of wonders.It is
  1. Chichen Itza ,Yucatán, Mexico .
  2. Christ the Redeemer ,Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
  3. Colosseum, Rome, Italy.
  4. Great Wall of China, People's Republic of China.
  5. Machu Picchu , Peru.
  6. Petra ,al-Batrāʾ Ma'an Governorate, Jordan .
  7. Taj Mahal, Agra, India.  
Things labeled as the Eighth Wonder of the World 
  •   Natural places 
* Grand Canyon, in Arizona, in the United States. * Halong Bay, in Vietnam * Milford Sound, New Zealand; called so by Rudyard Kipling. * Natural Bridge, in Virginia . * Pink and White Terraces near Rotorua, New Zealand, destroyed by volcanic eruption in 1886, re-discovered under 60m of water in 2011 . * Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland. * Burney Falls in California; called so by Theodore Roosevelt.
  • Pre-1900 creations
Banaue Rice Terraces, Philippines

* Great Wall of China, China. * The Taj Mahal, India. 
* Stonehenge, United Kingdom. * Machu Picchu, Peru. 
* Banaue Rice Terraces, Philippines [ are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the "Eighth Wonder of the World"] 
* The Terracotta Army of Xi'an, China. 
* Amber Room in the Catherine Palace near Saint Petersburg, Russia. 
* The monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain. 
* The rock-hewn churches at Lalibela, Ethiopia (Church of Saint George, Lalibela) 
* The stelae of Axum, Ethiopia. 
* Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. 
* Royal Palace in Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
* Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, United States 
* Angkor Wat, Cambodia. 
* The moai statues of Easter Island, Chile.
  • Post-1900 creations
Palm Islands of Dubai.

* Empire State Building, New York City. 
* Palm Islands of Dubai. 
* Panama Canal. 
* Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia; the story of its construction was recounted in the opera The Eighth Wonder 
* Thames Barrier, London, England. 
* Bahá'í terraces, on Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. 
* Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China. 
* Reliant Astrodome in Houston, Texas. 
* Akshardham Delhi. 
* West Baden Springs Hotel. 
* Pikeville Cut-Through in Pikeville, Kentucky; given the title by The New York Times. 
* International Space Station in Orbit around Earth; given the title by the Americans and Russians. 
* Forra di Tremosine Road, on the coast of Lake Garda, Italy; given the title by Winston Churchill 
* Great Manmade River Project in Libya; title given by Muammar Gaddafi for the world's largest irrigation project 
* Karakoram Highway a road built on mountains nearly 4693 m high and a engineering milestone. situated between the Pakistani Gilgit-Baltistan region and Mainland China Xinjiang region.
  • Popular culture
 * King Kong was introduced as the "Eighth Wonder of the World" in the 1933 RKO Pictures movie of the same title, as well as in the 2005 remake. * André the Giant, a professional wrestler, was referred to as the 8th Wonder of the World by the World Wrestling Federation.Similarly, when female professional wrestler, Chyna, joined the organization several years later, she was billed as "The Ninth Wonder of the World."

Life in Ancient Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs{Part Two}

posted 10 Jul 2011, 02:38 by Manal Raafat

Welcome again to my second post about Life in Ancient Egypt to continue the story .I had divided it because it is long ,and I do not like you to get tired of me . Thanks for your time . MR
Agriculture
The ancient Egyptians had a rich fertile soil resulting from annual inundations of the Nile River,so Egyptians were able to produce an abundance of food .Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River. The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet (flooding from June to September ), Peret (planting  from October to February ), and Shemu (harvesting from March to May ) .Farmers used sickles to harvest their crops. The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer wheat, and barley, and several other cereal grains, all of which were used to make the two main food staples of bread and beer. Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots . They cultivate also flax plants ,which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing.

Animals

The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole. They use the animal's symbols to refer to their gods . the worship of the gods in their animal form was extremely popular, such as the cat goddess Bastet and the ibis god Thoth, and these animals were bred in large numbers on farms for the purpose of ritual sacrifice. 

Daily life 

*** Housing :
Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their houses were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling flour and a small oven for baking bread. Walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture .
*** Hygiene and appearance : 
Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness, and aromatic perfumes and ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin.

- Clothing was made from simple linen sheets that were bleached white, and both men and women of the upper classes wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved. Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children, while the father provided the family's income.
 
- Clothing materials were mainly linen and in Roman times occasionally cotton, an import from India . Wool was used to a lesser extent .    Animal skins, above all leopard skins, were sometimes worn by priests and by pharaohs in their role as first servants of the god. Such outfits were found in Tutankhamen's tomb and were depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs
 
- Fashion    The clothes were generally made of linen and kept simple: a short loincloth resembling a kilt for men, a dress with straps for women. 

- Laundering :  Cleanliness was apparently next to godliness in ancient Egypt. Manually washing clothes was hard work. Soap was unknown to the ancient Egyptians, so lye, made of castor-oil and saltpetre or some such substances, or detergents made of soap wort or asphodel  were used. The laundry was beaten, rinsed and wrung by pairs of workers. By 1200 BCE there were fire-proof boilers in the wash-houses, and the hot water lightened the workload. The poorer people had no access to facilities and had to do their laundry under at times difficult conditions. Washing on the shore of the river or the bank of a canal, which had the advantage of not having to carry a lot of water in heavy earthen pots.

- Headdresses : ordinary Egyptians did not wear any headdress as a rule , but it was better if you will put wigs like the Africans,perhaps on special occasions. The pharaohs are always wearing crowns.
 
Footwear : Egyptians went barefoot much of the time, but wore sandals on special occasions or when their feet were likely to get hurt. The sandals were tied with two thongs and, if they had a pointed tip this was often turned upwards. They were made of leather or rush woven or stitched together, and often had leather soles and straps.Early Middle Kingdom shoes were little more than sandals with straps between the toes and joined to the sides at the heel with the upper leather just covering the foot without being fastened to the foot itself.

 
- Music and dance : were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular. In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, and drums and imported lutes and lyres from Asia.[128] The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument that was especially important in religious ceremonies.

 

The ancient Egyptians maintained a rich cultural heritage complete with feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
 
 Thanks for your time .I hope it was easy and useful .

Life in Ancient Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs{Part One}

posted 10 Jul 2011, 02:31 by Manal Raafat

Introduction to Ancient Egypt 

Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. The Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the top of its power during the New Kingdom { Egyptian Empire }, in the Ramesside period { after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses }, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period.Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley.Life in ancient Egypt was centered largely on agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture . The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty . Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world.

  Administration and commerce 
The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, wielded complete control of the land and its resources.The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government,who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs . The vizier, who acted as the king's representative . Ancient Egyptians did not use coinage until the Late period , they were using a type of money-barter system. During the 5th century BC coined money was introduced into Egypt from abroad. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage. Grain could be traded for other goods, according to the fixed price list.


Social status
Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed .
 **Farmers made up the bulk of the population,but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land.Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system. 
**Artists and craftsmen were of higher status than farmers, but they were also under state control, working in the shops attached to the temples and paid directly from the state treasury.
 **Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt .
 **The so-called "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank.
 **The upper class prominently displayed their social status in art and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. 
**Slavery was known in ancient Egypt , but the extent is not clear . 
  The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law.
Both men and women had the right to own and sell property, make contracts, marry and divorce, receive inheritance, and pursue legal disputes in court. Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement. Women such as Hatshepsut and Cleopatra even became pharaohs. Despite these freedoms,Egyptian women were not as likely to be as educated as men.


 Please read also

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

posted 10 Jun 2011, 09:48 by Manal Raafat

The original picture of Hanging Gardens of Babylon [imaginary picture] 




The Photoshop manipulated picture 




The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) refers to remarkable constructions of classical antiquity .

The most prominent of these, the versions by  Antipater of Sidon and an observer identified as  Philon of Byzantium, comprise seven works located around the Mediterranean rim. The original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages, often listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—The Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—has remained relatively intact until the present day.


 1 - Great Pyramid of Giza :Built by Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu .It was believed to have been built as the tomb of the pharaoh.It Still in existence The name of the modern location is Giza Necropolis, Egypt .



2 - Hanging Gardens of Babylon : Built by the king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire - Nebuchadnezzar II - for his wife - Amytis of Media .It was multi-levelled gardens reaching 22 metres (75 feet) high, complete with machinery for circulating water. Large trees grew on the roof. It was destroyed with Earthquake After 1st century BC .The name of the modern location is Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq . 


3 - Temple of Artemis at Ephesus :  Built by Lydians, Persians, Greeks ,and was dedicated to the Greek goddess Artemis, it took 120 years to build. Herostratus burned it down to achieve lasting fame.Herostratus was a young man and historic arsonist seeking notability who burned down the Temple of Artemis in ancient Greece. Rebuilt by Alexander the Great only to be destroyed again by the Goths.  .The name of the modern location is near Selçuk, Izmir Province, Turkey .


4 - Statue of Zeus at Olympia : Built by Greeks Occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple that was built to house it, and was 12 meters (40 feet) tall.It was destroyed by fire  .The name of the modern location  Olympia, Greece .


5 - Mausoleum of  Halicarnassus :  Origin of the word mausoleum, the tomb built for Mausolus a satrap in the Persian Empire , Built by Carians, Persians, Greeks  Stood approximately 45 meters (150 feet) tall, with each of the four sides adorned with sculptural reliefs.Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires .

Cause of destruction .The original structure was destroyed by flood. A new structure was built and was damaged by an earthquake and eventually disassembled by European Crusaders.  The name of the modern location is Bodrum, Turkey .


6 - Colossus of Rhodes : Built by Greeks It is a giant statue of the Greek god Helios, god of the sun, c. 35 m (110 ft) tall.  It was destroyed by Earthquake .The name of the modern location is Rhodes, Greece .


7 - Lighthouse of Alexandria : Built by Hellenistic Egypt, (Greeks) Between 115 and 135 meters (380 – 440 ft) high, it was among the tallest structures on Earth for many centuries. The name of the island that it was built on, Pharos, eventually became the Latin word for lighthouse, pharos .     It was destroyed by Earthquake .  The name of the modern location is Alexandria, Egypt .

  

The Photoshop lesson

 The post is long do I had added a simple design 

and add a simple frame for the picture with Costum Shap Tool.

Bent Pyramid or Sneferu 's Pyramid

posted 1 Jun 2011, 06:24 by Manal Raafat

Built by Pharaoh Sneferu in  Dahshur .[ The father of Khufu]


That pyramid is unique amongst the approximately ninety pyramids to be found in Egypt .

The Bent Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2600 BC). A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt, this was the second pyramid built by Sneferu.

The lower part of the pyramid rises from the desert at a 55-degree inclination, but the top section is built at the shallower angle of 43 degrees, lending the pyramid its very obvious "bent" appearance.

Archaeologists now believe that the Bent Pyramid represents a transitional form between step-sided and smooth-sided pyramids.




The Bent Pyramid was probably the first planned from the outset to be a true pyramid, with smooth sides.

The Bent Pyramid has a small satellite pyramid which was the final resting place of Sneferu's queen; interestingly there is a connecting tunnel which runs twenty-five metres between the two pyramids, which was built so that Sneferu could visit his queen in the after life.


Interior passages

The Bent Pyramid has two entrances,one fairly low down on the north side. The second entrance is high on the west face of the pyramid. Each entrance leads to a chamber with a high, corbelled roof; the northern entrance leads to a chamber that is below ground level, the western to a chamber built in the body of the pyramid itself.


The entrance of the Bent Pyramid  .


The new item today is HOW TO INCREASE THE IMAGE SIZE?

The manipulation of the picture of the pyramid .



 Open the picture in photoshop

  • Right click the background layer[the layer of the picture] and select Convert to Smart Object.
  • To increase the image size ,go to Image - image size and increase the dimentions as you like ,and as shown in the diagram .
  •  Apply sharpen to the image [filter -sharpen].
  • Add frame to the picture [Custom shape tool] select the shape and style you like.
  • Save your work. 

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